Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals, minerals, and fuels 1972
Year 1972, Volume 1 (1972)
Kirby, James G.; Carleton, David A.; Moore, Betty M.
Crude petroleum and petroleum products, pp. 909-1026 PDF (10.9 MB)
CRUDE PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 917 GASOLINE The domestic demand for motor gasoline increased 6.3% in 1972 to 2,333,777,000 barrels, the highest increase reported since 1968. The high level of the general economy, which boosted new car sales to record levels, and the reduced efficiency of new car engines because of federal air emission standards and other equipment sent demand soaring. To keep up with the heavy demand, refineries maintained high yields of gasoline much later in the season than normal and entered the winter heating season with low stocks of distillate fuel oils which created spot shortages in some areas. The new supply of motor gasoline in 1972 was 2,328 million barrels of which 1,986 million barrels was produced from crude oil, 307 million barrels from natural gas liquids, and 10 million barrels from other hydrocarbons and hydrogen; 25 million barrels was imported. According to data compiled by API based on tax data reported by the States, 2,387 million barrels of motor gasoline was consumed in the United States in 1972 compared with 2,236 million in 1971. This differs from the demand data compiled by the Bureau of Mines, which do not include changes in secondary storage. Aviation gasoline demand continued to decline in 1972 as it has for the past 14 years, and domestic demand was 16,628,000 barrels compared with 17,892,000 barrels irs 1971. KEROSINE The markets for kerosine continued to decline in 1972, and demand was off 5.7%. Domestic demand was 85,854,000 barrels compared with 90,917,000 in 1971. The primary use for kerosine was for space heating, which represents about 78% of demand, but it is being replaced by more convenient fuels such as bottled gas (propane) and electricity. DISTILLATE FUEL OIL The 9.8% gain in domestic demand fox distillate fuel oil in 1972 was attributed to colder-than-normal weather, the high level of industrial activity, and substitution for other fuels in areas where air quality restrictions limit the use of fuels with higher sulfur content, and where natural gas was in short supply. Domestic demand for the year was 1,066,049,000 barrels compared with 971,316,000 barrels in 1971. Exports declined from 2,761,000 barrels in 1971 to 1,214,000 barrels. Meeting the strong demand for both gasoline and distillate fuel oil created problems for refiners in 1972. Some inland refiners had difficulty obtaining particular types of crude oil suited to their refineries and in some cases had to limit crude runs. The changeover from high yields of gasoline to distillate fuel oil was delayed until late fall, and stocks at the beginning of the 1972—73 heating season were uncomfortably low. Fortunately, the exceptionally cold weather of October and November did not continue. Controls were relaxed to permit more imports and refiners concentrated on higher production of distillate fuel oil, so that except for a few spot shortages in some areas, demand was met for the 1972—73 season. The new supply of distillate fuel oil in 1972 was 1,030,960,000 barrels, an increase of 6.3% or 61,532,000 barrels more than in 1971. To meet the total demand requirements, 36,303,000 barrels were withdrawn from stocks. RESIDUAL FUEL OIL Residual fuel oil demand lost out in some heating and industrial markets because of air quality regulations, but the gain in the electric utility market was so high that the overall increase in the domestic demand for residual increased 10.5%. A strong factor in the growth was the increase in the new supply of lowsulfur residual fuel oil from domestic and foreign sources. About 34% of the residual fuel oil imported (exclusive of fuel for bunkering) had a sulfur content of 0.5% or less, while only 19% of the 1971 imports had this low a sulfur content. Over 22% of the residual produced in US. refineries in 1972 had a sulfur content of 03% or less, compared with 18% in 1971. Electric utilities used 493,927,000 barrels for the generation of electric power in 1972 compared with 362,022,000 barrels in 1971. The total demand for residual fuel oil in 1972 was 937,707,000 barrels including a domestic demand of 925,647,000 and exports of 12,060,000 barrels. The new supply for the year totaled 933,242,000 barrels of
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