Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals, minerals, and fuels 1972
Year 1972, Volume 1 (1972)
DeHuff, Gilbert L.
Manganese, pp. 757-769 ff. PDF (1.5 MB)
758 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1972 DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Except for a small quantity of metallurgical oxide nodules shipped from stocks by The Anaconda Company, and made several years ago from Montana carbonate ore, there was neither production nor shipment of manganese ore, concentrates, or nodules in the United States in 1972. Ferruginous manganese ores or concentrates containing 10% to 35% manganese were produced and shipped from New Mexico, and shipments continued from the Cuyuna Range of Minnesota. Manganiferous iron ore containing 5% to 10% manganese was neither produced nor shipped in either 1972 or 1971. Manganiferous zinc residuum continued to be produced from New Jersey zinc ores. Table 2.—Manganese and manganiferous ore shipped un the United States, by State (Short tons) Type and State 1971 1972 Gross weight Manganese content Gross weight Manganese content Manganese ore (35% or more Mn, natural): Montana Total Manganiferous ore: Ferruginous manganese ore (10% to 35% Mn, natural): Minnesota New Mexico Utah Total Manganiferous iron ore (5% to 10% Mn, natural) Total manganiferous ore Value manganese and manganiferous ore 142 75 578 305 142 75 578 305 169,732 28,490 112 23,005 3,504 37 119,324 27,837 -- 15,081 3,646 -- 198,334 26,546 ~ 147,161 18,727 -- 198,334 $1,468,000 26,546 - - 147,161 $1,040,000 18,727 - - 1 Shipments are used as the measure of manganese production for compiling U.S. mineral production value. They are taken at the point at which the material is considered to be in marketable form for the consumer. Besides direct shipping ore, they include, without duplication, concentrate and nodules made from domestic ores. CONSUMPTION, USES, AND STOCKS In the production of raw steel (ingots, continous- or pressure-cast blooms, billets, slabs, etc., and including steel castings), consumption of manganese as ferroalloys, metal, and direct-charged ore was 12.6 pounds per short ton of raw steel produced. Of this total, 11.0 pounds was ferromanganese; 1.2 pounds, silicomanganese; 0.05 pound, spiegeleisen; 0.25 pound, manganese metal; and 0.1 pound, manganese ore. The comparable 1971 total, on the same basis, was 13.0 pounds with ferromanganese at 11.2, silicomanganese at 1.3, spiegeleisen at 0.05, metal at 0.25, and ore at 0.2. It should perhaps be observed that, in addition to the above consumption of manganese in 1972, there was consumed per short ton of raw steel produced approximately 1.2 pounds of manganese contained in manganese ore used in making pig iron. In 1971, the quantity was approximately 1.0 pound. This increase in the use of manganese ore (containing more than 35% manganese) as blast furnace feed has been apparent since 1969. Manganese ferroalloy producers proceeded with their air and water pollution control programs, completion of which will tend to aggravate already existing problems of adequate power supply. Electrolytic Manganese and Manganese Metal.—All of the manganese metal produced in the United States was electrolytic manganese metal, and it is certain that virtually all of that imported was electrolytic metal. Virtually all of the metal consumed was electrolytic metal, but it is possible that some low-carbon ferromanganese, and possibly some manganese-aluminum additives, may have been erroneously reported by consumers as manganese metal. Production of electrolytic metal in 1972 was 23,200 short tons, compared with 20,475 tons in 1971, and was by the same
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