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Bradbury, K. R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gotkowitz, Madeline B.; Hunt, R. J. / Assessment of virus presence and potential virus pathways in deep municipal wells
[DNR-197] (2008)

Results,   pp. 15-27 PDF (3.9 MB)


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Virus speciation and Infectivity
Several different species (serotypes) of viruses were identified in wells, sewage, and lake
water during this study, and in many cases wells and sewage contained identical virus
serotypes (table 2). Detected viruses include Enteroviruses echovirus 3, echovirus 6,
echovirus 11, Coxsackie A16 and B4, Adenoviruses 2, 6, 7, 41, as well as GlI norovirus
and rotovirus. The apparent correlation between viral serotypes found in sewage, lakes,
and groundwater is important because it suggests very rapid transport from the surface to
groundwater. Viral serotypes vary seasonally and annually, and so correlation between
surface and subsurface serotypes would be unexpected if transport times from the surface
to groundwater exceed many months. Although some viruses (A41, A2, echovirus 3,
echovirus 11) were found in both lakes and wells, other viruses found in wells (A7,
echovirus 6, CoxA 16) were never found in lakes, suggesting that the lakes are not a
source for these viruses in groundwater. With the exception of A7, all viruses found in
wells were also detected in Madison sewage.
Infectious enteroviruses were found in wells 7, 11, and 19 in some, but not all, samples
tested from these wells (infectivity testing on all samples was not completed in time for
this report).
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