Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook 1990
Year 1990, Volume 2 (1990)
West, Wanda J.
Indiana, pp. -197 PDF (1.9 MB)
188 INDIANA—19cconstruction totaled $2,377 million, a 59% increase over that of 1989. Work on several of the major highway resurfacing or rehabilitation projects that began in 1989 continued into 1990. The value of State road contracts awarded in 1990 declined, however, to $633 million, about one-fifth less than the value of 1989 awards.3 EMPLOYMENT Indiana's civilian labor force totaled 2.83 million in 1990, a decline of 48,000 persons from the number employed in 1989, according to the Employment Security Division, Indiana Department of Employment and Training Services. For the first time in 8 years, there was an increase in the State's overall unemployment rate. The 5.3 % rate reported was almost 13 % higher than the 1989 level and equal to that of 1988. However, continued strong demand for minerals increased employment at mining and quarrying operations to 8,100 persons, 3 % more than in 1989. Employment at steel mills (38,600 persons) also remained consistent during 1990, with an increase of slightly less than 1 % reported. Average hourly earnings climbed from $14.58 to $15.50 at mines and quarries and from $ 16.20 to $16.88 at steel mills. Average hours ~ worked each week at mines and quarries ~ increased from 45.7 to 47.3, the highest ~ average weekly hours among the Indiana goods- and service-producing industries. ~ The average number of hours worked ~ each week at steel mills remained at 43.4. REGULATORY ISSUES Amendments to the Federal Clean Air Act, enacted on November 15, 1990, as Public Law 101-549, were of considerable concern to two of Indiana's main mineral producing-processing industries. Coal producers were concerned about the law's tougher standards aimed at reducing acid rain caused by coal-fired powerplants and its provision that required sulfur-dioxide emissions to be cut 50 % by 1995 and 65 % at the turn of the century. United Mine Workers of America officials feared that 20 % of the State's approximately 4,000 union miners could lose their jobs if utilities switch to low-sulfur Western coal instead of retrofitting plants with pollution-control equipment to comply with the new standards. Retrofitting of plants would allow them to continue using Indiana coal, most of which has a high sulfur content. Steel companies operating integrated mills expected to make massive expenditures for cutting coke oven emissions in the coming years to comply with the law's curb on toxic air pollutants. Studies of methods to alleviate pollution related to coke ovens were initiated. The State's approximately 150 foundries also could be affected by the limitations. A number of legal or administrative ~ actions were filed against Indiana steel ~ producers by, or on behalf of, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) for alleged violations of various Federal and State environmental laws. Litigation continued on some lawsuits filed in previous years. In one of the largest settlements ever of an environmental lawsuit, USX Corp. agreed in late July to pay an estimated $34. 1 million in penalties and cleanup costs for dumping wastewater from its Gary steel mill into the Grand Calumet River. The out-ofcourt settlement resolved a 1988 lawsuit filed by the EPA alleging that USX illegally bypassed its blast furnace wastewater treatment system and dumped polluted water from the Gary mill directly into the Grand Calumet River and Lake Michigan on several occasions. About $25 million of the settlement costs were to be used to clean up operations at the Gary mill, $2.5 million to study contamination of a 12-mile stretch of the Grand Calumet River, $5 million to clean up contamination of the river, and the remaining $ 1 .6 million represented a civil penalty. The settlement was a consent decree, under which the company made no admission to any of the violations. EPA expected USX to complete the improvements in 2 years, with the company complying with more than 100 requirements and meeting 70 deadlines.4 EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES The Department of Natural Resources' (DNR) Division of Reclamation, which handles permits for coal exploration and mining, received 3 1 notices of intent to conduct exploration core drilling operations. Exploration for industrial limestone continued during 1990, and the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) further delineated the high-purity reefal limestone deposit discovered by the Survey near Kokomo. LEGISLATION AND GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS Mineral-related legislation enacted in 1990 pertained mainly to coal. Senate bill 52 declared that control of pollution from test holes relating to coal exploration was the responsibility of the Division of Surface Mine Reclamation. Regulations covering applications for selfbonds and the posting of bonds for surface coal mine reclamation were included in the measure. It also established permit requirements and a permit fee of $ 100 for noncoal test holes drilled to a depth of 200 feet or more. Provisions of House Enrolled Act 1269 required an insurer that proposed to issue or renew a property insurance policy covering a building in 1 of 14 particular Indiana coal-producing counties to inform the policyholder or perspective policyholder of the availability of mine subsidence coverage and the amount of the premium of that coverage. Other legislation passed by the Indiana General Assembly included measures related to establishing solid waste management districts and providing technical assistance to small businesses for solving environmental problems. An executive order was signed by the Governor on May 30, creating the Indiana Coal Forum. Objectives of the forum were to recommend long and short range goals and strategies for encouraging responsible development of Indiana' s coal
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