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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook 1990
Year 1990, Volume 2 (1990)

White, Doss H., Jr.; Dean, Lewis S.
Alabama,   pp. [42]-52 ff. PDF (1.5 MB)

Page 45

ALABAMA—1990  45establishment of a well-point dewatering system
mitigate the effects of a wastewater plume that inadvertently contaminated
the ambient ground water table at a wastewater impoundment site, (2) the
removal of toxic metals from the wastewater stream at a major brass foundry,
and (3) the flocculation response of coal waste and coal-clay waste fines
generated from ultrafine grinding techniques. 
 The U.S. Geological Survey continued 
~ monitoring the quantity and quality of 
~ streamfiow in Alabama, and the U.S. 
~ Mine Safety and Health Administration 
: continued the program of inspecting the State's nonfuel mining operations
to ensure worker safety. 
 Alabama's fuel mineral output in 1990 was estimated at $1. 8 billion. The
estimated oil and condensate value, based on the average price per barrel,
was $166 million and $202 million, respectively. The estimated gas value,
based on the average price per thousand cubic feet, was $204. 8 million,
and coal value, based on the average price per ton, was $ 1.19 billion.3
 Coal production totaled a record 28.1 million short tons, a 1.5 million
ton increase over the 1989 production level. Natural gas output, 187.6 billion
cubic feet, increased 6.3 billion cubic feet over the 1989 level, while oil
and gas condensate production declined to 18.5 million barrels from the 19.6
million barrels reported in 1989.~ 
Industrial Minerals 
 The State's industrial mineral sector mined or manufactured 14 industrial
minerals. Stone, cement, and lime were the three leading commodities. With
one exception, a dimension stone operation near Russeliville, all production
was from surface mines. 
 Cement.—Portland cement was again the State's second leading mineral
commodity in terms of value, accounting for almost 30% of Alabama's 1990
mineral value. The State retained its seventh place ranking among the 39
States with portland cement production and continued to rank fifth among
the 36 States with masonry cement output. 
 Portland cement production, 3.6 million tons valued at $165 million, was
410,000 tons and almost $3.5 million above that reported in 1989. The increase
in output and sales reflected an upswing in construction activity in the
 Alabama's portland cement industry consisted of five plants in the Birmingham,
Demopolis, Mobile, and Montevallo areas. The five plants were equipped with
seven kilns. All five plants used the dry process to manufacture clinker.
Three plants in Greystone, Roberta, and Theodore produced masonry cement.
 Ck~ys.—Alabama's clay industry, 22 companies, ranked sixth among
44 clay-producing States. Clay sales accounted for approximately 5 % of the
State's mineral value. The clay industry produced bentonite, common clay,
fire clay, and kaolin. Output of common clay and fire clay was 2 million
metric tons, an increase of approximately 171 ,000 tons. Value, $27.7 million,
increased about $9.2 million above that reported in 1989. 
 Bentonite.—One firm, American Colloid Co. , mined bentonite, a
with superior absorbent properties, from its Sandy Ridge Mine in Lowndes
County. After mining, the clay was dried, shredded, and sized and sold to
the foundry and agricultural industries. 
~ Output and value decreased below that reported in 1989. 
 Common Clay and/or Shale.— Approximately 86 % of Alabama's clay
was common clay and/or shale. Fifteen companies produced clay and/or shale
from 20 mines. Jefferson, 
Russell, and Sumter Counties continued as the leading common clay-shaleproducing
areas in the State. Most of the clay (48 %) was used in brick manufacture;
other uses included concrete block manufacture (29 %), cement manufacture
(21 %), and in abrasives, structural concrete, and grogs. Production and
value (276,000 metric tons, $13.3 million) were higher than those reported
in 1989. 
 Two companies produced lightweight aggregate by calcining shale and clay.
Vulcan Materials operated two shale mines and a calciner unit in Jefferson
County, and Livlite Corp. mined and calcined a Tertiary clay at Livingston.
 Fire Clay.—Four companies operated four mines in Cathoun, St.Clair,
Shelby, and Walker Counties to produce 96,000 metric tons of fire clay valued
at $3.98 million. This was a decrease of 12,000 metric tons and $71 ,000
below that reported by the four in 1989. Fire clay, a material with properties
to withstand elevated temperatures in excess of 1,500° C, was marketed
to the refractory industry for fire and insulation brick manufacture. 
 Kaolin.—Two companies with mines in Barbour and Henry Counties
kaolin, a light-colored clay containing the mineral kaolinite. The refractory,
heavy-clay products, and chemical materials industries were the principal
markets. Output and value increased slightly over the 1989 level. 
 Lime.—The sales of lime ranked third in Alabama's total mineral
accounting for 13 % of the State's total. Production was by four companies
operating quarries and calcining facilities in Shelby County. Both quicklime
and hydrated lime were produced. Production and value increased approximately
45,000 short tons and $457,000 million over those reported by the four in
 Salt.—The State continued to rank 10th among the 13 salt- producing
States. One firm, the Olin Corp. , operated a solution 

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