Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook 1990
Year 1990, Volume 2 (1990)
White, Doss H., Jr.; Dean, Lewis S.
Alabama, pp. -52 ff. PDF (1.5 MB)
ALABAMA—1990 45establishment of a well-point dewatering system to mitigate the effects of a wastewater plume that inadvertently contaminated the ambient ground water table at a wastewater impoundment site, (2) the removal of toxic metals from the wastewater stream at a major brass foundry, and (3) the flocculation response of coal waste and coal-clay waste fines generated from ultrafine grinding techniques. The U.S. Geological Survey continued ~ monitoring the quantity and quality of ~ streamfiow in Alabama, and the U.S. ~ Mine Safety and Health Administration : continued the program of inspecting the State's nonfuel mining operations to ensure worker safety. FUELS Alabama's fuel mineral output in 1990 was estimated at $1. 8 billion. The estimated oil and condensate value, based on the average price per barrel, was $166 million and $202 million, respectively. The estimated gas value, based on the average price per thousand cubic feet, was $204. 8 million, and coal value, based on the average price per ton, was $ 1.19 billion.3 Coal production totaled a record 28.1 million short tons, a 1.5 million ton increase over the 1989 production level. Natural gas output, 187.6 billion cubic feet, increased 6.3 billion cubic feet over the 1989 level, while oil and gas condensate production declined to 18.5 million barrels from the 19.6 million barrels reported in 1989.~ REVIEW BY NONFUEL MINERAL COMMODiTIES Industrial Minerals The State's industrial mineral sector mined or manufactured 14 industrial minerals. Stone, cement, and lime were the three leading commodities. With one exception, a dimension stone operation near Russeliville, all production was from surface mines. Cement.—Portland cement was again the State's second leading mineral commodity in terms of value, accounting for almost 30% of Alabama's 1990 mineral value. The State retained its seventh place ranking among the 39 States with portland cement production and continued to rank fifth among the 36 States with masonry cement output. Portland cement production, 3.6 million tons valued at $165 million, was 410,000 tons and almost $3.5 million above that reported in 1989. The increase in output and sales reflected an upswing in construction activity in the State. Alabama's portland cement industry consisted of five plants in the Birmingham, Demopolis, Mobile, and Montevallo areas. The five plants were equipped with seven kilns. All five plants used the dry process to manufacture clinker. Three plants in Greystone, Roberta, and Theodore produced masonry cement. Ck~ys.—Alabama's clay industry, 22 companies, ranked sixth among the 44 clay-producing States. Clay sales accounted for approximately 5 % of the State's mineral value. The clay industry produced bentonite, common clay, fire clay, and kaolin. Output of common clay and fire clay was 2 million metric tons, an increase of approximately 171 ,000 tons. Value, $27.7 million, increased about $9.2 million above that reported in 1989. Bentonite.—One firm, American Colloid Co. , mined bentonite, a clay with superior absorbent properties, from its Sandy Ridge Mine in Lowndes County. After mining, the clay was dried, shredded, and sized and sold to the foundry and agricultural industries. ~ Output and value decreased below that reported in 1989. Common Clay and/or Shale.— Approximately 86 % of Alabama's clay production was common clay and/or shale. Fifteen companies produced clay and/or shale from 20 mines. Jefferson, Russell, and Sumter Counties continued as the leading common clay-shaleproducing areas in the State. Most of the clay (48 %) was used in brick manufacture; other uses included concrete block manufacture (29 %), cement manufacture (21 %), and in abrasives, structural concrete, and grogs. Production and value (276,000 metric tons, $13.3 million) were higher than those reported in 1989. Two companies produced lightweight aggregate by calcining shale and clay. Vulcan Materials operated two shale mines and a calciner unit in Jefferson County, and Livlite Corp. mined and calcined a Tertiary clay at Livingston. Fire Clay.—Four companies operated four mines in Cathoun, St.Clair, Shelby, and Walker Counties to produce 96,000 metric tons of fire clay valued at $3.98 million. This was a decrease of 12,000 metric tons and $71 ,000 below that reported by the four in 1989. Fire clay, a material with properties to withstand elevated temperatures in excess of 1,500° C, was marketed to the refractory industry for fire and insulation brick manufacture. Kaolin.—Two companies with mines in Barbour and Henry Counties produced kaolin, a light-colored clay containing the mineral kaolinite. The refractory, heavy-clay products, and chemical materials industries were the principal markets. Output and value increased slightly over the 1989 level. Lime.—The sales of lime ranked third in Alabama's total mineral value, accounting for 13 % of the State's total. Production was by four companies operating quarries and calcining facilities in Shelby County. Both quicklime and hydrated lime were produced. Production and value increased approximately 45,000 short tons and $457,000 million over those reported by the four in 1989. Salt.—The State continued to rank 10th among the 13 salt- producing States. One firm, the Olin Corp. , operated a solution
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