Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)
Lynd, Langtry E.
Zirconium and hafnium, pp. 1021-1031 ff. PDF (1.3 MB)
Bow, N.H Parks Township, Pa - Falconer, N.Y Carson, Calif St.Louis,Mo King of Prussia, Pa_ - Vandalia, Mo Sharonville, Ohio_ - - Buckhannon, W. Va — Corning, N.Y Louisville, Ky Cincinnati, Ohio - - - South Shore, Ky - - - Wilmington, Del - - - Cleveland, Ohio_ - — - Cambridge, Ohio - - - Philadelphia, Pa - - - Mount Union, Pa — — — Washington, Pa_ - - - Oxide. Powder. Refractories, oxide. Milled zircon. Refractories. Refractories, zircon. Do. Milled zircon. Refractories. Do. Do. Refractories. Do. Zircon, foundry mixes. Ceramics, ceramic colors. Alloys. Refractories. Do. Ceramic colors, milled zircon. Huntsville, Ala - - - - Newark, N.J Cleveland, Ohio_ — — - Newfield, N.J Albany, Oreg Albany, Oreg Ogden, Utah 11978 only. 21979—Ciba-Geigy Corp., Drakenfeld Colors. 31979—TAM Ceramics, Niagara Falls, N.Y. 41979—Thiokol Corp., Ventron Division. 5Began operation late in 1979. Subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corp. ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM Table 2.—Producers of zirconium and hafnium materials in 1978 and 1979 1023 Company Location Materials ZIRCONIUM MATERIALS Associated Minerals Consolidated Ltd____________ Babcock & Wilcox Co., Nuclear Materials Div.1______ TheCarborundumCo______________________ C-E Cast Industrial Products__________________ C-E Refractories, Div. of Combustion Engineering, Inc — Do -- Do Continental Mineral Processing Corp____________ Corhart Refractories Co_____________________ Do Do Didier-Taylor Refractories Corp________________ E.I.duPontdeNemours&Co________________ Ferro Corp_____________________________ Foote Mineral Co_________________________ A. P. Green Refractories Co., Remmey Div_________ Harbison-WalkerRefractoriesCo______________ Hercules, Inc., Drakenfeld Div.2_______________ Humphreys Mining Co. (now owned by Buttes Gas & Oil Co.) LincolnElectricCo.,Inc_____________________ M'&TChemicals, Inc______________________ Magnesium Elektron, Inc____________________ NL Industries, Inc., Industrial Chemicals Div.3______ NortonCo_____________________________ Ronson Metals Corp_______________________ Sherwood Refractories Co___________________ Shieldalloy Corp Teledyne WahChangAlbany_________________ TitaniumEnterprises, Inc___________________ Transelco, Inc___________________________ Union Carbide Corp_______________________ Ventron Corp.4__________________________ Western Zirconium Co.5_____________________ Zedmark, Inc____________________________ ZIRCOA Products________________________ HAFNIUM MATERIALS Teledyne WahChangAlbany_________________ Western Zirconium Co.5_____________________ Folkston, Ga Zircon. Cleveland, Ohio_ — - - Welding rods. Andrdws, S.C Milled zircon. Flemington, N.J — — — Alloys, chemicals, oxide. Hightstown, N.J - - - Milled zircon, oxide, alloys, chloride. Oxide. Baddeleyite (oxide). Zircon cores. Welding rods, alloys. Oxide, chloride, sponge, ingot, powder, crystal bar. Green Cove Zircon. Springs, Fla Dresden, N.Y Chemicals, ceramics, oxide. Niagara Falls, N.Y - — Alloys. Beverly, Mass Alloys, powder. Ogden, Utah Oxide, sponge, ingot, mill products. Butler, Pa Refractories. Cleveland, Ohio_ — — — Oxide, refractories, ceramics. CONSUMPTION AND USES Oxide, sponge, ingot, crystal bar. Oxide, sponge, crystal bar, ingot. Foundries used about 44% of domestic zircon consumption in 1978-1979. The remainder was consumed by refractory, shrasive, ceramic, metal, and other industries. Domestic zircon was marketed in proprietary mixtures for use as foundry sand, zircon-refractory heavy mineral sand blends (with kyanite, sillimanite, and staurolite), weighting agents, zircon-TiO2 blends for welding rod coatings, and sandblasting applications. The zircon-bearing foundry sand was reportedly designed to provide consistent high-quality performance at low cost for critical casting applications. In 1978 and 1979 baddeleyite concentrate from the Republic of South Africa was used mainly in the manufacture of aluminazirconia abrasives and also for ceramic colors, refractories, and other uses. An estimated 80% of U.S. zirconium metal consumption was used in commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors for fuel cladding and pressure tubes, 15% in naval nuclear reactors, and 5% for corrosionresistant applications in the chemical industry and for photographic flashbulbs. U.S. shipments of zirconium mill products declined about 10% in 1978 and 15% in
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