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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)

Carlin, James F., Jr.; Harris, Keith L.
Tin,   pp. 915-932 PDF (1.8 MB)

Page 932

problem of feed materials containing heavy metals has been the focus of considerable
research as refiners anticipate dealing with lower grade stocks. 
 A process to recycle nuclear fuel was developed using a bath of molten tin
held in graphite vessels at low pressure in an inertgas atmosphere.8 The
molten oxides of the metals in the fuel are reduced to metals and nitrided.
Waste products, which are about 3% of the fuel, separate either as a gas
or as a solid floating precipitate. The gas can be condensed and stored.
Uranium and plutonium nitrides, the reusable fuel components that make up
97% of spent fuel, sink to the bottom of the vessel and can be recovered
and refabricated into fuel rods. The new process reportedly could reduce
nuclear waste volume thirtyfold and yield a solid waste that is easier to
 Study by the U.S. Bureau of Mines has shown that it is possible to recover
significant quantities of steel scrap and tin from urban waste materials.~
The research mdi- 
cated that by carefully processing municipal solid waste by a series of leaching,
shredding, and magnetic separation steps, it is possible to produce carload
quantities of detinned bales of steel scrap equivalent to No. 1 bundle quality
for use in steelmaking. In addition, up to 5 pounds of tin per gross ton
of scrap is recovered during the detinning process. 
 1Physical scientist, Section of Nonferrous Metals. 
 2Kidd, J. D. Kimetals Will Soon Start Up Second Smelter. Am. Metal Market,
v. 86, No. 140, July 21, 1978, p. 
 3Tin International. S. E. Asian Tin R & D. V. 51, 1978, p. 
 4Work cited in footnote 3. 
 5Pommier, L. W., and S. J. Escalera. Processing of Tin From Impure Raw Materials.
J. Metals, v. 31, No.4, April 1979, pp. 10-12. 
 6Chemical Engineering. Chementator. V. 85, No. 28, Dec. 18, 1978, p. 44.
 7Chemical Week. Technology Newsletter. V. 124, No. 2, Jan. 10, 1979, p.
 8Chemical Week. Technology Newsletter. Nov. 21, 1979, p. 46. 
 9Makar, H. V., B. J. Wiegard, Jr., E. L Gresh ifi. Detinning Ferrous Products
From Urban Waste for Use in Steelmaking. BuMines RI 8404, 1979, 16 pp. 

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