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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)

Jolly, James
Platinum-group metals,   pp. 699-712 PDF (1.4 MB)


Page 700

 Legislation and Government Programs.—U.S. Government inventories
of
platinum, palladium, and iridium were unchanged in 1978 and 1979. The quantities,
in troy ounces held in the national stockpile and the goals (objectives)
at yearend were as follows: 
 5,292 10,968 
 2,748 4,025 
 831 4,300 
 1,081 7,222 
 1,980 6,412 
 236 44 28 3 16,571 
 244 45 35 4 7,101 
 52 9 6 1 5,199 
 —— —— —— ——
8,303 
 —— —— —— ——
8,392 
 14,619 2,002 373 15 164 
 8,676 1,063 355 39 95 
 466 610 4 —— 3 
 177 1,177 —— —— ——
 56 420 —— —— ——
 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1978-79700 
engine technology, were established.2 Under the guidelines, a manufacturer
of light duty vehicles could obtain a waiver of the nitrogen oxide standard
up to a maximum of 1.5 grams per vehicle-mile during the fourmodel-year period
beginning with model year 1981, provided certain criteria were met. Some
manufacturers indicated the waiver was necessary in order to meet the 0.6-gram-per-mile
particulate standard. In 
1979 the Environmental Protection Agency 
__________________________________ waived the carbon monoxide (CO) standards
 on certain automobile engine series for 2 
  Guidelines for waiver of the 1981 nitrogen years, in part to reduce the
economic im 
oxide emission standard, based on diesel pact on manufacturers. 
Goal 
Inventory 
Platinum              
Palladium             
Iridium               
1,314,000 
2,450,000 
97,761 
452,645 
1,254,994 
16,990 
DOMESTIC PRODUCTION 
 In 1978 and 1979 domestic mine production of platinum-group metals, all
a byproduct of copper mining, was higher than in 1977 but was insignificant
relative to world production. Secondary and toll-refined metal production
both increased since 1977, stimulated mainly by higher platinumgroup metal
prices and by increased industrial usage. 
 The Johns-Manville Corp. (JM) continued exploration of its platinum-palladinum
deposit in the Stillwater Complex, Montana. In May 1978 JM announced discovery
of a high-grade platinum-palladium zone with a strike length of 18,000 feet
grading 0.65 troy ounce per ton over a 7-foot width;3 
 In May 1979 JM and Chevron USA, Inc., a 
subsidiary of Standard Oil of California, formed a joint venture to complete
exploration and evaluation of JM's Stillwater deposit. The Anaconda Company
was also exploring for platinum in the Stillwater Complex, and in early 1979
announced plans to drive a 4,000-foot exploration drift to tast its deposit.4
 Amax Exploration Inc. continued to conduct environmental monitoring of ground
and surface water at its Minnamax coppernickel-platinum project near Babbitt,
Minn. Field work and underground drilling were essentially complete by the
fall of 1978; however, metallurgical testwork was continuing. Development
of this major deposit was expected in the late 1980's.~ 
Table 2.—Platinum-group metals refined in the United States 
(Troy ounces) 
Year Platinum Palladium Iridium Osmium Rhodium Ruthe 
Total 
 nium 
PRIMARY METAL 
Nontoll-refined: 
1975____________________ 
1976____________________ 
1977____________________ 
1978____________________ 
1979____________________ 
Toil-refined: 
1975____________________ 
1976____________________ 
1977____________________ 
1978____________________ 
1979____________________ 
 1 17,174 
 4 10,232 
 —— 1,083 
 —— 1,354 
 —— 476 


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