Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)
Foster, Russell J.
Nitrogen, pp. 643-653 ff. PDF (1.4 MB)
652 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1978-79 TECHNOLOGY The escalation of feedstock and fuel costs has hastened the development of more efficient ammonia production processes. Retrofit units that improve plant operation are based on better hydrocarbon conversion for ammonia synthesis or recovery of useful components in the synthesis loop purge stream.77 The Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research claimed that ammonia production yields can be increased by 20% with a new catalyst enhancement process. The technique consists of vapor deposition of sodium, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydride on commercial iron-based ammonia catalysts under controlled concentrations, temperature, and pressure, to avoid decreasing active surface area or clogging catalyst pores.78 PFR Engineering Systems, Inc., is designing a solar-powered primary reformer for an ammonia plant of Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc. A field of heliostats will generate enough heat to raise the temperature of preheated process gas in the reformer by 400' F.79 Monsanto Co. has adapted hollow-fiber technology, previously used in reverse osmosis water purification, to the separation of hydrogen from process or waste gas streams. The system, composed of gaspermeable polysulfone hollow fibers with a proprietary coating, is reportedly more energy efficient than molecular sieve or cryogenic techniques.8° Linde AG has developed a cryogenic process for the recovery of argon from ammonia synthesis loop purge gas. About 14 tons of argon can be obtained daily from a 1,000ton-per-day ammonia plant.8' The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) conducted an ammonia-from-coal symposium in May 1979. Discussion topics included future feedstock availability, coalgasification process technology, operating experiences, and TVA's own retrofit plant.82 The Charles F. Kettering Research Laboratory has developed a small-scale fertilizer generator that utilizes electric arc technology to produce nitric acid, which is reacted with limestone to produce calcium nitrate, or with phosphate rock to yield a mixed nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer.83 A joint United States - United Kingdom study sponsored by government and private industry was initiated to investigate the hazards involved in the transportation and storage of ammonia, particularly to determine the dispersion of ammonia spiiis on land and water.84 A process developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and approved by EPA uses ammonia to prevent air-dried feed corn from spoiling. Ammonia is introduced into the air flowing through feed corn in drying bins, thus suppressing the growth of microorganisms and saving energy required by high-temperature drying.85 Other recent developments in ammonia end uses include fracturing some forms of oil shale with high organic content,86 and imparting satisfactory permanent-press characteristics to allcotton fabrics.~~ In addition, urea crystals have been used to efficiently convert lasergenerated visible light to shorter wavelength ultraviolet light at room temperature.88 The "cold-fib converter," a new device for direct application of ammonia fertilizer, uses adiabatic expansion to cool pressurized liquid ammonia from ambient temperature to the normal boiling point, and discharge it into the soil at atmospheric pressure.89 1Physical scientist, Section of Nonmetallic Minerals. 23J*5* International Trade Commission. Anhydrous Ammonia From the U.S.S.R. October 1979. Chemical Marketing Reporter. Ammonia Import Quota Shelved As Carter Rejects ITC Advice to Dilute OccidentalU.S.S.R. Pact. V. 216, No. 25, Dec. 17, 1979, pp. 5, 19. ' Chemical Week. Grace Plans Gasification Switch to Make Gasoline. V. 125, No. 12, Sept. 19, 1979, p. 22. ~ For CPI, More Plentiful Fuels. V. 123, No. 17, Oct. 25, 1978, p. 20. Green Markets. Fertilizer Industry Anxious About Gas Proposals. V. 2, No. 51, Dec. 18, 1978, pp. 1, 10. s—-. Ammonia Makers Blocked in Gas Quest. V.2, No. 13, Mar. 27, 1978, pp. 1-2. 6Chemical Marketing Reporter. First Mississippi May Receive U.S. Approval of Plan to Start Its Shut-Down Ammonia Plant. V. 216, No. 2, July 9, 1979, pp. 7,24. 7Environmental Protection Agency. Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology; Reasonableness of Existing Effluent Limitation Guidelines. Federal Register, v. 44, No. 169, Aug. 29, 1979, p. 50742. s—-. Effluent Guidelines and Standards. Federal Register, v. 44, No. 31, Feb. 13, 1979, p. 9388. 9Chemical & Engineering News. Acrylonitrile Exposure Standard Set at 2 Ppm. V. 56, No. 41, Oct. 9, 1978, p. 5. ' °Green Markets. Green Markets Price-Scan. V. 2, No. 51, Dec. 18, 1978, p. 5. "Economics, Statistics, and Cooperative Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1979 Fertilizer Situation. December 1978, pp. 9.11. ' 2Green Markets. Green Markets Price-Scan. V. 3, No. 51, Dec. 22, 1979, p. 4. ' 3Economics, Statistics, and Cooperative Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1980 Fertilizer Situation. December 1979, pp. 9-10. 14Nitrogen. How Much More Nitrogen in the Middle East? No. 114, July-August 1978, pp. 28-31. "Fertilizer International. Plant & Project News. No. 108, June 1978, p. 48. ' 6European Chemical News. Kuwait, Bahrain Form Joint Ammonia, Methanol Venture. V. 33, No. 906, Oct. 1, 1979, p. 8. "Nitrogen. Plant and Project News. No. 120, JulyAu~ust 1979, p. 14. 1 Chemical Week. Bangladesh Plans Fertilizer Complex. V. 122, No. 7, Feb. 15, 1978, p. 31. 19Fertilizer International. Plant & Project News. No. 109, July 1978, p. 9. ' °—--.-. Bolivia to Invite Bids for Nitrogen Project. No. 107, May 1978, p. 11. "Chemical Week. Krupp-Koppers Will Build Big Ammonia-From-Coal Project in Brazil. V. 124, No. 12, Mar. 21, 1979, p. 38.
http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/NoC-US/1.0/| As a work of the United States government, this material is in the public domain.| For information on re-use see: http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Copyright