Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)
Foster, Russell J.
Nitrogen, pp. 643-653 ff. PDF (1.4 MB)
regulations can be fully evaluated.~ Effective in November 1978, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration established final standards limiting worker exposure to acrylonitrile at 2 parts per million averaged over 8 hours.~ Production of ammonia in the United States declined to 14.2 million tons of nitrogen content in 1978. Industry overcapacity and an influx of low-priced imports from countries with plentiful supplies of inexpensive feedstock exerted downward pressure on prices. Coupled with rising costs, especially for natural gas, these factors caused several domestic ammonia plants to shut down or reduce output. Stronger am- monia demand in 1979 spurred production to an alitime high of 14.9 million tons of contained nitrogen. Construction of new ammonia plants for American Cyanamid Co., at Fortier, La., Columbia Nitrogen Corp., at Augusta, Ga., and Georgia Pacific Corp., at Plaquemine, La., was completed during 1978-79, after substantial new capacity was added in 1977. Table 2.—Fixed nitrogen production in the United States Sources:Bureau of the Census and International TradeCommission. 644 MINERALS YEARBOOK 1978 79 sulfate representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the. best conventional pollutant control techno1ogy.~ EPA withdrew regulations which established pH parameters for urea and ammonium nitrate plants until the industry petition for reconsideration of the DOMESTIC PRODUCTION (Thousand short tons of contained nitrogen) 1975 1976 1977 1978 l979~ Anhydrous ammonia, synthetic plants' r13496 r13741 14,602 14,129 14,826 Ammonium compounds, coking plants: Ammenialiquor 5 4 7 7 6 Ammoniumsulfate 108 111 103 96 100 Ammoniumphosphates (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) Total r13609 r13856 14,712 14,232 14,932 °Preliminary. rRevised. ' Current Industrial Reports, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 2lncluded with ammonium sulfate to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. Table 3.—Major nitrogen compounds produced in the United States (Thousand short tons, gross weight) Compound 1977 1978 l979~ Acrylonitrile 821 876 1,009 Ammonium nitrate — — — Ammonium sulfate' — — 7,177 2,748 7,210 2,900 7,796 e2400 Ammonium phosphates Nitric acid 10,211 7,987 11,517 7,934 12,082 8,559 Urea 4,446 6,506 6,749 eEstimath. °Preliminary. ' Includes ammonium sulfate from coking plants.
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