Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals, minerals, and fuels 1972
Year 1972, Volume 1 (1972)
Briggs, Ted C.
Nitrogen, pp. 881-896 PDF (2.1 MB)
Eiasa, Huesca Sefranitro, Bilbao Ensidesa, Aviles Encaso, Puentes____ Nicas, Valladolid Cinsa, Gran Canaria - Encaso, Puertallano.. - Repesa, Cartagena - Aesa, Malaga Inquitasa, Tarragona. Fertiberia, La Corufia Fertiberia, Huelva - - - 10 Electrolysis. 90 Coking gas recovery. 107 Do. 22 Lignite gasification. 60 Partial oxidation. 35 Do. 198 Naphtha reforming. 264 Do. 100 Do. 20 Do. 95 Do. 90 Do. Total 1,091 892 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1972 Spain.—At yearend, Spain had 12 plants with capacity to produce ammonia4s Their capacity in thousand tons NH3 per year was as follows: Company and location Capacity Proces8 Union Explosivos Rio Tinto awarded contracts for an ammonia and urea complex to be built at Seville, Spain. The ammonia plant was to have a capacity of 300,000 tons per year and will be based upon M. W. Kellogg Co. technology. Kellogg was to supply the engineering responsibilities for the plant, and construction was to be by the Spanish contractor, Tecnicas Reunidas. Startup of the plant was scheduled for 1975. Urea production was to be 165,000 tons per year and Mitsui of Japan was to supply the process. Toyo Engineering of Japan was to handle the engineering, while the Spanish contractor, Heredia y Moreno, was to do the actual construction. During the last two years Spain became a net importer of ammonia, but new production capacity was planned to meet Spain's rising demand.49 Nitratos de Castilla was to commission a new 100,000-ton-per-year complex fertilizer plant at Valladolid, Spain. The plant was to produce complex fertilizers containing 12% and 16% nitrogen. The new plant was the first to utilize a new nitrophosphate process based on a combination of the Kampka-Nitro process of the German company, Chemische Fabrik Kalk, and the continuous crystallization process of Severoceske Chemicke Zavady, Czechoslovakia. In the new process, slurry obtained from acidulation of phosphate rock was cooled to facilitate separation of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate by crystallization. ,The separated cakium nitrate tetrahydrate was converted into ammonium nitrate solution and pure calcium carbonate by a combination of carbonation and ammoniation in specially designed reactors. Ammonium nitrate solution was used for production of ammon ium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate, or recycled to the fertilizer plant to increase the nitrogen content of the product.50 United Kingdom.—The use of a unittrain system by the British Oxygen Corp. (BOG) enabled it to offset the effects of inflation in the United Kingdom and to lower the price of nitrogen. The unit train was the heart of a complex distribution system with the objectives of making liquid elemental nitrogen available where required and making best use of production capacity. The main impetus for development of the system was the increasing congestion on roads in the United Kingdom and the increasing cost of energy. The unit trains consisted of from 10 to 12 cryogenic tank cars, each with a 50-ton capacity. The trains were able to go anywhere in the system (primarily between Widnes, Sheffield, Wolverhampton, and Wembley) and back within 24 hours. There were 16 sources of nitrogen, storage at 32 points covering 21 demand centers, and a distribution center with 136 major routes.5' Fisons Fertilizers Ltd., was building an anhydrous ammonia storage tank at Avonmouth Docks, which was to have a capacity of 15,000 tons with an annual throughput of 120,000 to 150,000 tons.52 -The United Kingdom cut by 60% the value of the subsidy paid to farmers for the use of fertilizers. Purpose of the cut was said to be a switch to European Economic Community methods and to require the farmer to recover the higher fertilizer cost through higher prices for consumer products. The effect of the subsidy cut was not clear at yearend, and it could simply result in a cut in fertilizer usage below the optimum level.53 Air Products Ltd. was to supply six vacuum-insulated nitrogen storage tanks each with a capacity of 54,600 liters. Three of "European Chemical News. Spain Reviews Aromatics and Fertilizer Sectors. V. 22, No. 559, Nov. 17, 1972, p. 6. ~ European Chemical News. Kellogg and Toyo Win ERT Fertilizer Orders. V. 22, No. 559, Nov. 17, 1972, p~ 12. ' °European Chemical News. Nitratos de Castilla Commissions New Process NPK Plant. V. 21, No. 524, Mar. 17, 1972, p~ 8. ' 1European Chemical News. British Oxygen Optimizes Production With Linear Trains. V. 22, No. 562, Dec. 8, 1972, p. 10. 52Feed & Farm Supplies. New Anhydrous Ammonia Tanks. V. 69, No. 9, Sept. 1972, p. 26. "Feed & Farm Supplies. Sixty Percent Reduction in One Stroke. V. 69, No. 4, April 1972, p. 18.
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