Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals, minerals, and fuels 1972
Year 1972, Volume 1 (1972)
Briggs, Ted C.
Nitrogen, pp. 881-896 PDF (2.1 MB)
NITROGEN For future fertilizer supplies, India signed contracts with foreign producers and planned expansions of domestic fertilizer plants. A $14.4 million contract was signed with the Japan Ammonium Sulphate & Urea Export Co. Ltd. for 200,000 tons of urea. Contracts were signed for 460,000 tons of urea from Bulgaria for hiture delivery, and negotiations were underway with Kuwait for 350,000 to 500,000 tons of urea and 250,000 tons of liquid ammonia. Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers started construction of an $80 million ammonia and urea complex based on naphtha feed stock. The plant location is at Panambur, in Mysore State, in southern India, and Mangalore had been licensed to produce 220,000 tons per year of ammonia and 340,000 tons per year of urea. Also, India was shopping in the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia for equipment for coal-based fertilizer projects planned for Korba, Talcher, and Ramagundam. An Indian technical team returned emptyhanded from an earlier shopping trip to the United States, Western Europe, and Japan.29 -The Indian Ministry of Petroleum and Chemicals continued to put forward optimistic plans for future fertilizer production, and plans -were presented to double nitrogen fertilizer capacity by 1979. India hoped to achieve self-sufficiency in nitrogen fertilizers by 1977, but, historically, earlier plans have failed to meet stated goals. For example, a capacity to produce 3 million tons of nitrogen in fertilizers by 1974 was planned, but only 2.3 million tons of nitrogen capacity now seem possible and actual capacity may be below this amount. At the beginning of the "Fourth Plan" nitrogen capacity was just over 1 million tons per year. Capacity was increased to 1.34 million tons per year in 1970—71, and during 1971—72 two new ammonia plants went into production which, together, increased capacity to 1.53 million tons per year. The ministry pointed out that if its assumptions prove to be invalid, then production will be set back. The supply of power at Nongal was one important factor which was assumed. A second assumption was that production would not suffer be. cause of labor problems.30 Indonesia.—P. T. Pupuk Sriwidjaja, Indonesia's Government-owned petrochemical 889 company, selected M. W. Kellogg Co. as general contractor for the major portion of an $84 million fertilizer and petrochemical complex to be built on the Musi River near Palembang, in southern Sumatra. Kellogg will have responsibility for the erection of all process and offsite facilities except for gas gathering and transmission. The plans called for the erection of a 660-ton-per-day ammonia plant which Kellogg will design and engineer, and a I,150-ton-per-day urea plant using the dcsign of Mitsui Toatsu Co. which will be engineered by Toyo Engineering Co. of Japan. The plant will use 42 million standard cubic feet per day of natural gas feedstock, which will be piped approximately 70 miles from Sumatran natural gasfields.31 Ireland.—Nitrogin Eireann Teorala of Ireland awarded a contract in excess of $2,6 million for the expansion of its calcium ammonium nitrate facilities at Arklow, County Wicklow. Woodall-Duckha,n Ltd., of the United Kingdom, was the selected contractor and the Kaltenback procen was to be used. Plant capacity will be 150,000 tons per year.32 Italy.—A subsidiary of Italy's stateowned energy group brought onstream one of the largest ammonia and urea complexes in the world. Ammonia capacity was 1,500 tons per day, and urea capacity was 1,100 tons per day. The site of the new plants was at Monfredonia in the Mezzogiorno, Italy's southern development area. Because the complex is located in an area with scarce water supplies, extensive use was made of air coolers and condensers.33 Japan.—Signs pointed, for the first time in 5 years, to an improved outlook for Japan's chemical fertilizer industry, mainly because of improvements in exports. The Japan Ammonium Sulphate & Urea Export Co. Ltd. reported that, at the end of the fertilizer year, the country's two most important chemical fertilizers, ammonium sul"Chemical Week. Indian Fertilizer Gap Gets Wider. V. 111, No. l6~ Oct. 18, 1972, p. 43. " Chemical News. Indian N Fertilizer Plan Optimistic. V. 22, No. 540, July 7, 1972, p. 16. 31 Marketing Reporter. Ammonia, Urea Project Is Slated for Indonesia. V. 200, No. 20, Dec. 20, 1971, p. 7. "Chemical Marketing Reporter. Ammoniurn Nitrate Project. V. 201, No. 19, May 8, 1972, p. 7. "Chemical Marketing Reporter. Ammonia-Urea Facility Is Opened by Italy's ANIC. V. 202, Nc>. 26, Dec. 25, 1972, p. 3.
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