Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals, minerals, and fuels 1972
Year 1972, Volume 1 (1972)
Brown, Brinton C.
Cement, pp. 247-287 ff. PDF (4.5 MB)
CEMENT Health Administration (OSHA) condu-cted tests that prove noise levels exceeding 90 decibels (dba) are potentially harmful. Some environmentalists were exerting pressure on the EPA to set 85 dba as the acceptable limit rather than 90 dba. In the cement industry, raw and finish-grinding mills produce 102—105 dba and diesel trucks in quarry operations register 94 dba. The PCA in a suit -against the EPA charged that the new standards established for cement plants under provisions of the Clean Air Act were promulgated without the Administrator's compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Furthermore, the P-CA challenged the Administrator on grounds that economic -costs were not adequately taken into account and that the standards unfairly discriminate against portland cement plants, in comparison with standards promulgated for powerplants and municipal incinerators. The PCA charged that the achievability of the standards was not adequately demonstrated. The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit had not given an opinion by yearend. However, the EPA published in the August 25 Federal Register a notice of proposed rule making issued under the authority of the Clean Air A-ct. Part 60, title 40, Code of Federal Regulations was proposed to be amended by adding a new section, 60.11, dealing with assertedly excusa-ble violations regarding emissions during startup, shutdown, and malfunction of kilns. Under new Treasury Department regulations a company mixing ammonium nitrate fertilizer with fuel oil as needed to blast limestone in a quarry is considered an explosives manufacturer and a Federal license is required. The regulations, part 181 of title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations define a manufacturer-limited as any -person engaged in the -business of manufacturing explosive materials for his own use and not for sale or distribution. A manufacturer-limited license costs $5 and a separate fee is required for each business location. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) docket No. C—2375 alleges that the St. Lawrence Cement Co. acquisition of Wyandotte Cement Inc. violates section 7 of the Clayton Act, particularly in view of the Holderbank Financiere Glans S.A. financial 249 interest in St. Lawrence Cement Co. and Dundee Cement Co., both marketing in the same area. St. Lawren-ce Cement Co. agreed to sell its assets in Wyandotte, Mich., effective December 3-1, 1973. In a February decision, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit upheld the FTC order (docket No. 8802) that OKC Corp. divest its interest in Jahncke Service, Inc., a producer of ready-mix concrete. Missouri Portland Cement -Co., in a prolonged controversy with the FTC (docket No. 8783), entered into a consent agreement that calls for divestiture of Botsford Ready Mix Co. Lehigh Portland Cement Co. entered into a -consent agreement with the FTC in June disposing of the company's holdings in ready-mix concrete companies in Florida, Kentucky, and Virginia. The Kentucky and Virginia subsidiaries were sold. By mid-1974 the company must decide whether to sell the Miami cement plant and keep all 11 readymixed concrete plants, or keep the cement plant and sell six ready-mix plants. Environmental Activities.—During the 10-year period through 1971, approximately $216 million was spent by the cement industry in the United States on capital equipment for air and water pollution control. The EPA estimates that capital expenditures during the period 1972 through 1976 required to bring existing plants into full compliance with present standards and regulations will be $97 million for air pollution abatement and $25 million -for water pollution control. Additional millions of dollars will -be expended for pollution control facilities installed at new plants and plant expansions under construction. Pollution control facilities comprise 10% to 15% of the capital cost of a new plarft, or $5.00 to $6.50 a ton of annual production capacity. The EPA estimates the annual costs of operating pollution control -facilities in the cement industry will increase from $3 million in 1972 to $43 million in 1976. This will average a-bout 42 to 53 cents a ton of cement produced. Members of the industry estimate the upper figure to exceed $1.00 a ton. Many companies petitioned local pollution control agencies to operate plants under variances from the standards and regulations until pollution control facilities could be engineered and installed. To mention a few, Ideal Cement Co. received
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