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Bohling, Geoffrey C. / A ground penetrating radar study of water table elevation in a portion of Wisconsin's central sand plain
[DNR-050] (1988)

II. Geology and hydrogeology of the study area,   pp. 10-18 PDF (1.9 MB)


Page 17

17
D. Water Table Fluctuations
In this study the water table is assumed to be at a steady state
configuration. Freeze and Cherry (1979, p. 194) state that assumptions of
steady state can be considered valid for a basin if annual water table
fluctuations are small compared to the saturated thickness of the aquifer
and if the relative configuration of the water table remains the same
throughout the year. This definition of steady state can be applied to any
period being modeled, assuming that the water table has equilibrated to
the prevailing conditions for that period. In other words, one could use
water table maps from different seasons to produce a recharge map for
each season, assuming that prevailing recharge/discharge conditions
remain fairly constant throughout each season and that the water table
equilibrates quickly to existing stresses.
Because the outwash sands in the study area are so permeable, the
water table does equilibrate quickly to existing conditions. Moreover,
except under the influence of pumping, the relative water table
configuration in the Central Sand Plain remains quite constant throughout
the year (Karnauskas, 1977; Holt, 1965). In other words, one could use a
water table map from any time in the year to get an idea of the distribu-
tion of recharge and discharge areas, although the magnitudes of recharge
calculated might vary seasonally.
The data presented in this study were obtained during October and


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