Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)
Pressler, J. W.
Calcium and calcium compounds, pp. 215-218 PDF (384.2 KB)
215Calcium and Calcium Compounds By J. W. Pressler' Calcium metal was manufactured by one company in Connecticut. Calcium chloride was produced by two companies in California and three companies in Michigan. Synthetic calcium chloride was manufactured by one company in New York and two companies in Washington. DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Pfizer Inc. produced calcium metal at Canaan, Conn., by an aluminotherniic process, in which high-purity quicklime and aluminum powder are briquetted and heated in vacuum retorts; at a temperature of 1,170' C, calcium vaporizes and is collected at the other end of the retort, which has a water-cooled condenser section. National Chloride Co. of America and Leslie Salt Co. produced calcium chloride from wells in San Bernardino County, Calif.; average output increased 6%. The Dow Chemical Co., Velsicol Chemical Corp., and Wilkinson Chemical Corp. recovered calcium chloride from brine in Grati~t, Lapeer, Mason, and Midland Counties, Mich.; average output increased 10%. Total production of natural calcium chloride was 710,000 tons, an increase of 9% compared with 1976 production. The Dow Chemical Co. announced that it intended to build a new plant at Ludington, Mich., which will be completed late in 1978. It will include the production of calcium chloride pellets.2 Allied Chemical Corp. recovered synthetic calcium chloride as a byproduct of soda ash at Syracuse, N.Y.; Reichold Chemicals, Inc., recovered synthetic calcium chloride as a byproduct of pentachlorophenol manufacture at Tacoma, Wash.; and Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp. manufactured calcium chloride at Tacoma using limestone and hydrochloric acid. Total output of synthetic calcium chloride was 257,000 tons, an increase of 4% compared with that of 1976. CONSUMPTION AND USES Calcium metal was used as a reducing agent to separate refractory metals such as tantalum, uranium, and zirconium from their oxides; to form alloys with metals such as aluminum, lead, and sificon; as a desulfurizer and deoxidizer in steel refluiing; in the manufacture of calcium hydride used in the production of chromium, titanium, and zirconium in the Hydromet process; and as an aid in removing bismuth from lead in refining. Some minor, but interesting, uses were in the preparation of vitamin B, and as a cathode coating in some types of photo tubes. A high growth rate was forecast for the use of calcium in the battery sector, particularly in the maintenance-free lead-calcium
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