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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)

Pressler, J. W.
Calcium and calcium compounds,   pp. 215-218 PDF (384.2 KB)


Page 215

  215Calcium and Calcium 
Compounds 
By J. W. Pressler' 
Calcium metal was manufactured by one company in Connecticut. Calcium chloride
was produced by two companies in California and three companies in Michigan.
Synthetic calcium chloride was manufactured by one company in New York and
two companies in Washington. 
DOMESTIC PRODUCTION 
Pfizer Inc. produced calcium metal at Canaan, Conn., by an aluminotherniic
process, in which high-purity quicklime and aluminum powder are briquetted
and heated in vacuum retorts; at a temperature of 1,170' C, calcium vaporizes
and is collected at the other end of the retort, which has a water-cooled
condenser section. 
National Chloride Co. of America and Leslie Salt Co. produced calcium chloride
from wells in San Bernardino County, Calif.; average output increased 6%.
The Dow Chemical Co., Velsicol Chemical Corp., and Wilkinson Chemical Corp.
recovered calcium chloride from brine in Grati~t, Lapeer, Mason, and Midland
Counties, Mich.; average output increased 10%. Total production of natural
calcium chloride was 710,000 tons, an increase of 9% compared with 1976 
production. 
The Dow Chemical Co. announced that it intended to build a new plant at Ludington,
Mich., which will be completed late in 1978. It will include the production
of calcium chloride pellets.2 
Allied Chemical Corp. recovered synthetic calcium chloride as a byproduct
of soda ash at Syracuse, N.Y.; Reichold Chemicals, Inc., recovered synthetic
calcium chloride as a byproduct of pentachlorophenol manufacture at Tacoma,
Wash.; and Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp. manufactured calcium
chloride
at Tacoma using limestone and hydrochloric acid. Total output of synthetic
calcium chloride was 257,000 tons, an increase of 4% compared with that of
1976. 
CONSUMPTION AND USES 
Calcium metal was used as a reducing agent to separate refractory metals
such as tantalum, uranium, and zirconium from their oxides; to form alloys
with metals such as aluminum, lead, and sificon; as a desulfurizer and deoxidizer
in steel refluiing; in the manufacture of calcium hydride used in the production
of chromium, titanium, and zirconium in the Hydromet process; and as 
an aid in removing bismuth from lead in refining. Some minor, but interesting,
uses were in the preparation of vitamin B, and as a cathode coating in some
types of photo tubes. 
A high growth rate was forecast for the use of calcium in the battery sector,
particularly in the maintenance-free lead-calcium 


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