Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals, minerals, and fuels 1972
Year 1972, Volume 1 (1972)
Gallium, pp. 553-557 ff. PDF (469.5 KB)
553Gallium By E. Chin 1 Domestic production of gallium in 1972 increased sharply over production in the previous year. Most of the gallium consumption was for the production of gallium in-term-etallic compounds used in light-emitting diodes for electronic visual display panels. Sales of gallium-arsenidephosphide for optoelectroni'c devices were estimated at $;14.5 million in 1912, up from $4 million in 1971. DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Production of gallium metal in 1972 by two companies was more than double that in 1971. The sharp rise in production was attributed to increased demand for gallium by the electronics industry. Gallium metal was produced as a byproduct of alumina production by the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) at its Bauxite, Ark., plant. Gallium metal, oxide, and trichloride were produced by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., at its Quapaw, Okla., plant. Production data are company confidential. In addition, gallium metal and compounds produced primarily from imported material were supplied by Alusuisse Metals, Inc., Atomergic Chemetals Co., Cominco American, Inc., Euro- pean Electronics, Inc., B. Freudenberg, Inc., Indium Corporation of America, Kawecki Berylco Industries, Inc., and Ventron Corp. Alcoa announced a breakthrough in production technology which reportedly will enable the company to triple its gallium production capacity at the Bauxite, Ark., plant. Additional gallium production may be possible at Alcoa's refineries at Mobile, Ala., and Point Comfort, Tex. Canyon Land 21st Century Corp. (Canyon Land), Blan-ding, Utah, is expected to begin production of gallium in late 1973. Canyon Land will use as its raw material source, gallium contained in phosphate residues, which will be' provided by the Monsanto Company. CONSUMPTION The largest use of gallium was in electronic applications, principally in the form of gallium arsenide and gallium phosphide, which are used in solid state lamps (light-emi-tting diodes, LEDS). Due to the pronounced trend of the electronics industry towards microminiatunization, LEDS were increasingly used in visual display systems in calculators, digital clocks, medical instrumentation, multiple wa-rning lights, and instrumentation for aircraft and automotive dash -panels. A novel use for LEDS was in the production of electronic watches in which the time display system is based on a gallium lamp matrix. The manganese-doped magnesium-gallium spine! (MgGa2O4:Mn) is a green phosphor used in ultraviolet excitation and is used in fluorescent lamps in Xerox co'pyi'ng machines. Gallium compounds were also used in semiconductor applications for microswitching devices and in microwave and laser applications. The intermetallic compound vanadium-gallium, V3Ga, is a superconductor with a high transition temperature and a high critical field. In research and development there was growing interest in the gadolinium-gallium garnet, Gd3Ga5O,2, as a substrate material for magnetic bubble domain devices. Galhum tnichlonide was investigated as a Friedel Crafts reagent in organic synthesis. 1 Physical scientist, Division of Nonferrous Metals.
http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/NoC-US/1.0/| As a work of the United States government, this material is in the public domain.| For information on re-use see: http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Copyright