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Bradbury, K. R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gotkowitz, Madeline B.; Hunt, R. J. / Assessment of virus presence and potential virus pathways in deep municipal wells
[DNR-197] (2008)

Table of contents,   p. 4 PDF (376.2 KB)


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Table of Contents
A b stract  ............................................................................................................................... 2
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................           4
Introduction       ......................................................................................................................... 5
  Virus contamination of groundwater..................................          .5
  Previous virus sampling in the Madison area ............................................................. 5
  Project objectives and scope........................................8
  Acknowledgments .......................................................................................................          8
Procedures and Methods ..................................................................................................           9
  Selection of wells for sampling ..................................................................................              9
  Sampling procedure at municipal wells ....................................................................                     12
  Sampling procedure at lakes ......................................................................................             13
  Sewage influent sampling .........................................................................................             13
  Virus analyses and sequencing .................................................................................                 13
  Isotopic and geochemical sampling and analysis ...................................................... 14
R esults   ...............................................................................................................................  15
  Precipitation, climate, and water levels during the study period................... 15
  V iruses ..........................................................................................................................  18
     W ell-by-well virus results ....................................................................................         20
     Virus speciation and Infectivity....................................       21
  Groundwater and lake water chemistry .....................................................................23
  Environmental Isotopes in virus study wells .......................................................... 23
D iscussion     .......................................................................................................................... 2 8
   Significance of virus detections ...............................................................................              28
   Potential virus pathways to wells .............................................................................                28
   Lakes as a source of viruses ......................................................................................            28
   Sanitary sewers as a source of groundwater contamination...................... 28
   Relationships between sewer leakage and the hydrogeologic setting................ 29
   Calculated source volumes of viral contaminants ................................................... 30
Conclusions and Recommendations .............................................................................                     33
   C onclusions ...................................................................................................................  33
   Recommendations ............................................................................................ 34
R eferences...       ....................................................................................................................... 35
A ppendices......................................................................................................................... 37
   Appendix A: Virus results ........................................................................................             37
   Appendix        B: Geochemical results .............................................................................40
   Appendix        C: Field measurements .............................................................................            46
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