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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)

Singleton, Richard H.
Stone,   pp. 843-876 PDF (2.9 MB)


Page 843

  843StoneRichard H. Singletonh 
 U.S. production of crushed stone increased 10% in 1978 and 5% in 1979 to
a new record 1.10 billion tons. About threequarters of crushed stone production
continued to be limestone, followed by granite, traprock, sandstone, marble,
and shell, in order of volume. Value of crushed stone production increased
18% in 1978 and 18% in 1979 to a 1979 value of $3.40 billion. 
 Stone was produced in every State except Delaware and North Dakota. Leading
States continued to be Texas and Pennsylvania. There were about 1,870 companies
operating approximately 4,500 and 4,200 crushed stone quarries in 1978 and
1979, respectively. Output per quarry in 1979 was about 260,000 tons, compared
with 180,000 tons in 1969. Only about 6% of these quarries were 900,000-ton-per-year
capacity or larger, but these accounted for 39% of total output in 1979.
Approximately two-thirds of U.S. crushed stone was used in road, railroad,
and bridge construction; other uses were, in order of volume, cement production,
chemical lime production, agriculture, aggregate for buildings construction,
and metallurgical flux. 
 U.S. production of dimension stone 
decreased 2% in 1978 and increased 8% in 
1979 to 1.51 million tons. Approximately 
42% of dimension stone production continued to be granite followed by limestone,
sandstone, marble, and slate, in order of 
volume. Value of dimension stone increased 
9% in 1978 and 17% in 1979 to $132 million. 
Value of imports, about one-half marble 
and mainly from Italy, increased 36% in 
1978 and 27% in 1979 to $65.6 million. 
 Dimension stone was produced in 41 
States in 1978 and 39 States in 1979. Leading States were Indiana, Georgia,
and Vermont. There were about 275 companies operating approximately 400 dimension
stone quarries. Approximately one-third of U.S.~produced dimension stone
was used in the construction of buildings and about onequarter was used in
monuments. 
 The Bureau of Mines canvass of dimension stone does not include processors
of purchased rough stone. All producers are covered; if the producer sells
rough stone to a processor, it is tabulated as rough stone; if the producer
processes finished stone, only the finished stone is tabulated, and the rough
stone is deducted. The Bureau of Mines generally accepts the stone classification
reported by producers. 
 Granite usually includes all coarser grained igneous rocks. Limestone may
be pure calcium carbonate, or may be bituminous, dolomitic, or siliceous.
The term "traprock" pertains to all dense, dark, finegrained igneous
rocks.
Marble may include any calcareous rock that will polish. Sandstone may be
calcareous, quartz or quartzite, or conglomerate. Quartzite may be described
as any siliceous-cemented sandstone. Quartzite that has been comminuted to
sand is considered to be sand and gravel. 
 Capacity figures and stocks were not available. Inventories on hand at quarries
and plants were estimated at about a 1-month supply, or 100 million tons.
 As appropriate throughout the remainder of this report, where different
values exist for 1978 and 1979, the 1978 values are shown first, with the
1979 values immediately following in parentheses. 


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