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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)

Matthews, Norman A.; Morning, John L.
Chromium,   pp. 193-205 ff. PDF (1.4 MB)


Page 193

  193Chromium 
By Norman A. Matthews1 and John L. Morning1 
 Chromite consumption increased substantially in 1979 compared with that
of 1978 and 1977 and reached the highest level since 1974. The consumption
increase paralleled an increase in domestic ferrochromium production and
a decline in ferrochromium imports. World chromite production peaked in 1977
and declined slightly in 1978 and 1979. Apparent total domestic 
demand, including secondary chromium 
from scrap, was 600,000 short tons in 1979, 
second only to that of 1974. 
 Although complete statistics are not available, it is probable that world
demand for chromium was at a record high in 1979 based upon U.S. consumption
and reported demand growth in Western Europe and Japan. 
Table 1.—Salient chromite statistics (Thousand short tons) 
1975 
1976 
1977 
1978 
1979 
United States: 
 Exports                              
 Reexports                            
Imports for consumption  
 Consumption                          
 Stocks, Dec. 31: Consumer                world:preduction              
139 
 45 
1,252 
881 
952 
9,136 
 124 
 85 
1,275 
1,006 
1,009 
r9,372 
187 
61 
 1,293 
 1,000 
 1,338 r10172 
 23 
 29 
1,013 
1,010 
1,301 
9,920 
27 
28 
1,024 
1,209 
 907 
10,498 
r~ 
 Legislation and Government Programs.—Congress requested a reinvestigation
of alleged injury to the domestic ferroalloy industry caused by imports of
high-carbon ferrochromium at low prices. The International Trade Commission
initiated the investigation in June 1978 and recommended protection for the
industry by quotas or additional duties. Presidential Proclamation 4608,
dated November 15, 1978, authorized by the Trade Act of 1974, provided a
temporary duty increase of 4 cents per pound of chromium content on all material
imported at exit port prices less than 38 cents per pound. The proclamation
will expire on or before November 15, 1981. 
 In response to a petition by the U.S. Ferroalloy Association in December
1978, the U.S. Department of the Treasury made its final determination in
the case of subsi 
dized imports of ferroalloys from Spain and imposed countervailing duties
of 2.4% to 3.36%, with the latter figure applying to high-carbon ferrochromium,
effective January 1, 1980. 
 The stockpile policy bill, Public Law 9641, Strategic and Critical Materials
Stockpiling Revision Act of 1979, was signed into law on July 30, 1979. It
provides for the procurement of materials not up to goals as funds accumulate
from the sales of excess materials. The inventory levels of most chromium
materials in the national stockpile are close to the current goals. 
 U.S. Government stockpile goals and inventories of chromium stockpile materials
are shown in table 2. 
 The United States and the United Nations removed economic sanctions on products
from Zimbabwe-Rhodesia in December 


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