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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 1 (1978-1979)

DeHuff, Gilbert L.
Manganese,   pp. 577-591 ff. PDF (2.0 MB)


Page 577

  577Manganese 
By Gilbert L. DeHuff' 
 No manganese ore containing 35% or more manganese was produced in the United
States in either 1979 or 1978. Some manganiferous ores of lower manganese
content, however, were produced and shipped in Minnesota, New Mexico, and
South Carolina both years. Both imports of ore and production of ferromanganese
fell to low levels, although 1979 ferromanganese production recovered somewhat
from that of 1978. Perhaps the most noteworthy development during the 2-year
period was the acquisition of U.S. manganese ferroalloy producers by foreign
firms: Airco Inc. going first to British Oxygen and later part to Autlán
of Mexico and part to the Federal Republic of Germany firm, SKW Trostberg;
Roane Electric Furnace Co. went to the large South African manganese ore
producer, SAMANCOR; and Chemetals Division of Diamond Shamrock, to Sedeina
of Belgium. Imports of manganese ferroalloys from developing countries were
benefitted by the tariff suspensions granted them by the General System of
Preferences and ferromanganese imports increased each year to establish new
records. Deliveries of ore continued to be made by the General Services Administration
from Government stockpile excesses. 
Legislation and Government Pro- 
grams.—Sales of Government manganese stockpile excesses consisted
of
257,130 short tons in 1978 and 3,338 tons in 1979 of nonstockpile-grade metallurgical
ore, plus 200 tons of stockpile-grade natural battery ore in 1979. An earlier
sale of 50,440 tons of specification-grade metallurgical ore was canceled
in January 1978. 
 Changes over the 2-year period in manganese items in Government stockpile
physical inventories were as follows (short tons gross weight): Stockpile-grade
natural battery ore decreased 24,186 tons to 206,789 tons; stockpile-grade
metallurgical ore decreased 1,199,754 tons to 3,046,954 tons; and nonstockpile-grade
metallurgical ore decreased 15,219 tons to 1,235,626 tons. The following
items remained unchanged except for minor inventory, adjustments: 
Nonstockpile-grade natural battery ore at 54,899 tons; synthetic manganese
dioxide, 3,011 tons; chemical ore, 220,829 tons; highcarbon ferromanganese,
599,764 tons; medium-carbon ferromanganese, 28,921 tons; silicomanganese,
23,574 tons; and electrolytic metal, 14,171 tons. Both inventories for metallurgical
ore at the end of 1979 included material sold under longterm contract but
not yet shipped. 
 The Department of Labor determined in 1978 that 125 employees of Roane Electric
Table l.—Salient manganese statistics in the United States 
(Short tons) 
 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 
Manganese ore (35% or more Mn): 
  Imports,general 1,574,045 1,316,812 930,947 547,820 499,782 
  Consumption 1,818,983 1,600,873 1,358,811 1,281,479 1,372,190 
Manganiferous ore (5% to 35% Mn): 
  Production (shipments) 159,225 256,633 215,893 312,124 240,696 
Ferromanganese: 
 Production 575,809 482,662 334,134 272,530 317,102 
 Exports 32,300 6,789 6,051 9,433 25,344 
 Imports for consumption 397,212 537,409 534,423 680,399 821,213 
 Consumption 881,527 896,775 886,299 985,623 976,482 


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