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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)

Palmer, K.W.
Iron and steel scrap,   pp. 529-546 PDF (1.5 MB)


Page 529

  529Iron and Steel Scrap 
By K. W. Palmer1 
 Reflecting the relatively small total change in the economy, domestic consumption
of iron and steel scrap in 1977 increased only 2.6% over that of 1976. Net
receipts of scrap by users, however, decreased by 6.7%, while yearend stocks
decreased by 
6.3% to 9.4 million tons.2 
 Scrap consumption closely paralleled last year's pattern, with the 1977
maximum again occurring in May. Monthly consumption rose, following the trend
in raw steel production, from 6.7 million tons in January to a peak of 8.6
million tons in May. Consumption then fell by stages to a low of 7.4 million
tons in December, accompanied by a marked decline in price. 
 Reported consumption of direct-reduced iron (prereduced iron ore), used
as a scrap substitute by a few smaller steelworks was 426,000 tons, or 21%
more than in 1976. 
 U.S. exports of scrap declined for a second straight year and were 26% below
those of 1976, reflecting the depressed world steel market. No. 1 heavy melting
grade regained its leading position over shredded scrap as the principal
grade exported. 
 Research was continued by the Bureau of Mines on coke substitutes in cupola
furnace operations as well as the use of urban raw ferrous refuse to replace
part of the charge and to calculate the economic effects. The pilot plant
built and operated by the Bureau of Mines at Hyattsville, Md., was used by
several communities to process their refuse experimentally and evaluate the
recovery of various components. The ferrous scrap fraction showed the most
economic promise in all experiments and trial runs with this refuse. 
Table 1.—Salient iron and steel scrap and pig iron statistics in
the
United States 
(Thousandshort tons and thousand dollars) 
1976 
1977 
Stocks Dec. 31: 
Scrap at consumer plants                                       Pigironatconsumerandsupplierplants
 Total - 
Consumption: 
Scrap                                                     Pigiron       
Exports: 
Scrap (excludes rerolling material and ships, boats, and 
othervesselsforscrapping)                                     
Value                                                      
Imports for consumption: 
Scrap(includestinplateandterneplatescrap)                          
Value                                                      
9,988 
1,519 
9,363 
1,322 
11,507 
10,685 
89,910 
87,045 
7,877 
$601,826 
507 
$35,120 
92,198 
82,003 
5,854 
$381,041 
614 
$40,501 
 Legislation and Government Pro- and Steel (ISIS), which asked for reversal
of grams.—On February 1, 1977, the Inter- an earlier ICC decision
rejecting
the restate Commerce Commission (ICC) rejected moval of freight-rate discrimination
against an appeal by National Association of Recy- scrap as a recyclable
material. The appeals cling Industries (NARI) and by implication, of NARI
and ISIS were supported by briefs a parallel appeal by Institute of Scrap
Iron filed in September by the Justice Depart- 


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