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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)

Lucas, John M.
Cadmium,   pp. 207-213 ff. PDF (801.0 KB)


Page 207

  207Cadmium 
By John M. Lucas' 
 Domestic cadmium metal production posted a minor decline from that of 1976.
Although apparent consumption in 1977 exceeded the quantity consumed during
the recession year of 1975, it was less than that consumed in 1976. Shipments
of metal reported by producers were below those of 1976, but, far above those
of 1975. 
 Six companies operating seven plants produced all of the domestic cadmium.
Canada continued as the major source of zinc concentrates from which cadmium
was extracted as a byproduct. The producer price of cadmium remained at $3.00
per pound until December, at which time it was reduced to $2.25 to $2.50.
Legislation and Government Programs.—The Environmental Protection
Agency
(EPA) issued interim final pretreatment standard (effective July 12, 1977)
covering effluent discharges into publicly owned treatment works operating
within the electroplating point source category. Shortly after issuing the
new regulations, which did not specifically address cadmium, the EPA began
considering the inclusion of six other metals, including cadmium. 
 In October, the EPA issued a notice of rebuttable presumption against the
registration of pesticide products containing cadmium. Cadmium is one of
20 substances that the EPA is investigating to determine whether the evidence
of health risk is sufficient to revoke registration of pesticides containing
these substances. Pesticides containing cadmium have been used for several
years to control moles and plant diseases affecting residential lawns and
golf courses. Producers of registered cadmium pesticides were notified to
submit evidence in rebuttal of the presumption prior to December 12, 1977.
 On October 22, pursuant to provisions of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments
of 1977, the EPA initiated inquiries into the health effects of cadmium,
arsenic, and polycyclic organic compounds in the ambient air. 
 The national stockpile goal of 12,351 tons 
of cadmium established in 1976 by the 
Federal Preparedness Agency (FPA) was 
reaffirmed by the President on October 7. 
The inventory of stockpile metal was 3,163 
tons on December 31, 1977. 
Table 1.—Salient cadmium statistics 
1973 
1974 
1975 
1976 
1977 
United States: 
Production1 short tons_Shipmentsbyproducers2    do_ 
 Value thousand&. 
3,751 
4,304 
$23,891 
 3,333 
 3,250 
$21,405 
2,193 
818 
$4,166 
 2,256 r2,984 $10,498 
2,204 
2,025 
$7,072 
 Exports short tons~. Importsforconsumption,metal do.~ Apparentconsumption
do~~ 
 Price:Averageperpound'                      
World: Production short tons.~ 
 153 
1,948 
6,267 
$3.64 
18,925 
31 
1,985 
6,050 
$4.09 
19,041 
 198 
 2,618 
 3,368 
 $3.36 r16,793 
 252 
 3,411 
 5,932 
 $2.66 r1818() 
 118 
2,570 
4,480 
$2.96 
18,898 
 !Re~sed. 
 ' Primary and secondary cadmium metal. Includes equivalent metal content
of cadmium sponge used directly in production of compounds. 
 ' Includes metal consumed at producer plants. 
 ' Average quoted price for cadmium sticks and balls in lots of 1 to 5 tons.


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