Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)
Lucas, John M.
Cadmium, pp. 207-213 ff. PDF (801.0 KB)
207Cadmium By John M. Lucas' Domestic cadmium metal production posted a minor decline from that of 1976. Although apparent consumption in 1977 exceeded the quantity consumed during the recession year of 1975, it was less than that consumed in 1976. Shipments of metal reported by producers were below those of 1976, but, far above those of 1975. Six companies operating seven plants produced all of the domestic cadmium. Canada continued as the major source of zinc concentrates from which cadmium was extracted as a byproduct. The producer price of cadmium remained at $3.00 per pound until December, at which time it was reduced to $2.25 to $2.50. Legislation and Government Programs.—The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued interim final pretreatment standard (effective July 12, 1977) covering effluent discharges into publicly owned treatment works operating within the electroplating point source category. Shortly after issuing the new regulations, which did not specifically address cadmium, the EPA began considering the inclusion of six other metals, including cadmium. In October, the EPA issued a notice of rebuttable presumption against the registration of pesticide products containing cadmium. Cadmium is one of 20 substances that the EPA is investigating to determine whether the evidence of health risk is sufficient to revoke registration of pesticides containing these substances. Pesticides containing cadmium have been used for several years to control moles and plant diseases affecting residential lawns and golf courses. Producers of registered cadmium pesticides were notified to submit evidence in rebuttal of the presumption prior to December 12, 1977. On October 22, pursuant to provisions of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, the EPA initiated inquiries into the health effects of cadmium, arsenic, and polycyclic organic compounds in the ambient air. The national stockpile goal of 12,351 tons of cadmium established in 1976 by the Federal Preparedness Agency (FPA) was reaffirmed by the President on October 7. The inventory of stockpile metal was 3,163 tons on December 31, 1977. Table 1.—Salient cadmium statistics 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 United States: Production1 short tons_Shipmentsbyproducers2 do_ Value thousand&. 3,751 4,304 $23,891 3,333 3,250 $21,405 2,193 818 $4,166 2,256 r2,984 $10,498 2,204 2,025 $7,072 Exports short tons~. Importsforconsumption,metal do.~ Apparentconsumption do~~ Price:Averageperpound' World: Production short tons.~ 153 1,948 6,267 $3.64 18,925 31 1,985 6,050 $4.09 19,041 198 2,618 3,368 $3.36 r16,793 252 3,411 5,932 $2.66 r1818() 118 2,570 4,480 $2.96 18,898 !Re~sed. ' Primary and secondary cadmium metal. Includes equivalent metal content of cadmium sponge used directly in production of compounds. ' Includes metal consumed at producer plants. ' Average quoted price for cadmium sticks and balls in lots of 1 to 5 tons.
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