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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)

DeHuff, Gilbert L.
Manganese,   pp. 617-628 PDF (1.6 MB)


Page 617

  617Manganese 
Gilbert L. DeHufP 
 There continued to be neither production nor shipments of manganese ore
containing 35% or more manganese in the United States in 1977. Some manganiferous
ores of lower grade were, however, produced and shipped from Minnesota, New
Mexico, and South Carolina. Imports of ferromanganese continued at the record
high level of 1976, and bOth domestic production and shipments from furnaces
dropped off drastical~ ly. The price of the imported high-carbon alloy was
well below the published producer price of $399.50 that prevailed for most
of the year. Deliveries of ore continued to be made by the General Services
Administration (GSA) from Government stockpile excesses. The new stockpile
goals established in 1976 were suspended early in 1977 but were reaffirmed
in October. 
 Legislation and Government Programs.—The new stockpile goals established
by GSA on October 1, 1976, were suspended in February 1977, and a moratorium
was imposed on requests for new acquisitions and disposals. On October 7,
1977, it was announced that the goals had been reaffirmed and that the moratorium
was being lifted with the provision that the overall goals would be reviewed
at least annually. As reported by GSA, sales of 
Government manganese stockpile excesses in calendar year 1977 consisted of
50,288 short tons of metallurgical ore of nonstockpile grade and 3,318 tons
of stockpile-grade natural battery ore. 
 Decreases in Government stockpile physical inventories for manganese items
were all in ore, as follows in short tons, gross weight: Stockpile-grade
natural battery ore, 19,466 tons to 230,975 tons; chemical ore, 10,053 tons
to 220,810 tons; metallurgical ore, nonstockpile grade, 31,726 tons to 1,287,304
tons; and metallurgical ore, stockpile grade, 759,279 tons to 4,210,249 tons.
Inventory adjustments increased the reported inventories for synthetic dioxide
5 tons to 3,011 tons, and those for high-carbon ferromanganese 6 tons to
599,763 tons. Both inventories for metallurgical ore at the end of 1977 included
material sold under longterm contract but not yet shipped~ 
 Public Law 95-95, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, signed by President
Carter on August 7, limited the manganese concentration in gasoline to 0.0625
gram per gallon of fuel effective November 30, 1977. Effective September
8, the California Air Resources Board banned the addition of manganese to
unleaded gasoline. 
Table 1.—Salient manganese statistics in the United States 
(Short tons) 
1973 
1974 
1975 
1976 
1977 
Manganese ore (35% or more Mn): 
 Production(shipments)                      
Imports, general  
 Consumption                         Manganiferous ore (5% to 35% Mn): 
 Production (shipments)                      
Ferromanganese: 
 Production                               
 Exports                                 
 Imports for consumption                     
 Consumption                             
239 
1,509,793 
2,140,058 
203,055 
683,075 
8,574 
390,591 
1,116,602 
1,225,033 
1,880,176 
272,908 
544,361 
7,011 
421,222 
1,115,395 
1,574,045 
1,818,983 
159,225 
575,809 
 32,300 
 397,212 
881,527 
1,316,812 
1,600,873 
256,633 
482,662 
6,789 
537,409 
896,775 
930,947 
1,358,811 
215,893 
334,134 
6,051 
534,423 
886,299 


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