Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook: Metals and minerals 1977
Year 1977, Volume 1 (1977)
DeHuff, Gilbert L.
Manganese, pp. 617-628 PDF (1.6 MB)
617Manganese Gilbert L. DeHufP There continued to be neither production nor shipments of manganese ore containing 35% or more manganese in the United States in 1977. Some manganiferous ores of lower grade were, however, produced and shipped from Minnesota, New Mexico, and South Carolina. Imports of ferromanganese continued at the record high level of 1976, and bOth domestic production and shipments from furnaces dropped off drastical~ ly. The price of the imported high-carbon alloy was well below the published producer price of $399.50 that prevailed for most of the year. Deliveries of ore continued to be made by the General Services Administration (GSA) from Government stockpile excesses. The new stockpile goals established in 1976 were suspended early in 1977 but were reaffirmed in October. Legislation and Government Programs.—The new stockpile goals established by GSA on October 1, 1976, were suspended in February 1977, and a moratorium was imposed on requests for new acquisitions and disposals. On October 7, 1977, it was announced that the goals had been reaffirmed and that the moratorium was being lifted with the provision that the overall goals would be reviewed at least annually. As reported by GSA, sales of Government manganese stockpile excesses in calendar year 1977 consisted of 50,288 short tons of metallurgical ore of nonstockpile grade and 3,318 tons of stockpile-grade natural battery ore. Decreases in Government stockpile physical inventories for manganese items were all in ore, as follows in short tons, gross weight: Stockpile-grade natural battery ore, 19,466 tons to 230,975 tons; chemical ore, 10,053 tons to 220,810 tons; metallurgical ore, nonstockpile grade, 31,726 tons to 1,287,304 tons; and metallurgical ore, stockpile grade, 759,279 tons to 4,210,249 tons. Inventory adjustments increased the reported inventories for synthetic dioxide 5 tons to 3,011 tons, and those for high-carbon ferromanganese 6 tons to 599,763 tons. Both inventories for metallurgical ore at the end of 1977 included material sold under longterm contract but not yet shipped~ Public Law 95-95, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, signed by President Carter on August 7, limited the manganese concentration in gasoline to 0.0625 gram per gallon of fuel effective November 30, 1977. Effective September 8, the California Air Resources Board banned the addition of manganese to unleaded gasoline. Table 1.—Salient manganese statistics in the United States (Short tons) 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Manganese ore (35% or more Mn): Production(shipments) Imports, general Consumption Manganiferous ore (5% to 35% Mn): Production (shipments) Ferromanganese: Production Exports Imports for consumption Consumption 239 1,509,793 2,140,058 203,055 683,075 8,574 390,591 1,116,602 1,225,033 1,880,176 272,908 544,361 7,011 421,222 1,115,395 1,574,045 1,818,983 159,225 575,809 32,300 397,212 881,527 1,316,812 1,600,873 256,633 482,662 6,789 537,409 896,775 930,947 1,358,811 215,893 334,134 6,051 534,423 886,299
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