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Fago, Don / Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: IV. Root, Milwaukee, Des Plaines, and Fox River basins
(1984)

Methods,   pp. 7-12 PDF (3.5 MB)


Page 7


White River (Fox River basin) at
Burlington. Habitat of the river
redhorse.
METHODS
Data Sources and Time
Periods
  All collections are divided into 3
time periods: 1900-28, 1951-73, and
1974-81 (1973-81 for the Milwaukee).
The earlier records provide the basis
for assessment of changes over time in
distribution of fish species within the
basins of the Root, Milwaukee, Des
Plaines, and Fox rivers.
  If a location was sampled within a
time period more than once, only 1 col-
lection is used in the counts of number
of stations sampled and number of sta-
tions at which a species was taken.
Stations were classified in one of two
ways, except for the 1900-28 period, de-
pending on how the samples were
taken: complete (those in which all spe-
cies collected were recorded and identi-
fied), and partial (those in which sam-
pling effort and/or species
identification were incomplete and
therefore did not yield adequate assess-
ment of total species composition).
  1900-28 Period. All collections were
made between 1900 and 1928, except
for 3 in the Fox River basin (2 in 1941
and 1 in 1946), with 53% taken during
1923-28. Collections from this time pe-
riod were made at 19 stations in the
Root River basin, 43 in the Milwaukee
River basin, 3 in the Des Plaines River
basin, and 31 in the Fox River basin by
*1951-72 for Milwaukee River basin.
a number of collectors. They included
A. Cahn (1927), H. V. Ogden, G. Wag-
ner, Schultz, C. Tarzwell, C. L. Turner,
and several collectors at the Milwaukee
Public Museum (names taken from
original field notes). Most specimens
from these collections were verified by
Dr. Carl Hubbs or Dr. C. W. Greene
and cited by Greene (1935).
   The stations sampled were located
on 11 streams in the Root River basin,
13 streams and 4 lakes in the Milwau-
kee River basin, 2 streams and 1 lake in
the Des Plaines River basin, and 12
streams and 5 lakes in the Fox River
basin (Table 2). Thoroughness of sam-
pling effort was unknown, and there-
fore calculation of percent occurrence
of each species was not attempted (Ta-
ble 5).
   1951-73 Period.* Complete collec-
tions from this period were made at 10
sampling stations on 2 streams in the
Root River basin, 31 stations on 4
streams and 2 lakes in the Milwaukee
River basin, 5 stations on 3 streams in
the Des Plaines River basin, and 63
stations on 30 streams and 3 lakes in
the Fox River basin (Table 2). An addi-
tional 5 partial collections in the Root
River basin, 11 in the Milwaukee River
basin, 5 in the Des Plaines River basin,
and 54 in the Fox River basin increased
the number of streams sampled by 4, 0,
0, and 8 and lakes by 1, 10, 5, and 34 in
the Root, Milwaukee, Des Plaines, and
Fox river basins, respectively. The
data from these partial samples were
kept separate in Table 2 and not in-
cluded in the percentages of total sta-
tions sampled presented in Table 5.
These additional 75 stations came from
written records provided by DNR fish
management personnel.
  The complete samples from the
Root, Milwaukee, Des Plaines, and
Fox river basins (72% taken between
1966 and 1972) were collected by the
following: Dr. George Becker and his
students (unpubl. data)-32 stations,
Prof. Marlin Johnson (unpubl. data)-
32 stations, Dr. G. Seeburger and stu-
dents (1975)-22 stations, Milwaukee
Public Museum (unpubl. data)-12
stations, Dr. 0. Amin et al. (1973)-
10 stations, and Dr. C. Norden (un-
publ. data)-1 station.
  Total occurrences are defined as the
sum of the number of species taken at
each station. For example, if a collector
took 10 species at one station, 20 at an-
other, and 30 at another, the total spe-
cies occurrences would be 60. This in-
formation has been calculated for
collections since 1951, and reveals the
volume of data from both complete and
partial samples used (Table 3). For the
earliest period, only a grand total of oc-
currences was calculated (Table 5). To-
tal occurrences increased from 835 for
the 1900-28 period to 1,350 for the
1951-73 period for the Root, Milwau-
kee, Des Plaines, and Fox river basins.
During 1951-73, 50% of the grand total
of occurrences for these 4 basins were
accounted for by Dr. Becker, Prof.
Johnson, and their students. They also
collected 75 of the 80 species reported
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