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(UW icon)1900

The Dawn of Prosperity--1866-1870.

Synopsis of reorganization act--Dane County purchases Experimental Farm--Co-education at Wisconsin University--Financial situation plainly slated--Secretary Allen's report--President Chadbourne's election--Still needing funds--Post-graduate course--Agricultural department established--Military instruction--On the road to success--Regents' report, 1868--Law School established--Regents' report, 1869--Ladies' Hall built--Dr. Chadbourne's resignation.

Synopsis of reorganization act.

The reorganization act of 1866 ordains that the University shall "Provide the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of learning connected with the scientific, industrial, and professional pursuits; and to this end it shall consist of the following colleges, to wit: 1st. The college of arts; 2d. The college of letters; 3d. Such professional and other colleges as from time to time may be added thereto or connected therewith." The college of arts is to "embrace courses of instruction in the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences, with their applications to the industrial arts;" among them is specifically mentioned agriculture, and the study of military tactics is added to the list--these two courses being named in order to conform to the terms of the Agricultural College act. "As soon as the income of the University will allow, in such order as the wants of the public shall seem to require, the said courses in the sciences * * * shall be expanded into distinct colleges of the University, each with its own faculty and appropriate title." Coeducation is distinctly provided for in the phrase, "The University, in all departments and colleges, shall be open alike to male and female students."

The government of the University is vested in a board of regents, to consist of two from each congressional district, and three from the State at large, all to be appointed by the governor. 1 The head of the instructional force is to be entitled president, and the secretary of state is to be secretary, and the state treasurer to be treasurer of the board.2 For the "endowment and support of the University," there are appropriated: (1) The income of the University fund; (2) The income of the fund derived from the sales of the 240,000 acres received from Congress under the Agricultural College act; (3) "All such contributions to the endowment fund as may be derived from public or private bounty"--these, however, to be used only for the "specific object for which they shall have been designed by the grantor." The entire income derivable from these three sources is placed at the disposal of the regents for the support, of the University.

Dane county purchases experimental farm.

In order that the agricultural course may at once be established, it is provided in the act that "Immediately upon the reorganization of the board, it shall be their duty to make arrangements for securing, without expense to the State or to the funds of the University, purchases suitable lands in the immediate vicinity of the University, not less than two hundred acres, including the University grounds, for an experimental farm, and as early as possible thereafter, to make such improvements thereon as will render it available for experimental and instructional purposes, in connection with the agricultural course in the College of Arts." Authority is given to the Dane county board of supervisors to issue $40,000 worth of seven-per-cent bonds, payable on or before January 1, 1886, the same to be placed at the disposal of the board of regents for the purchase and improvement of lands for the experimental farm; if these bonds are not issued or guaranteed, and in the hands of the regents, within thirty days from the passage of the act, "then this act shall be null and void." Thus there was thrust upon Dane county the sole responsibility for making the reorganization effective, and enabling the University to take advantage of the Agricultural College act of 1862. The county promptly issued the required bonds, and the regents were enabled therefrom at once to purchase 195 acres lying immediately west of the University grounds, for the sum of $27,054.3 The greater part of this beautiful tract had in 1855 been platted into city lots, as Loring Guild's Addition to Madison; there had been built in this addition several small dwellings, mainly of the shanty type, besides two brick houses which were acquired by the University with the purchase. This being added to the 40.63 acres formerly comprising the campus, the University was now in possession of 235 acres in one tract--grounds which in contour, outlook, and general adaptability to the purpose, quite surpass those of any other American university, save perhaps California (Berkeley), and Cornell (Ithaca, N. Y.).

Coeducation at Wisconsin.

As has been pointed out in the preceding chapter, the fact that the reorganization act admitted "females" to the full advantages of the University, early proved a stumbling-block in the effort of the new board of regents4 to reorganize the institution. In June, 1865, the old board had tendered the chancellorship to Dr. Joseph L. Pickard,5 formerly State superintendent of public instruction in Wisconsin, and then superintendent of schools in Chicago; but he declined, for the University was then in a sad way financially. The new board, a year later, also asked Dr. Pickard to take the presidency, "but owing to some misunderstanding or other circumstances," report the regents, he again refused; no doubt the prospects of the institution seemed to him still uninviting. They next made a tender of the position to Dr. Paul R. Chadbourne, of Williams College, "a gentleman whom they deemed in every respect well qualified and particularly fitted." Dr. Chadbourne twice visited the State, "the last time with the expectation of accepting the place;" but he, too, declined, owing to "circumstances beyond the control of the board."

The difficulty here was the coeducational clause in the statute of reorganization. In their annual report for 1866, the regents state that they find it "extremely difficult, if not impossible, to secure the services of a thoroughly competent and experienced educational man at the head of the institution," unless the law is modified. They ask from the legislature "the necessary authority for the erection of a separate female department, and for making the necessary regulations concerning the participation of females in the different branches of University studies. Such an amendment of the law they deem essential for the future prosperity of the University." By chapter 117 of the General Laws of 1867, their prayer was granted, the objectionable section being amended so as to read, "The University shall be open to female as well as male students, under such regulations and restrictions as the Board of Regents may deem proper."

This stumbling-block removed, Dr. Chadbourne consented to come to Wisconsin, and on June 22, 1867, was elected by the regents as president of the University. What had hitherto been known as the Normal Department, patronized almost exclusively by young women, was henceforth styled the Female College. The young men were now quartered only in the North Dormitory, which contained accommodations for about ninety students; for the rest of their number (148), the regents were obliged to "obtain rooms elsewhere, at a much higher price than was received from students for room-rent." The South Dormitory was now devoted exclusively to the young women; the regents declare, however, that it "is not fitted for them," and the State is urged to provide for the erection of another building for their occupancy. The Female College, thus installed, was placed in charge of Miss Elizabeth Earle, as preceptress,6 with an assistant preceptress, a teacher of music, and a teacher of drawing and painting. "The President of the University and the Professors give instruction in their several departments, and the students have the privilege of attending University lectures, but the recitations and other exercises are distinct from those in the other colleges." Later, it was provided that the students of the Female College were "to be instructed in any optional study for which they were prepared," and its graduates were to receive "such appropriate degrees as the regents may determine;" still later, that they were to "receive the same degrees as graduates of other colleges for the same course of study." As a matter of fact, although the women had separate commencement exercises, they graduated regularly from the course of the college of arts (none in 1868, six in 1869, one in 1870, four in 1871, and five in 1872), and received the bachelor's degree.

During President Chadbourne's administration (until June, 1870), they had separate recitations, which "was found to be inconvenient and expensive." As all courses were open to women, this appeared to be about the only difference between the students of the Female College and the young men. Dr. Chadbourne had prescribed for them an inferior three years' course of study; it is evident, however, that few cared to follow it; certainly, none of them graduated upon the basis of such a course. In 1870, the report of the board of visitors hints at disapproval of a separate department for the women; the regents, however, claim in their report that they have in the Female College but "conceded the privilege of a distinct ladies' education" for those who wish it; "the sexes are not required to recite together, but a preference in this respect is granted to the ladies, and competition for all the honors of the University is open alike to male and female students." Throughout the following year, in the interregnum between the presidencies of Chadbourne and Twombly, both sexes recited together, for the reason that there were not enough professors and instructors to conduct separate classes. It was in this year (1871) that Ladies' Hall was opened; and the regents express a desire "to do all in their power to provide for ladies the same facilities for college education enjoyed by gentlemen," and speak with pride of the fact that "Wisconsin is far in advance of her sister States in the noble provision which she is making for the higher education of her daughters."

By 1873,--when, however, there were no women graduates,--complete coeducation in the University was assured. With the class of 1874, there were graduated fifteen women, who engaged in the last commencement exercises held separately from the men. Since then there has been no distinction between the sexes in their relations to the institution. Ladies' Hall simply exists as a convenient dormitory for the women; residence therein is not compulsory. In 1877 there was a reactionary movement on the part of the board of visitors in favor of reviving the Female College; but President Bascom, who thoroughly believed in the efficacy of coeducation, clearly showed that the current criticisms thereof, on physical grounds, were ill-founded; that the young women actually "improve in strength rather than deteriorate during their college course," and are less subject to illness than their fellow-students. He explains this by saying, "The young men are not accustomed to confinement, and though sunbrowned and apparently robust, do not endure the violent transition as well as women." The question of restoring the Female College was referred to a committee of the regents, who (June, 1877) reported adversely. The board then turned the matter over to a committee of the faculty, who reported (in November) that the young women stood the strain well, and furthermore that separate instruction was really impracticable. In order "to meet exceptional cases of physical weakness," a six years' course was provided, but few women chose to enter it, and the question was thereupon dropped. 7

Financial situation plainly stated.

In following to a conclusion the purchase of the experimental farm, and the solution of the problem of coeducation, both of them vital features of the act of 1866, we have left far behind the matter of reorganization. We have seen the disappointments and embarrassments experienced by the regents in the selection of a president. In his report for the year, ex-Governor Edward Salomon, 8 the president of the board, plainly informs the people that the University is still in a weak condition, financially; that the estimated expenses for the current year are $21,000, and the prospective receipts less than $12,000, while the income, from the sale of lands will not be increased for several years to come. He urges an annual appropriation from the State of $5,000 to $7,000 for the next five years; and shows that when the State allowed $100,000 of the University fund to be used for buildings and land, 9 this reduced the legitimate income of the institution by $7,000. "If I am correct in this construction, then the State owes the University over $100,000, or at least the actual interest on that sum." Mr. Salomon makes out an excellent case against the State, and thus vigorously concludes:

Two great institutions of learning are united in this University, which, until this year, have never cost the state one cent to support. It is time that Wisconsin should cease standing behind so many of her sister states in regard to this, its highest institution of learning, which should be the pride of its citizens. In other states, where state universities flourish and stand high as institutions of learning, it will be found that they are liberally supported by state donations.

Secretary Allen's report.

Such words as these, from a citizen so high in the popular estimation as Mr. Salomon, were well calculated to create an impression favorable to the University. Simultaneously with the report of this powerful friend, was issued that of Gen. Thomas S. Allen, the secretary of state, and ex officio secretary of the board of regents, who clearly outlines the situation:

Although the fact may seem startling and contrary to general impression, yet it is no less true, that the State of Wisconsin has never made an appropriation of one dollar towards the support of its own University. But it has nevertheless charged the University Fund Income with the expenses of taking care of its lands, and keeping an account of its funds. By reference to the disbursements of this fund, which may be found in the several reports of the Secretary of State for years past, it will be seen that a sum amounting to over ten thousand dollars ($10,000) has thus been withdrawn from a fund too small to meet the necessary expense of sustaining the Institution as the credit and good name of the State demands that it should be sustained. But in addition to this, under the provisions of chapter 268, laws of 1862, one-half the University fund itself, upon the interest of which the support of the University depended, was sunk into oblivion; thus reducing the income from $18,397.70 in 1861, to $13,005.56 in 1862, and to $11,530.90 in 1863, which has since been about the average. The amount of University Fund Income on hand Sept. 30, 1866, was $5,501.47. This, with $144.93 belonging to the Income of the Agricultural College Fund, constitutes the whole amount at the disposal of the regents for defraying the current expenses of the University for the year commencing Oct. 1, 1866, and ending June 30, 1867. Out of this are to be paid the salaries of six or seven Professors, two Assistants in the Normal Department, and incidental expenses, such as fuel, repairs, etc.

The University cannot be successfully organized and managed in accordance with the wishes of the people and the Legislature, and including the Agricultural Department, upon an income of less than twenty thousand dollars ($20,000). Now, it will properly be asked, how can this income be secured? Other States having Universities, and among them Michigan, Kentucky, Iowa and Louisiana, appropriate annually from the State Treasury sums varying from fifteen to twenty thousand dollars. In addition, several have erected buildings without any expense to the University Funds.

Now, it is my opinion, that our University cannot be made a success unless it receives some assistance from the State. Let the Legislature first refund the sum of ten or eleven thousand dollars charged the University Fund for clerk hire and expenses. This will, in addition to the funds on hand, provide for the expenses of the present year. After that, a small annual appropriation will suffice, until such time as the income may be derived from the sale of the Agricultural College lands.

This brief statement of facts is submitted for the consideration of the Legislature, with the hope that a wise and liberal policy may be adopted.

These appeals bore immediate fruit. In chapter 82, laws of 1867 (approved April 6), the legislature gave to the University its first actual appropriation--$7,303.76 per annum for a period of ten years. This was the exact interest, according to rates then prevailing, upon the sum taken from the principal of the fund by the act of 1862, and was a virtual restoration to the fund of that amount. Hitherto, as pointed out by the regents and the secretary of state, the University had not cost the State a dollar; the fund, the grounds, and the buildings had been the gift of the federal government; and the experimental farm was donated by Dane county. 10

President Chadbourne's election.

Up to this time, embarrassed by the difficulty of securing a president, and by means "insufficient to effect the development and changes contemplated by the act of reorganization," the regents had continued the instructional force substantially as it existed before. In June (1867), however, they succeeded at last in inducing Dr. Chadbourne to accept the presidency, and reconstructed the faculty11 as follows:

  • Paul A. Chadbourne, 12 M. D., President and Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy.
  • John W. Sterling, LL. D., Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy.
  • Ezra S. Carr, LL. D., Professor of Chemistry and Natural History.
  • John P. Fuchs, M. D., Professor of Modern Languages and Literature.
  • William F. Allen, 13 A. M., Professor of Ancient Languages and History.
  • T. N. Haskell, 14 A. M., Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature.
  • R. E. Harmon, A. B., Tutor.
  • Amos H. Thompson, A. B., Tutor.
  • Miss Elizabeth Earle, Preceptress in the Normal Department.
  • Miss Clarissa Ware, Associate Preceptress.
  • Miss Frances Brown, Teacher of Music.
  • Miss Louise Brewster, Teacher of Painting and Drawing.

In their report for 1867, the regents, in a conservative spirit, review the progress thus far attained in the few months of President Chadbourne's administration:

[The president has] very zealously and ably assisted the regents in laying the foundations for the present and future organization and development of the university; and although the results so far accomplished may not perhaps satisfy the expectations of some, who, themselves without experience in such matters, would have a great and renowned institution of learning created in the space of a year, or of others, who, dissatisfied with the past results of our university, would begin by tearing down and uprooting every thing that connects the past with the present; yet it is confidently believed, that an earnest and impartial consideration by men of experience and judgment of what has so far been accomplished by the President and Regents of the University, is all that could reasonably be expected and should satisfy the just hopes of the friends of the Institution and of the people of the State.

To create such an institution of learning as is contemplated by the law of re-organization, and as the regents hope will eventually be reared to the lasting honor and benefit of our young and noble State, requires a large, able, learned and experienced faculty, a correspondingly large number of well prepared students, and correspondingly large and ample means. All this can be reached in time; some of it, the regents believe, they have already obtained; but, as in all really great things, so here time, patience, industry, perseverance and good judgment are essential to success. It must not be forgotten, that we are just beginning with slender means to lay the foundation for a university, and that this report can be expected to show only progress in the work of construction.


Still needing funds.

In concluding this report, President Salomon, its author, after urging the erection by the State of a building for the young women, again calls attention to the bettered, but still critical, financial condition of the University:

It appears that the total income of the ensuing year, including the estimated receipts of tuition fees, will be $22,208.38, an amount barely sufficient for the support of the departments now organized, including the contemplated chair of agriculture. If we compare this income with that of the University of Michigan, which, as I am informed, was over $67,000 last year (being three times as much as ours will be for the ensuing year), it will at once appear why our University cannot, for many years to come, be expected to equal that of which our sister State, Michigan, is so justly proud. The example of Michigan is one well worth our emulation, and I hope that the time may not be far distant when our State University, which, since my connection with its administration I have seen near the brink of bankruptcy, and scoffed and sneered at from all sides (the much-abused step-child of the State, "that had no friends") will rise to be worthy of the name "University." New life has been infused into it, and it will not disappoint the people if they will properly support and aid it.

Post-graduate course.

The regents promise that "After the present year provision will be made for such graduates and other students properly prepared, as wish to devote themselves to special scientific studies. * * * The development of this 'post-graduate' course will in time give to the Institution the true character of a University, and it being beyond and outside of the ordinary college studies pursued at other colleges, it is expected that many students will be drawn hither to pursue these special studies."

Agricultural department established.

Thus far, the regents say, they "have been disappointed in their efforts to secure a competent and proper person for the professorship of agriculture. * * * This place requires a man of great scientific ability not only, but also of practical knowledge and experience in agriculture. The history of agricultural schools in this country and in Europe shows that they are the most difficult to sustain." In case they are unable to secure a professor by the coming winter, the president "will himself assume the duties of that professorship until a suitable person can be obtained for it." It is also learned from the report, that the experimental farm has been fenced, and that cultivation will commence in the following spring; also, that at the request of the State Horticultural Society, five acres have been set apart for "experiments of fruit culture." In the February following (1868), Prof. W. W. Daniells,15 of the chemical department of Lawrence Scientific School, at Harvard University, was chosen to occupy the chair of agriculture; and thereby that department was at last permanently established.

Military instruction.

The general expectation that the country would soon be in the throes of a civil war led, early in 1861, to the organization of a militia company among the students; and throughout the years of the Rebellion there was more or less informal instruction on "the hill" in military tactics. In their report to the regents, in 1862, the faculty declare that besides enabling most who have left us for the army to start as officers, it has heightened the physical vigor of all who have shared in it, and thus given a sympathetic aid to true mental efforts." We have seen that the Agricultural College act prescribed military instruction at the University as one of the conditions attendant on the receipt of aid therefrom. Nothing was done in the matter by the regents, in 1867, owing to the inability to obtain an instructional officer from the war department. Congress had passed an act presumably providing several agricultural colleges, but the department itself so construed the law that it declined to make such details. The fault was finally remedied, and in 1868 the regents report the arrival (in January) of Col. W. R. Pease, U. S. A., 16 who had been assigned by the war department as professor of engineering and military tactics. "An armory has been established and put in proper condition, and a uniform has been prescribed by the Regents." Thus was the military department, organized, under much the same conditions as prevail to-day.17

On the road to success.

The war had given a strong impetus to the business interests of the country; there had been aroused a sounder patriotism, national and state; and no doubt the greater attention paid by the regents to scientific and practical studies had done much to win the regard of the people. The number of students in 1868 had increased to 394 (124 of them in the preparatory department). At last, prosperity was in sight. In his report for that year, as president of the board of regents, Mr. Salomon, who appears to have been an active and efficient chief, writes with enthusiasm over the improved condition of the University:

Regents' report, 1868.

The report refers with pride to the new department of agriculture; to the arbor-vitæ hedge and the "row of Norway spruce and 1600 evergreens," just planted; also to experiments under way in planting corn and potatoes, and to certain experiments in "the land given to the State Horticultural Society" for this purpose; "a large and substantial barn has been built, and a good farm-house for the superintendent."18 The preparatory department, we are told, "will continue to be necessary * * * so long as the high schools of the State are not sufficiently developed to furnish the necessary preparation for students at the University. * * * The sole object of this department is to prepare students for the regular classes of the University."19 The income for the University has been, this year, $27,658.38, about a thousand dollars more than the disbursements; but "Considering the large and increasing demands now made upon the institution, its income is still far below that of many similar institutions in other states." The report concludes with this strong appeal to the legislature for a new building, the first of a series of like appeals which have from time to time in our day been rendered necessary by the continued growth of the University:

The principal and pressing need of the University is still felt to be (more pressingly even than last year because of the increase of students) an increase of room and of accommodations for students. The University must have another building. It is impossible to put up such a building from its own resources, and it has, therefore, to rely upon the generosity of the state to furnish the means. Without another building the University cannot expand as it surely will with enlarged accommodations. The President of the University, in his last report to the regents, makes the statement: "We have no proper laboratory, no telescope, no observatory, no room for public meetings, no building suitable for the Female College." From their resources the Regents may supply some of these and other pressing wants in time, but they cannot erect a new building. For that they can only appeal to the state.

Law school established.

We have seen (p. 66) that in January, 1857, the regents made a futile attempt to establish a law school, with Judges Edward G. Ryan and Timothy O. Howe as lecturers. Nothing further was done in this direction until 1868, when the department was formally organized, with Jairus H. Carpenter as dean20 and William F. Vilas as professor; while Justices Luther S. Dixon, Orsamus Cole, and Byron Paine "have kindly consented to accept professorships in this department and to lecture therein gratuitously when their other duties will permit. The regents felicitate themselves, in their report, upon the establishment of what "will probably soon present one of the most attractive and successful branches of the University."

Regents' report, 1869.

In the regents' report for the year ending September 30, 1869, written by President C. S. Hamilton, the governor is informed that "Col. Pease having been relieved from duty here, regents have as yet been unable to secure a successor. But all students in the University who desire instruction in military tactics have been well provided for by the employment of Mr. D. B. Frankenburger21 as Drill Master." The law department graduated its first class--twelve. "I do not think," writes Mr. Hamilton, "that in any College of the land there can be found a more devoted body of teachers. Their labors, from the President down, have been incessant, and far beyond the measure of labor ordinarily allotted to instructors in other institutions. But I now beg your attention to this fact, to wit: That with the present buildings and accommodations, the University has reached the verge of its usefulness." He calls for: (1) a female college building, to cost $50,000, for the South Dormitory is needed for the young men; "this want of room * * * is keeping away from us many who would be glad to come, and the result must continue to injure us until we can provide for them." (2) A public hall costing $15,000, "for the use of the College Societies, for declamation and for chapel exercises there is not a room on the grounds, large enough to accommodate all of the 245 young men then in the University." (3) An observatory to cost $25,000; "in all the State there is not a good telescope"--a condition of affairs which lasted until the opening of Washburn Observatory in 1878. President Hamilton reviews at some length, and without mincing matters, the story of the State's early ill-treatment of the University. He points out that in the two years which have elapsed since the act of 1867, the State has paid to the University the sum of $14,607.52 "as interest on the money taken ten years ago for erecting the buildings. * * * The difference between this sum and the amount paid to the State for clerk hire is $2,697.69, and is the total amount that the State has ever given to the University. It is almost a matter of wonder that, under this illiberality on the part of the State towards its chief educational institution, we have even a creditable university in existence; and if to-day we have such an institution, what may it not become in a few years under such fostering care as other states show to their universities? * * * The Regents are encouraged to believe that the State will not refuse the just demands of the University, and it is in that hope that this report is respectfully submitted."

Ladies' Hall built.

To the appeal thus strongly made, the legislature promptly and generously responded. By chapter 54, general laws of 1870 (approved March 12), fifty thousand dollars was voted to the regents for the construction of Ladies' Hall, the first actual donation made by the State to the University. The building actually cost but $46,570.36, leaving a balance of $3,429.64 to be expended for furniture, and was opened for use in 1871.

Dr. Chadbourne's resignation.

At the close of the college year of 1869-70, President Chadbourne, actuated by ill health and private interests, resigned his position, to the deep regret of the regents, who in their report for 1870 express their "conviction that his departure is a great loss to the educational interests of the State. They have heretofore often publicly expressed their sense of the high value of his services, and they take pleasure in saying that the fruits of his labors have identified him with the University, and that he will long be held in grateful remembrance." There is no doubt that he had contributed largely to the development of the institution during his three years of service; and the parting words of the regents are to be taken as sincerely expressing the sentiments of faculty, students, and citizens.

1 The chancellor had been ex officio a member of the board, but by this law the president was omitted therefrom.

2 This was in itself a considerable gain. Heretofore the State had charged up to the regents $1,000 per year for clerical service in connection with the University fund, or about ten per cent of the income. The board had frequently, in their annual reports, protested against this charge as uncalled for, but hitherto without effect. By making these two State officials ex officio officers of the board, there could no longer be any charge for services in this connection.

3 In the regents' report for 1866, the tract is thus particularly described: "A piece of land embracing that part of section 14, in township seven, north of range nine east, which lies west of the university grounds, and that part of section 2 in the same township and range which lies between the Sauk road [University avenue] on the south and the tract in section 14 adjoining on the north, also five town lots adjoining the university grounds on the southwest corner, comprising in all about 195 acres and including Prof. Read's and Mrs. Hobbie's stone and brick dwellings, at an aggregate cost of $27,054. Application has been made to the proper authorities for the vacation of the streets intersecting the town lots purchased, which will undoubtedly be granted."

In the MS. report of the chairman of the executive committee of the board, made January 10, 1867, which relates to the purchase of several tracts of lands or lots, appears the following memorandum: "Hobbie Lot 4, Block 3, Brooks' Addition, is verbally contracted for, price agreed $1800. Not yet conveyed or paid for." This brick house stood at the corner of University avenue and Mary street, being let by the University as a tenement. It was demolished in 1805, because unsanitary, and a part of the lot used as a tennis court for students. In the plat of the Guild Addition, Mary street, which (excepting the triangular Hobbie lot) formed the western limit of the old campus, was continued to Lake Mendota. Running westward from Mary was another street paralleling West State street on the north. Most of the sixty owners who were bought out by the University (chiefly through the instrumentality of Regent N. B. Van Slyke, chairman of the executive committee), were upon the lots lying between West State and the street to the north. North of the last-named street, the lots stretched up over the hill, to Lake Mendota. It was upon one of these elongated lots, at the summit of the hill, that Professor Read had built his brick dwelling. After the purchase, the University utilized this building for the residence of the president; but upon the opening of Washburn Observatory, a town house for the president was purchased by the regents, and the director of the observatory has since occupied the Read house.

4 The first board of regents appointed by the governor under the new law, were: John G. McMynn, Racine; F. O. Thorp, West Bend; R. B. Sanderson, Poynette; J. C. Cover, Lancaster; M. B. Axtell, Pepin; J. B. Parkinson, Fayette; Augustus L. Smith, Appleton; B. R. Hinckley, Oconomowoc; Samuel Fallows, Milwaukee; Jacob S. Bugh, Berlin; Edward Salomon, Milwaukee; Angus Cameron, La Crosse; C. S. Hamilton, Fond du Lac; J. Hadley, Milwaukee; N. B. Van Slyke, Madison, Thomas S. Allen was ex officio secretary, and William F. Smith ex officio treasurer. McMynn and Salomon had previously served on the board; Parkinson was one of the instructional force of the University, and Smith had been. The majority of the members were prominent citizens of the State.

5 Not to be confounded with Prof. Joseph C. Pickard, who during 1859-61 was teacher of modern languages and literature in the University, and during 1865-66 in charge of normal instruction.

6 The heads of the Normal Department, Female College, and Ladies' Hall, respectively, have been as follows: Preceptress of Normal Department--Miss Anna W. Moody, 1863-64; Miss M. S. Melville, 1864-66; Miss Elizabeth Earle, 1867-69. Preceptress of Female College--Miss Clarissa L. Ware, 1869-70. Preceptress of Ladies' Hall--Mrs. Delia E. Carson, 1871-82; Dr. Almah J. Frisby, 1889-95. Principal of Ladies' Hall--Mrs. Delia E. Carson, 1882-86; Mrs. Mary Ekin Whitton, 1886-89; Mrs. Mary C. Bright, 1889-97. Mistress of Ladies' Hall--Miss Abbey Shaw Mayhew, 1897 to date. Dean of Women--Dr. Annie Crosby Emery, 1897 to date.

7 See a full treatment of the matter in Allen and Spencer's "Higher Education in Wisconsin," pp, 37-41; and in Mrs. Helen R. Olin's "Coeducation in the Wisconsin State University," Woman's Progress, vol. iii, No. 4 (September, 1894). From these two accounts, the present has largely been drawn.

In his article in The Badger, 1889, Dr. Butler gives a somewhat different version of the beginnings of coeducation in the University: "When the academic young men went to war, the young women took the places which they had left vacant. The necessity of the University was their opportunity. Thus coeducation was naturally born. It came in almost unawares, as the morning steals upon the night, chasing the darkness. It started into life here sooner and more vigorously than in most other quarters, because student enlistments were more prompt and multitudinous here than in most institutions."

8 He had been governor in 1862-64.

9 Of the 92,160 acres thus far granted by Congress,--exclusive of the Agricultural College grant, which had only recently been offered for sale,-- there had, up to September 30, 1886, been sold 74,178 acres, netting $264,570.13. Out of this productive fund had now been taken (unpaid interest included) $104,339.43 for buildings, leaving but $160,230.70.

10 In the Badger for 1889, Dr. Butler says: "The University knew the State only as an exactor of clerk-hire for keeping its accounts, and of pay for taking care of its work. When war and evil days came, and Professors were no longer allowed homes in the University buildings, and salaries which had been $1,500 shrank to a thousand and fees which did not average $300, even after officers paid tuition-money for being allowed to teach their own children, while all prices doubled, not a dime of aid came front the State.

11 It will be noticed that Professors Daniel Read and J. D. Butler did not continue under the reorganization.

12 President Chadbourne was born in North Berwick, Me., October 21, 1823, graduating from Williams College in 1848. After some experience in high school work, he became a tutor in Williams, in 1851, and then professor of chemistry and botany; in 1858, he went to Bowdoin College to fill a like chair. In 1859-60 he was upon scientific expeditions to Iceland, Greenland, and Scandinavia; and later a professor at Mount Holyoke Seminary, and Berkshire (Mass.) medical college. He had served in the Massachusetts senate in 1865-66, and at the time of his call to the Wisconsin presidency was at the head of the Agricultural College at Amherst, Mass. Upon leaving Wisconsin in 1870, he returned to Massachusetts in ill health; but in 1872, on his recovery, became president of Williams College, a position which he held for many years. He served a term in Congress, and achieved considerable reputation as an orator and lecturer.

13 Prof. William F. Allen was born in Northboro, Mass., September 5, 1830, and graduated from Harvard in 1851. After teaching for a time, he went to Europe in 1854, studying history and Roman antiquities for two years. Again teaching in Massachusetts schools for a few years, he went to South Carolina in 1863, as an agent of the Freedmen's Aid Commission, to teach negroes, remaining two years; and then went to Arkansas as agent oft he Sanitary Commission, staying till the close of the Civil War. Going to Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, in 1865, he left in a year, and went to Perth Amboy, N. J., where he was professor in a military college. While there, he accepted the call to Wisconsin; at first he taught ancient languages and history, after 1870 Latin and history, and after 1886 history alone. He died in Madison, December 8, 1889, after a brief illness, from pneumonia. Professor Allen was the author of History of the Roman People (Ginn, 1890); numerous Latin text-books; hundreds of review articles in The Nation, North American Review, and other leading critical journals; and scores of monographs--all of them of great excellence. He achieved an international reputation, among scholars, especially in the domain of Roman history and antiquities.

14 Professor Haskell was born in Chautauqua county, N.Y., January 20, 1826, graduating from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1851. After some experience as a teacher, he graduated from Union Theological seminary, in 1852, and was a Presbyterian pastor in Boston when called to Wisconsin University. He held his chair here for one year, and went to take a pulpit at Aurora, Ill. from there, he went to Denver in 1873; the following year, he was instrumental in organizing Colorado College, at Colorado Springs.

15 For biographical sketch of Professor Daniells, see sketches of the faculty, post.

16 Born in Utica, N. Y., July 8, 1831, graduating from West Point in 1855. In 1856-57 he was on duty as a lieutenant, at Forts Crawford (Prairie du Chien, Wis.) and Smith (Arkansas), and in 1858-59 in the Utah expedition. In June, 1861, he was commissioned captain, and for a time served as mustering officer in Ohio and New York. He was then in active service until August, 1863, receiving the brevet of major for gallant service at the siege of Suffolk, Virginia. Retiring from active service because of disease, he served through the remainder of the War of Secession as mustering and disbursing officer; and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel of the regular army, and brigadier-general of volunteers. Detailed to duty at the University of Wisconsin in January, 1868, he remained in charge of the military department until March 19, 1869, when he was relieved because of impaired health, and returned to Brooklyn, N. Y.

17 The military instructors have been: Col. W. R. Pease, 1868-69; Col. Walter S. Franklin, 1869-70; Col. Wm. J. L. Nicodemus (in the employ of the University), 1870-79; Capt. Charles King, 1880-82; Lieut. Nathan Chase, 1883-85; Lieut. Luigi Lomia, 1885-88; Lieut. James A. Cole, 1888-91; Lieut. Hugh McGrath, 1891-94; Lieut. Edward Chynoweth, 1894-95; Lieut. John C. W. Brooks, 1890-98; Capt. Charles A. Curtis, 1899 to date.

18 The agricultural department was now possessed of the following faculty: Prof. W. W. Daniells (agriculture and analytical chemistry), Prof. John E. Davies (chemistry and natural history), and Prof. Addison E. Verrill (comparative anatomy and entomology). See biographical sketches of the present faculty, post, for an account of Dr. Davies. Professor Verrill was born at Greenwood, Maine, February 9, 1839, and, like Professor Daniells, was educated at Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard University. He was professor of zoology in Yale when called to Wisconsin in August, 1868, and returned thither on resigning his position here, in June, 1870. He was a zoologist of considerable reputation, and one of the associate editors of (Silliman's) American Journal of Science and Art.

19 This department was abolished in 1880. The high schools of the State steadily increased in number and duality, enabling the University to gradually raise its standard of admission, particularly in 1875. In 1877, the system of accredited high schools was adopted.--Allen and Spencer, pp. 41, 42.

20 The deans of the law faculty have been: Jairus H. Carpenter, 1868-69 Harlow S. Orton, 1869-72; Philip L. Spooner, Sr., 1873-76; J. H. Carpenter again, 1876-83; Ithamar C. Sloan, 1884-89; Edwin E. Bryant, 1889 to date. Charles N. Gregory has been associate dean since 1894.

21 For a sketch of Professor Frankenburger, see biographies of the present faculty, post.