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First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO CLXXI recto

Louis (Ludovicus), the second of that name, after the death of his father Lothair (Lothario), in the Year of Salvation, 856, ruled the empire alone for 21 years. He was anointed king by Pope Sergius. Lothair sent his son Louis into Italy with a mighty army, commanding him to avail himself of the advice of Drogo (Drogonem), bishop of Metz, and other spiritual men of the faith. But as this Louis was still young, proud, and puffed up with an excess of good fortune, he devastated all things wherever he went, with murder, theft and fire. But when he approached Rome, and the Romans came forth to respectfully receive him, he laid aside his Gallic cruelty and became more kind. The pope anointed him king of Italy, and soon afterwards invested him with the imperial crown. In his time the Saracens invaded and ravaged Benevento. And Louis called upon his brother Lothair for assistance against them. And he came to Italy with an army, but becoming ill, died at Placentia. When Charles (Carolus), king in Gaul, heard of the death of Lothair, he coveted Lorraine; and the Emperor Louis divided Lorraine with Charles, his uncle, on condition that Louis receive the palace and court at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aquisgrani) with his share.

Louis II, Roman emperor, eldest son of Emperor Lothair I, was designated king of Italy in 839, and crowned king of Rome by Sergius II on June 15, 844. In 850 he was crowned joint emperor at Rome by Leo IV, and soon after married his cousin Engelberga, daughter of King Louis the German, and undertook the independent government of Italy. When his father died in 855 he became sole emperor. In 857 he allied himself with Louis the German against his brother Lothair, king of Lorraine, and king Charles the Bald; but after he had secured the election of Nicholas I as pope in 858, he became reconciled with his brother. In 863, on the death of his brother Charles, Louis received the kingdom of Provence. In 864 he quarreled with Pope Nicholas I over his brother’s divorce, which the pope had declared invalid; but peace was made.

In 866 he routed the Saracens, but could not follow up his successes for want of a fleet. In 869, with the assistance of his ally, the eastern emperor, Basil I, he captured Bari, headquarters of the Saracens. He had withdrawn into Benevento to prepare for a further campaign when he was imprisoned by the prince of Benevento. He was, however, released a month later. Returning to Rome he was crowned the second time in 872 by Pope Adrian II. After further successes against the Saracens, who were driven from Capua, he returned to the north of Italy. He died somewhere in the province of Brescia, on August 12, 875, having named as his successor in Italy his cousin Carloman, son of Louis the German.

In the time of Emperor Louis (Ludovici), blood rained from the heavens for three days and nights at Brescia, as the historians say.[Brescia, also known as Brixia (Brixianus in Latin), was a town in Gallia Cisalpina (‘Cisalpine Gaul’).]

In this year the river Tiber (Tyberis) inundated the city of Rome to such an extent that it became necessary to travel from one highway to another by boat. A number of other places were so flooded that one might believe the Deluge at hand. In this flood many houses were upset, many trees uprooted, and hedges washed out. This occurred twice in a single year at Rome. Pope Nicholas (Nicolaus) spared no manner of benevolence toward his people in alleviating the losses thus sustained.

Bulgaria, together with its king, was at this time converted to the Christian faith through the letters and admonitions of Pope Nicholas (Nicolai); likewise Suerophilus, king of Dalmatia, together with his subject people, a nation of the Slavs, who had their origin in German Bohemia. And now the pope sent there, (as above stated) a number of bishops and priests, who, after the expulsion of Photius the heretic, were to firmly establish the people in the faith; for this heretic kept all the Bulgarians in error. However, their king was a man of such perfection and piety that he installed his eldest son in the sovereignty, himself assuming a monastic status. But when his son allowed himself to be misled into idolatry, the king through devotion to the faith, deposed him and, caused him to be imprisoned and blinded, while he himself resumed his reign. Afterwards he gave over the sovereignty to his youngest son, and again assumed the monastic habit. Soon after his death the Bulgarian people were so deceived by the priests of Constantinople that they drove out the Latin priests, and welcomed back the Greek. This aroused much dissension between the Latins and Greeks. At this time a division took place in the kingdom of Dalmatia; for Dalmatia, the first region of Greece, was bounded on the east by Macedonia, on the west by Istria (Hyistriam), on the south by the Adriatic Sea, and on the north by Pannonia. In this new partition the plains of Dalmatia to Istria became White Croatia; and from these same plains to Diarchium, Red Croatia; and the region from the river Drinus to the mountains, and over the same river to Macedonia, was called Rassia. And beyond the river it was called Bosnia; and Rassia and Bosnia are two regions of the Croatian kingdom.

At this time the Saracens attacked and conquered the entire island of Crete; and sailing to Italy, captured many cities which they burned after the inhabitants had fled.

At this time Pope Nicholas (Nicolaus) made peace between Louis (Ludovicum) and Andalisius, the antagonistic duke of Benevento, whom Louis had besieged in the city of Benevento until compensated for losses sustained; in consequence of which he lifted the siege.

There are some who write that Saint Cyril at this time brought to Rome from Cherson the remains of Saint Clement, and interred them at a church called Saint Clement’s. Not long afterwards Cyril died and was buried at the same place.

Arioldus, king of the people of Denmark, was (as they say) at this time baptized at Mainz (Magnuncie) with his wife and children. The emperor gave him Friesland (Frisiam).