Aligned 
First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO LXXXVII verso

This Antiochus, being encouraged, pursued Triphon and caused him to flee. Triphon was at first on Alexander's side; and as he saw that the entire army was murmuring against Demetrius, he went to Arabia to bring back Antiochus. After that Triphon was determined to slay Antiochus, and to wear the crown himself; but he feared Jonathan, the formidable protector of Antiochus. Afterwards, Antiochus came to the soil of his fathers, and the whole army came to him, and only a few of the people remained with Triphon. Later he besieged and shut up Triphon. Finally Triphon was slain in Parthia.[Diodotus Triphon was a usurper of the throne of Syria during the reign of Demetrius II Nicator. After the death of Alexander Balas in 146 BCE, Triphon first set up Antiochus, the infant son of Balas, as a pretender against Demetrius; but in 142 he murdered Antiochus and reigned as king himself. Triphon was defeated and put to death by Antiochus Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius, in 139, after a reign of three years.]

Antiochus Spondius was the son of Antiochus Pius who fled from the kingdom to Parthia.

Mithridates Pharnaces, son of the king of the Parthians, was a king of Pontus, born and reared at Sinope. While still a child his parents died. But as he grew up he subjugated the neighboring people and the Scythians. With the Romans he engaged in a very cruel war lasting forty years. He captured Bithynia and Cappadocia, and invaded Asia, Phrygia, Paphlagonia and Macedonia. Fighting many famous battles, he did not attack the Romans in a single way.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] They say that he knew twenty-two languages (for he ruled over that number of nations), so that in whatever language someone brought a case before him, he rendered judgment in that same language.


Schedel here employs Quintilian (Institutio Oratoria 11.2.50), but his cut and paste compilation technique conflates Mithridates with Crassus(!):

Ceterum quantum natura studioque valeat memoria vel Themistocles testis, quem unum intra annum optime locutum esse Persice constat, vel Mithridates, cui duas et viginti linguas, quot nationibus imperabat, traditur notas fuisse, vel Crassus ille dives, qui cum Asiae praeesset quinque Graeci sermonis differentias sic tenuit ut qua quisque apud eum lingua postulasset eadem ius sibi redditum ferret….
For the rest there are many historical examples of the power to which memory may be developed by natural aptitude and application. Themistocles is said to have spoken excellently in Persian after a year's study; Mithridates is recorded to have known twenty-two languages, that being the number of the different nations included in his empire; Crassus, surnamed the Rich, when commanding in Asia had such a complete mastery of five different Greek dialects, that he would give judgement in the dialect employed by the plaintiff in putting forward his suit….

H. E. Butler, Quintilian; Loeb Classical Library, 1922; pp. 241, 243

He was also versed in Greek literature, and he even studied music. He was a man of great soberness and industry. Cn. Pompeius finally defeated him in a night battle, destroyed his fort, and killed forty thousand of his men. Pharnaces, his son, after the slaying of the other sons, led an army against his father. And after Mithridates from a high wall pleaded at length, but in vain, with his son, he (Mithridates) came down to his wives, concubines and daughters, and administered to them, and finally to himself, the poison. But as he had beforehand provided himself with antidotes, he was not able to be affected by the poison; he asked a certain Gaul, Bituitus (Vitigis), who was a soldier of his, (to kill him), and offered him his neck;


The probable source of this section on Mithridates' death seems to be Orosius, Historiae Contra Paganos (‘Histories Against the Pagans') 6.5.6:

quod cum ipse nouissimus hausisset nec tamen propter remedia, quibus uitalia sua aduersus noxios sucos saepe obstruxerat, ueneno confici posset frustraque spatiaretur, siquo tandem modo infusa pestis per uenas uegetatione corporis acta discurreret, Gallum quendam militem iam fracto muro discurrentem inuitauit eique iugulum praebuit.

But the name of the Gallic soldier, Bituitus (the only sense that can be derived from the vitigis of the Chronicle), seems to come from Appian,Roman History, 12.111:

Seeing a certain Bituitus there, an officer of the Gauls, he said to him, "I have profited much from your right arm against my enemies. I shall profit from it most of all if you will kill me, and save from the danger of being led in a Roman triumph one who has been an autocrat so many years, and the ruler of so great a kingdom, but who is now unable to die by poison because, like a fool, he has fortified himself against the poison of others. Although I have kept watch and ward against all the poisons that one takes with his food, I have not provided against that domestic poison, always the most dangerous to kings, the treachery of army, children, and friends." Bituitus, thus appealed to, rendered the king the service that he desired.

Horace White, Appian; Loeb Classical Library, 1913

but he passed away at Bosphorus. He reigned 40 years, and with the consent of Pompey was placed in the royal sepulcher at Sinope.[Mithridates VI, King of Pontus (120-63 BCE), surnamed Eupator, also Dionysus, but more commonly called ‘the Great,' was the son and successor of Mithridates V, King of Pontus, surnamed Euergetes, who was the son of Pharnaces I. He was eleven years of age upon his accession. We are told that immediately upon ascending to the throne, he was assailed by the designs of his guardians, but that he succeeded in eluding all their machinations, partly by displaying a courage in warlike exercises beyond his years, partly by the use of antidotes against poison, to which he began thus early to accustom himself. He attained to manhood, possessed of natural vigor of body and intellect. As a boy he had been brought up at Sinope, where he probably received his Greek education; and so powerful was his memory, that he is said to have learned not less than 22 languages, and to have been able in the days of the greatest power to transact business with the deputies of every tribe subject to his rule in their own particular dialect. He is said to have murdered his mother, to whom a share in the royal authority had been left by Mithridates Euergetes; and this was followed by the assassination of his brother. In the early part of his career he subdued the barbarian tribes between the Euxine and the confines of Armenia, including the whole of Colchis and the province called Lesser Armenia, and even extended his conquests beyond the Caucasus. He incorporated the kingdom of Bosphorus into his dominions, and now considered himself in possession of such great power, that he felt equal to a contest with Rome itself. Up to this point he had submitted to the mandates of Rome. Even after expelling Ariobarzanes from Cappadocia, and Nicomedes from Bithynia in 90, he offered no resistance to the Romans when they restored these monarchs to their kingdoms. But when Nicomedes, urged by the Roman legates, invaded the territories of Mithridates, the latter prepared for immediate hostilities. His success was rapid and striking. In 88, he drove Ariobarzanes out of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes out of Bithynia, defeated the Roman generals who had supported the latter, made himself master of Phrygia and Galatia, and at least of the Roman province of Asia. During the winter he issued the sanguinary order to all the cities of Asia to be put to death, on the same day, all the Romans and Italians who were to be found within their walls. These commands were obeyed by almost all the cities, and 80,000 are said to have perished in those massacres, so hateful had the Romans made themselves. In the meantime Sulla received the command to make war against Mithridates, who at once sent an army under his general Archelaus into Greece to meet Sulla. But Archelaus was twice defeated by Sulla, while about the same time the king himself was defeated in Asia by Fimbria. He sued for peace, which was granted upon condition that Mithridates abandon all his conquests in Asia, pay 2,000 talents and give up 70 ships. So ended the first Mithridatic War. A second war followed, but peace was again restored with Sulla, but not confirmed by the Roman senate. The death of the king of Bithynia brought on complications, for by his will that king gave his kingdom to the Roman people, and so it was declared a Roman province. But Mithridates espoused the cause of the king's son, which he prepared to support by his arms. He took the field with 120,000 footmen and 16,000 horses and a vast number of barbarian auxiliaries. And so commenced the third Mithridatic war. The Roman consuls Lucullus and Cotta were unable to oppose his first interruption. He traversed Bithynia without resistance, and when Cotta gave him battle, the consul was totally defeated. Mithridates now laid siege to Cyzicus, but Lucullus came to its relief and caused Mithridates to abandon the enterprise and force him to retreat with great loss. The king now took refuge in Pontus. There he was followed by Lucullus and again defeated. Whereupon the king took refuge with his son-in-law, Tigranes, king of Armenia, who became his ally. But Lucullus invaded Armenia and defeated the allied forces, then turned aside into Mesopotamia and laid siege to Nisibis. But now the tide turned, for the soldiers of Lucullus mutinied and demanded to be led home. Lucullus was obliged to give up the siege and returned to Asia Minor. Mithridates took advantage of this situation, raised an army and invaded the Pontus, and defeated Fabius and Triarius, to whom the defense of Pontus had been committed. Before the close of the year 67 Mithridates had regained possession of all his hereditary dominions. In the following year the conduct of the war was entrusted to Pompey, and the king was obliged to retreat before the Romans. With his small army he plunged into the heart of Colchis, and from there made his way to the Palus Maeotis and the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Unable to obtain peace from Pompey, he conceived the daring project of marching round the north and west coasts of the Euxine, through the wild tribes of the Sarmatians and Getae, and having gathered around his standard all these barbarian nations, to penetrate Italy itself. But his followers became disaffected. His son, Pharnaces, at length openly rebelled against him, and was joined by the whole army, who unanimously proclaimed him king. Mithridates took refuge in a strong tower, seeing that no choice remained to him but death or captivity. He took poison, but his constitution had been so long inured to antidotes that it did not take effect, and he was compelled to call in the assistance of one of the Gallic mercenaries to dispatch him with his sword. He died in 63. By the orders of Pompey his body was interred with regal honors in the sepulcher of his forefathers at Sinope.]

This Demetrius was a brother of the aforesaid Antiochus, and was slain by Alexander the king of the Jews.

Philip, the last king of Syria and Asia, began to reign in the fourth (year?) of the kingdom of Alexander, and he reigned two years. During his reign Antiochus his uncle fled to the Parthians, and gave himself up to Pompey, after which Philip was immediately taken prisoner by Gabinus, the Roman consul, and his kingdom was made subject to the Romans. And the kingdom of Syria came to an end after having endured for two hundred and twenty years under 17 kings.

After the last king of Syria, Syria too was made tributary to the Romans. Pompey came to Jerusalem and took the city. He opened the Temple and went as far as the Holy of Holies. He endowed Hyrcanus with the high priesthood and took Aristobulus, his brother, away. At this time the Jews completely gave up their freedom and became subject to the Romans. And Pompey placed in the hands of Scaurus, the pro-consul, the management and care of the land, and left two legions with him.[M. Scaurus, eldest son of Aemilius Scaurus, and stepson of the dictator Sulla, whom his mother married after the death of his father, served in the third Mithridaics War under Pompey as quaestor. The latter sent him to Damascus with an army, and from there he marched into Judea to settle the disputes between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Pompey left him in the command of Syria with two legions. During the government of Syria he made a predatory incursion into Arabia Petraea, but withdrew with the payment of 300 talents by Aretas, the king of the country. He was made curule in 58, when he celebrated the games with extraordinary splendor. The temporary theatre which he built for the purpose, accommodated 80,000 spectators. In 56, he was praetor, and in the following year governed the province of Sardinia, which he plundered without mercy. He married Mucia, former wife of Pompey, and by her had one son of the same name.]

Gabinus was sent to Syria to succeed Scaurus. He assigned the care of the Temple to Hyrcanus, and divided the Jewish people into five assemblies, in order to break up the pride of Judea.[Gabinus dissipated his fortune in youth by his profligate mode of life. He was tribune of the plebs in 66 BCE, when he proposed and carried a law conferring on Pompey command of the war against the pirates. He was praetor in 61 and consul in 58 with L. Piso. Both consuls supported Clodius in his measures against Cicero, resulting in the latter's banishment. In 57 he went to Syria as proconsul. His first attention was directed to the affairs of Judea. He restored Hyrcanus to the high priesthood, of which he had been dispossessed by Alexander, the son of Aristobulus. He next marched into Egypt and restored Ptolemy Auletes to the throne. The senate and Sibylline books had forbidden this; and he accordingly set at naught both senate and Sibyl. His government of the province was otherwise venal and oppressive, and when he returned to Rome in 54, he was accused of high treason for his restoration of Ptolemy. Contrary to his own wishes, Cicero defended him at the solicitation of Ptolemy; but he was condemned and exiled. In 49, Caesar recalled him, sending him with newly levied troops into Illyricum to reinforce Q. Cornificius, and there he died sometime near the end of 48.]

Crassus, the Roman consul and colleague of Pompey, was by the Romans appointed proconsul of Syria upon the death of the aforesaid Gabinus, principally to quell the Parthians who bordered on Syria, and who were antagonistic to that country. He was a most miserly man of insatiable greed. When he heard of the riches of the Temple at Jerusalem, which Pompey had left unmolested, he came to Jerusalem, and went through the Temple and carried away from it treasures valued at two thousand talents. And he went through Mesopotamia in Parthia, and through the river Euphrates. When he reached the city of Caram the Parthians soon came to meet him and defeated the Romans with their arrows; and they rapidly pursued Crassus with their cavalry, and, once he had been surrounded, they shamefully killed him. Some write that he died of gold poured into his mouth.[M. Crassus, surnamed Dives (‘Wealthy'), was a triumvir. His life was spared by Cinna, after the death of his father; but fearing Cinna, he escaped to Spain, where he concealed himself for 8 months. On the death of Cinna in 84 BCE, he collected some forces and crossed into Africa, from which he passed into Italy in 83 and joined Sulla, on whose side he fought against the Marian party. On the defeat of the latter he was rewarded by donations of confiscated property, and thus greatly increased his patrimony. His ruling passion was money, and he devoted all his energies to its accumulation. He was a keen speculator. He bought multitudes of slaves, and to increase their value had them instructed in the lucrative arts. He worked silver mines, cultivated farms, and built houses, which he let at high rents. In 71 he was appointed praetor to carry on the war against Spartacus and the gladiators. He defeated them and was honored with an ovation. In 70 he was consul with Pompey. He entertained the people with a banquet of 10,000 tables, and distributed enough wheat to supply the family of every citizen for 3 months. He was jealous of Pompey, but the two were reconciled by Caesar, and thus the triumvirate was formed. In 55 Crassus was again consul with Pompey, and received the province of Syria, where he hoped both to increase his wealth and acquire military glory by attacking the Parthians. He set out for his province. After crossing the Euphrates in 54, he did not follow up the attack on Parthia, but was misled by a crafty Arab chieftain to march into the plains of Mesopotamia, where he was attacked by the Parthians and defeated with great slaughter. The mutinous threats of his troops compelled him to accept a perfidious invitation from the Parthian general, who offered a pacific interview, at which Crassus was slain either by the enemy or by a friend who desired to save him from the disgrace of becoming a prisoner. His head was cut off and sent to the Parthian king, Orodes, who caused melted gold to be poured into the mouth of his fallen enemy, saying "Sate yourself now with that metal which you were so greedy for in life." ]

This Cassius was a successor of Crassus as proconsul of Syria. He raised an army against Octavian. He took nine hundred talents of silver from the Jews. He was finally slain at Philippi.[C. Cassius Longinus was one of the conspirators against Caesar. He was quaestor to Crassus in the Parthian War (54 BCE), and saved the credit of the Roman arms after the commander's disastrous defeat and death, and as tribune of the people attached himself to Pompey in the year 49. After Pharsalia he was taken prisoner and pardoned by Caesar. In 44 as praetor he attached himself to the aristocrats who resented Caesar's supremacy, and won over M. Brutus; and in the same year participated in the assassination of Caesar. But popular feeling blazed out, and Mark Antony seized his opportunity. Cassius fled to the east, united his forces with those of Brutus, and being routed at Philippi, compelled his freedmen to slay him.]