Aligned 
First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO LXXXII verso

Four hundred eighty years after the building of the city of Rome blood was seen to come from the earth, and milk from the sky in the form of rain. A serious pestilence lasting for two years occurred at Rome, according to the Sibylline books, in consequence of divine wrath. One does not ask how many died, but how many survived.

A giant colossus, an image of the sun, executed by Chares of Lindus (Clare Lydo), the sculptor, and erected on the island of Rhodes, fell down. It was (as Pliny states) a wondrous statue 70 cubits high, and resembled a tower. Among the Seven Wonders of the World it was said to be the greatest.[See Rhodes, Folio XXVI verso and lengthy note. ]

Straton (Strato) of Lampsacus, a natural philosopher, and son of Arcesilaus, was a very eloquent man. He diligently applied himself, above all others, in the natural science that we call physics; and therefore, from this same art, he was called a physicus. He was a tutor of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who made him a gift of eighty talents. He wrote On the Kingdom, On Justice, and On the Gods.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] They say that he was so thin that he died without its being perceived.[Straton (c. 335-c. 269 BCE), son of Arcesilaus, of Lampsacus, was the tutor of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He succeeded Theophrastus as head of Aristotle's Lyceum in 288 BCE, and, after presiding over it for eighteen years, was succeeded by Lycon. He devoted himself especially to the study of natural science, for which reason he obtained the appellation Physicus. Cicero, while speaking highly of his talents, blames him for neglecting the most important part of philosophy, that which has regard to virtue and morals, and giving himself up to the investigation of nature. Straton appears to have held a pantheistic system, the specific character of which cannot be determined. He seems to have denied the existence of any god out of the material universe, and to have held that every particle of matter has a plastic and seminal power, but without sensation or intelligence; and that life, sensation, and intellect, are but forms, accidents, and affectations of matter. Some modern writers have regarded Straton as a forerunner of Spinoza, while others see in his system an anticipation of the hypothesis of monads.] At this time Stilpo (Silphon), the natural philosopher, lost all his possessions and fled naked. And he said, I carry all my possessions with me; for he carried them in his heart.

Stilpo (Silphon; c. 380-c. 300 BCE) was a Greek philosopher from Megara who lived. He was thus a contemporary of Theophrastus and Crates of Thebes (who follows him in the Chronicle). According to one account he engaged in dialectic encounters with Diodorus Cronus at the court of Ptolemy Soter; while according to another he did not comply with the invitation of the king to visit Alexandria. He acquired a great reputation; and so high was he held in esteem that Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, spared his house at the capture of Megara. He is said to have surpassed his contemporaries in inventive power and dialectic art, and to have inspired almost all Greece with a devotion to the Megarian philosophy. He seems to have made the idea of virtue his special consideration. He maintained that the wise man ought not only to overcome every evil, but not even to be affected by any.

His biography, unusually, is continued two paragraphs below in greater detail.

Crates, the Athenian academic natural philosopher, son of Antigenis, was a disciple of Polemon (Palemonus), and his successor in the school. They were so devoted to each other that they always attained to the same art and learning. After death they were placed in the same grave in recognition of their mutual devotion. And Antagorus praised them with this thought in verse: Stranger who passes by, relate that in this mound are buried Crates and Polemon, men celebrated for their kindred minds; out of their divine mouth sacred wisdom flowed, and the elegance of their life was joined to wisdom.

Crates of Athens, was a pupil of Polemo, and his successor in the chair of the Academy about 270 BCE. He was the teacher of Arcesilaus, Theodorus, and Bion Borsythenites.


The German edition of the Chronicle replaces the actual epigram of Antagoras with the following:

Antagorus placed an inscription on the grave, stating how they had lived together in unity of disposition, virtue and wisdom.

Panaetius (Panetius), the natural philosopher, was famous in the time of Scipio at Rome, and was his tutor. He was a philosopher of the Stoic school, and a man whom Cicero imitated in his book On Duties.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] The following thought is his: Those people who live their life in the midst of affairs, and who wish to be helpful to themselves and to others, and who wish to guard against unexpected, constant, and almost daily dangers, must have a mind that is always ready and alert.

Panaetius (c. 185-c.110 BCE), a native of Rhodes, and a celebrated Stoic philosopher, studied first at Pergamum under the grammarian Crates, and subsequently at Athens under the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon, and his disciple, Antipater of Tarsus. He afterward went to Rome where he became an intimate friend of Laelius and of Scipio Africanus the younger. In 144 he accompanied Scipio on the embassy which he undertook to the kings of Egypt and Asia in alliance with Rome. Panaetius succeeded Antipater as head of the Stoic school, and died at Athens sometime before the year 111. His principal work was his treatise on the theory of moral obligation, in three books, from which Cicero took the greater part of his De Officiis. Panaetius had softened down the harsh severity of the older stoics and, without giving up their fundamental definitions, had modified them so as to make them applicable to the conduct of life, and had clothed them in the garb of eloquence.


The citation is taken from Aulus Gellius' Noctes Atticae (‘Attic Nights') 13.28.1-4:

Legebatur Panaetii philosophi liber de officiis secundus ex tribus illis inclitis libris, quos M. Tullius magno cum studio maximoque opere aemulatus est. 2 Ibi scriptum est cum multa alia ad bonam frugem ducentia, tum vel maxime, quod esse haerereque in animo debet. 3 Id autem est ad hanc ferme sententiam: "Vita" inquit "hominum, qui aetatem in medio rerum agunt ac sibi suisque esse usui volunt, negotia periculaque ex inproviso adsidua et prope cotidiana fert. Ad ea cavenda atque declinanda perinde esse oportet animo prompto semper atque intento, ut sunt athletarum, qui pancratiastae vocantur. 4 Nam sicut illi ad certandum vocati proiectis alte brachiis consistunt caputque et os suum manibus oppositis quasi vallo praemuniunt membraque eorum omnia, priusquam pugna mota est, aut ad vitandos ictus cauta sunt aut ad faciendos parata: ita animus atque mens viri prudentis adversus vim et petulantias iniuriarum omni in loco atque in tempore prospiciens debet esse, erecta, ardua, saepta solide, expedita, numquam conivens, nusquam aciem suam flectens, consilia cogitationesque contra fortunae verbera contraque insidias iniquorum quasi brachia et manus protendens, ne qua in re adversa et repentina incursio inparatis inprotectisque nobis oboriatur."
1 The second book of the philosopher Panaetius' On Duties was being read to us, being one of those three celebrated books which Marcus Tullius emulated with great care and very great labour. 2 In it there was written, in addition to many other incentives to virtue, one especially which ought to be kept fixed in the mind. 3 And it is to this general purport: "The life of men," he says, "who pass their time in the midst of affairs, and who wish to be helpful to themselves and to others, is exposed to constant and almost daily troubles and sudden dangers. To guard against and avoid these one needs a mind that is always ready and alert, such as the athletes have who are called ‘pancratists.' 4 For just as they, when called to the contest, stand with their arms raised and stretched out, and protect their head and face by opposing their hands as a rampart; and as all their limbs, before the battle has begun, are ready to avoid or to deal blows—so the spirit and mind of the wise man, on the watch everywhere and at all times against violence and wanton injuries, ought to be alert, ready, strongly protected, prepared in time of trouble, never flagging in attention, never relaxing its watchfulness, opposing judgment and forethought like arms and hands to the strokes of fortune and the snares of the wicked, lest in any way a hostile and sudden onslaught be made upon us when we are unprepared and unprotected.

J. C. Rolfe, The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius, Vol. II; Loeb Classical Library, 1927; pp. 505, 507

Stilpo (Silphon), the Megarian philosopher, flourished at this time. They say that in his pursuits and wisdom he far excelled all others to such a degree, and that he lacked so little, that it was said that everything pleasing attached itself to that man when he crossed into Megara. Cicero says in his book On Fate that he was a sharp-witted man, and in his time extremely well liked. When his country was captured, he lost all his possessions and fled naked. When asked if he had lost everything he answered: I carry all my possessions with me. And these he said he carried in his heart, and not on his shoulders.

Posidonius (Possidonius), the stoic philosopher, a disciple of Panaetius (Panecius), was famous in the time of Scipio. He was, as Augustine says, a great astrologer.[Posidonius (c. 135-51 BCE) was a distinguished philosopher, and a native of Apamea, in Syria. He studied at Athens under Panaetius, after whose death Posidonius set out on his travels. He finally fixed his abode at Rhodes, where he became the president of the Stoic school. He also had a part in the political affairs of Rhodes and was sent as an ambassador to Rome in 86. Cicero, when he visited Rhodes, received instructions from Posidonius. Pompey also admired and visited him twice. In 51, he moved to Rome, and appears to have died soon after, at the age of 84. He was a man of extensive and varied acquirements in all departments of human knowledge. Cicero thought so highly of his powers that he requested him to write a history of his consulship. As a physical investigator he was greatly superior to the Stoics, generally attaching himself in this respect to Aristotle. His geographical and historical knowledge were very extensive. He cultivated astronomy with considerable diligence. He also constructed a planetary machine, or revolving sphere, to exhibit the daily motions of the sun, moon, and the planets. We have only fragments of his writings.]

Erasistratus, an Athenian physician, according to Eusebius, who flourished at this time. He was of the family of Aristotle, and an excellent physician. For curing Antiochus the king of a very serious disease, he was rewarded by Ptolemy, the same king's son, with one hundred talents. This is testified to by Pliny in the twenty-ninth book of his Natural History.[Erasistratus, a celebrated physician and anatomist, was born at Iulus in the island of Ceos. He was a pupil of Chrysippus of Cnidos, Metrodorus, and apparently Theophrastus. He flourished from about 300 to 260 BCE. He lived for some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator, king of Syria, where he acquired a great reputation by discovering that the illness of Antiochus, the king's eldest son, was owing to his love for his mother-in-law, the young and beautiful daughter of Demetrius Policertes, whom Seleucus had lately married. Erasistratus afterward lived at Alexandria, which was then coming forward as a celebrated medical school. He gave up practice in his old age that he might pursue his anatomical studies without interruption. He is aid to have dissected criminals alive. He had numerous pupils and followers and a medical school bearing his name continued to exist at Smyrna in Ionia about the beginning of the Christian era.]

Lycon (Licon) of Troas, a philosopher, was considered to be a famous man, eloquent and especially good at the bringing up and education of children. He said that with children, as with horses, the spurs must be applied to their indiscretions and love of praise. During his life he was a man of pure conduct and unbelievable cleanliness and of good appearance in the matter of dress. As he was a man of physical strength, he also exercised himself in ball play. He was head of the school 44 years. He finally died of podagra in the 74th year of his life.[Lycon of Troas (c. 299-c. 225 BCE), was a distinguished Peripatetic philosopher, and the disciple of Straton, whom he succeeded as head of the school in 272 BCE. He wrote several works, one on the boundaries of good and evil (known by its Latin title as ). Only fragments survive (helpfully collected together and translated in: Fortenbaugh, W., White, S., . Transaction Publishers. (2004). ] Timon Appolloniates, the philosopher, also flourished at this time. In his youth he immersed himself in many disgusting activities. Afterwards, having become a man (although poor), having repudiated his vices, he moved to Calchedon. There he taught the art of philosophy and rhetoric, and he exercised. He wrote, moreover, various poems, tragedies, comedies, and satires.

Timon (c. 320-c. 230 BC), the son of Timarchus of Phlius, a philosopher of the Sceptic sect, flourished in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus about 279 BCE and onwards. He first studied philosophy at Megara, under Stilpo, and then returned home and married. He died at the age of 90. He appears to have been endowed with a powerful and active mind and with that quick perception of the follies of men which betrays its possessor into a spirit of universal distrust, so as to make him a sceptic in philosophy and a satirist in everything. He wrote numerous works both in prose and poetry.

The last sentence of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.