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First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO LXXV verso

Jaddua (Jadus), the sixth priest of the Jews, possessed the priesthood for 50 years. He was a pious man and a lover of peace. When Alexander was angry with the Jews and decided to destroy Jerusalem, this Jadus went forth in his priestly robes to meet him. In consquence of that Alexander put aside his anger, dismounted from his steed, invoked the name of God, and honored the priest. Now as Alexander went into the city they brought him Daniel's prophecy concerning himself. After it was read to him, he was filled with great joy and with greater confidence to fight against Darius. He gave the Jews freedom in the observance of their laws and relieved them from the payment of tribute in the seventh year.[According to Nehemiah 12:12, Jeshua begot Joiakim, who begot Eliashib, who begot Joiada, who begot Jonathan, who begot Jaddua (Jadus). See also 12:22. If this was the Jaddua of whom the legend of Josephus is that he went forth from Jerusalem at the head of the priests to meet Alexander the Great, and tender to him the submission of the city, his name must have been subsequently added to the list as made up by Ezra.]

Onias, son of Jaddua (Iadi), and of the Hebrews the seventh priest, succeeded his father in the priesthood in the second year of Ptolemy's reign; and he occupied it 17 years. During his time the laws were well observed by the Jews, and the city of Jerusalem was occupied in peace; and therefore the pagan kings held the city and Temple in great esteem, adorned it, and gave it great gifts.

BEGINNING OF THE KINGDOM OF THE SYRIANS.

Syria, a country in Asia, is bordered on the East by the river Euphrates, on the West by the Little Sea (i.e., the Mediterranean) and Egypt; on the north by Armenia and Cappadocia; and on the south by Arabia.

Seleucus, one of the commanders under Alexander, obtained the Syrian kingdom after Alexander's death; but he was driven out by Antigonus. After the death of Antigonus and the defeat of his son Demetrius, he was reinstated by Ptolemy. After that he reigned 32 years, and was constantly engaged in wars until his eightieth year; and at that point he finally died.[Seleucus (surnamed Nicator) was the founder of the Syrian monarchy (312-280 BCE). He was the son of Antiochus, a Macedonia of distinction among the officers of Philip II, and was born 358 BCE. He accompanied Alexander on his expedition to Asia, and distinguished himself in the Indian campaigns. After the death of Alexander (323) he espoused the side of Perdiccas, whom he accompanied on his expedition against Egypt; but he took a leading part in the mutiny of the soldiers that ended in the death of Perdiccas. In the second partition of the provinces that followed, Seleucus obtained the wealthy and important satrapy of Babylonia. In the war between Antigonus and Eumenes he afforded efficient support to the former; but after the death of Eumenes (316) Antigonus began to treat the other satraps as his subjects. Thereupon Seleucus fled to Egypt, where he induced Ptolemy to unite with Lysimachus and Cassander in a league against the common enemy. In the war that ensued Seleucus took an active part. At length, in 312, he recovered Babylon; and it is from this period that the Syrian monarchy is commonly reckoned to commence. Soon afterwards Seleucus defeated Nicanor, the satrap of Media. He gradually extended his power over all the eastern provinces that had formed part of the empire of Alexander. In 307 he formally assumed the regal title. In league with Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Cassander, he decisively defeated Antigonus at Ipsus (301) and in this battle Antigonus was slain. In the division of the spoils Seleucus was rewarded with the greater part of Asia Minor, including Syria. His empire now was the largest of those that had formed part of Alexander's dominions. Feeling it difficult to exercise control over so vast an empire, he consigned the government of all the provinces beyond the Euphrates to his son Antiochus. In 288, the ambitious designs of Demetrius (now become king of Macedonia) once aroused the common jealousy of his adversaries, and led Seleucus again to unite with Ptolemy and Lysimachus against him. Demetrius was driven out of his kingdom. Seleucus crossed the Hellespont to take possession of the throne of Macedonia which had become vacant by the death of Lysimachus; but he advanced no farther than Lysimachus, when he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, to whom as the son of his old friend and ally, he had extended a friendly protection. Seleucus died in his 78th year, and in the 32nd year of his reign. He appears to have carried out with great energy the projects originally formed by Alexander and himself, for the Hellenization of his Asiatic empire. He founded Greek or Macedonian colonies in almost every province, which became so many centers of Greek civilization. ]

Antigonus, son of Philip the king, and brother of Alexander, began to reign after him in Asia; and he reigned 18 years. He was one of the generals of Alexander and a very haughty man, and so he practiced much war, in which he was finally defeated. His son Demetrius ran away in flight and sought his own safety.[Antigonus, king of Asia, surnamed the One-eyed, was a son of Philip of Elymiotis and father of Demetrius Poliorcetes by Stratonice. He was one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and upon the latter's death received a substantial part of the empire. On the death of the regent Antipater in 319, he aspired to the sovereignty of Asia. In 316 he defeated Eumenes and put him to death. He carried on war against Seleucus, Ptolemy, Cassander and Lysimachus. By the peace of 311, he was allowed to have the government of all Asia. The peace lasted but a year. He invaded Egypt, but was compelled to retreat. His son Demetrius carried on a successful war against Cassander in Greece, but he was compelled to return to Asia to assist his father, against whom Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus, had formed a fresh confederacy. Father and son were defeated at Ipsus in Phrygia in 301. Antigonus fell in the battle at the age of 81 years. ]

Sarabella, the governor, erected a superfluous temple on Mount Gerizim and appointed Manasseh, the brother of Jaddua, as priest there; and he was his son-in-law. And here began the Jewish schism or division; for to him many were attached, called Samaritans, who were banned. The schism lasted until the Temple was destroyed by the Romans.[The Samaritans were descendants of the Cuthites, Avvites, Sepharvites, and Hamathites, established by Sargon in Samaria after he had put an end to the Israelite kingdom. They were instructed in a form of the Hebrew religion (which they grafted on to their own worships) in order to appease the "God of the land" (2 Kings 17:24). The enmity between Jews and Samaritans began to make its appearance immediately after the return from the Captivity. The Samaritans endeavored to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:7; Nehemiah 4:7), and from time to time their aggressions and insults to the refounded Jewish State are recorded by Josephus. After the battle of Issus the Samaritans offered assistance to Alexander, and were allowed to build a temple at Gerizim, where they sacrificed after the manner of the Jews, though they were quite ready to repudiate Jewish origin, rite and prejudice whenever occasion arose (Jospehus, , 12.5—admittedly a biased account). The temple was destroyed by Hyrcanus. The disputes between the Jews and Samaritans were finally referred to Rome. Throughout the gospel history the ill feeling is conspicuous; the Samaritans were "strangers" (Luke 17:18), and considered ‘third-class' Jews by the Judeans. Vespasian inflicted a crushing blow upon them by massacring 11,600 on Mount Gerizim. From this and other sufferings later inflicted by Zeno and Justinian they never recovered.]

Antiochus Soter (Sother), a son of Seleucus the king, and second king of Syria, reigned 19 years. After him the succeeding kings of Syria were surnamed Antiochus.[Antiochus Soter reigned from 280-261 BCE, and was the son of Seleucus I, founder of the Syrian kingdom of the Seleucidae. He married his stepmother Stratonice, with whom he fell violently in love and whom his father surrendered to him. He fell in battle against the Gauls in 261.]

Alexander the Great, who was extinguished in the flower of his age and victory (in consequence of which every man and all Babylonia were cast into silent mourning), by his last will named twelve who had been with him since his youth as successors to his kingdom. But the twelve were not able to agree, and in consequence there were endless wars, and the last will of Alexander could not be made effective. After the dispersion of the others, these four obtained the kingdom according to the prophecy of Daniel: Seleucus reigned in Syria, Ptolemy in Egypt, Philip in Macedonia, and Antigonus in Assyria.