Aligned 
First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO XLIIII verso

Padua, a very celebrated old city of Italy, according to Virgil and Livy, was built by Antenor[Antenor, according to Homer, was one of the wisest among the elders at Troy. He received Menelaus and Ulysses into his house when they came to Troy as ambassadors, and advised his fellow citizens to restore Helen to Menelaus. Thus he is represented as a traitor to his country, and when sent to Agamemnon, just before the taking of Troy, to negotiate peace, he devised a plan for delivering the city, and even the palladium into the hands of the Greeks. His history after the capture of Troy varies. According to one account he went with the Heneti to Thrace, and from there to the western coast of the Adriatic, where the foundation of Patavium (Padua) and several towns is said to have been laid.] and his fellow fugitives from Troy. He proceeded directly through Argos to the Illyrian shores. He came into the dominion of the Liburnians, and finally reached the Adriatic Sea. He drove out the Euganei[The Euganei were a people who formerly inhabited Venetia in the Adriatic Sea, and were driven toward the Alps by the Heneti, or Veneti. According to some traditions they founded Patavium (Padua) and Verona. They possessed numerous flocks of sheep, the wool of which was celebrated.], who were in possession of this country, and there he built the city of Padua. Cicero states that the Paduans were very friendly with the Romans and in trying times assisted them with arms and money. Later, during its most prosperous times, Padua was within the Roman jurisdiction, although not as a dependency, for it participated in the election of Roman consuls. We hold that in beauty of its public buildings Padua is without a peer in Italy. However, the buildings in general, and some in particular, are modern, for Attila, king of the Huns, devastated the city. Although it was rebuilt by Narses Eunochus[Narses was a eunuch, and hence this appellation. He was a celebrated general and statesman during the reign of Emperor Justinian. Narses put an end to the Gothic dominion in Italy by two brilliant campaigns, one in 552 CE, the other in 553, and again annexed Italy to the Byzantine empire. He was rewarded by Justinian with the government of the country which he held for many years. He was deprived of this office by Justin, the successor of Justinian; whereupon he invited the Longobards to invade Italy. This invitation was eagerly accepted by Alboin. However, it is said that Narses soon thereafter repented, and died of grief at Rome shortly after the Longobards had crossed the Alps. He attained the age of ninety-five years.] and by those from Ravenna, it was burned and destroyed by the Lombards. In later times, however, in the reign of Charlemagne, and of his sons and grandsons, and up to the time of Frederick I, the city developed wonderfully. Ezzelino, the most cruel of tyrants, subjugated Padua, and at the same time began to slay or expel its citizens.[Ezzelino da Romano (Ezelin or Ecelinus) was the head of the Ghibellines in Italy in the time of Emperor Frederick II. He was the son of Ezzelino II, the monk, of noble lineage, whose ancestors migrated to Italy from Germany under Conrad II. He was podesta, or chief magistrate of Verona in 1226. These magistrates were elected annually and entrusted with arbitrary power. He lost jurisdiction over the city in 1227, regained it in 1230, and allied himself two years later with his former antagonist Frederick II in his war with the Lombards. In 1236 the emperor made him lord of Vicenza, in 1237 of Padua and Treviso. In 1238 the emperor gave him his natural daughter, Selvaggia, as wife. From this time on Ezzelino restlessly pursued the goal to make his house supreme in his controversy with the Guelphs, a princely family that opposed the authority of the German emperors in Italy. He hoped to enlarge his jurisdiction so as to comprehend the entire March of Treviso. He held his conquests firmly and with the most gruesome tyranny. He set up a tyrannical rule in the subjugated regions that has made his name one of despicable memory in the history of Italy. He was generally hated and despised, oppressing open enemies by force and keeping secret ones at bay through great watchfulness. He also attempted to subjugate Milan, but a confederacy was organized against him. On September 27, 1259 he was defeated at Soncino, was taken prisoner and died a few days later. It is said that more than 50,000 people went to the hangman, or died in prison under his orders. His brother Alberich, in 1260, was compelled to give up his castle unconditionally, by starvation, and thereafter his sons and daughters were cruelly martyred and slain before his eyes. Alberich himself was tied to the tail of a horse and dragged to death. With him the house of Romano came to an end.] Thereafter the Carrarians exercised authority over Padua, and maintained possession for a century, making it more habitable and beautiful. By their labors the Carrarians raised up towers and fortified the city with triple walls.[ At the Diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (828) the duchy and march of Friuli, in which Padua lay, was divided into four counties, one of which took its title from the city. At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a constitution composed of a general council or legislative assembly and a credenza or executive; and during the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of waterway on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta, so that the city, on the one hand, grew in power and self-reliance, while on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D’Este, and Da Romano began to emerge and divide the Paduan district between them. The citizens, in order to protect their liberties, were obliged to elect a podesta, and their choice fell on one of the D’Este family (c. 1175); but in 1237 Frederick II established his vicar Ezzelino da Romano in Padua and the neighboring cities. When Ezzelino met his death, in 1256, Padua enjoyed a brief period of rest and prosperity; the university flourished; the basilica of the saint was begun; the Paduans became masters of Vicenza. But the advance brought them into dangerous proximity to Can Grande della Scala, lord of Verona, to whom they had to yield in 1311. As a reward for freeing the city from the Scalas, Jacopo da Carrara was elected lord of Padua in 1318. From that date until 1405, with the exception of two years, nine members of the Carrara family succeeded each other as lords of the city. Padua then (1405) passed under Venetian rule.] And although Tymanus entered through them, yet many and various moats and drains were built through the great industry of the Carrarians, which brought water to various parts of the city. In this city is a very strong fortress, and also a palace of first rank in Italy. Its buildings are various. Emperor Henry IV, a German, built the cathedral. There also was a courthouse, the most beautiful in the world. It was later destroyed by fire; but a more costly one was built by the Venetians. They laid the remains of Titus Livy in a more public place. There also is the much praised Church of St. Anthony, whose like is not often found in Italy;[The basilica dedicated to Saint Anthony in the most famous of the Paduan churches, and in a chapel there the bones of the saint are said to rest. The basilica was begun in 1231 and completed in the following century. It is covered by seven cupolas, and in the piazza in front of the church is Donatello’s magnificent equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni, the Venetian general.] and the temple of St. Justina, the virgin, in which are preserved the remains of St. Luke, the Evangelist, and of Prosdoanni[Probably St. Prosdocimo.], together with the relics of St. Justina.[Justina, a saint famous in the Paduan and Venetian territories, was according to legend, a virgin of royal birth, who dwelt in the city of Padua. King Vitalicino, her father, having been baptized by a disciple of St. Paul, brought up his daughter in the Christian faith. After his death she was accused before the emperor Maximian of being a Christian. He therefore commanded that she be slain by the sword. Opening her arms to receive the stroke of the executioner, she was pierced through the chest and fell dead. In the year 453, a citizen of Padua founded in her honor the church that bears her name. Having fallen into ruin, it was sumptuously restored by the Benedictine Order in the beginning of the sixteenth century. The collection made for this purpose throughout northern Italy awakened the enthusiasm of the neighboring states, and it is from this time that we find her represented in the pictures of the Paduan and Venetian schools, and most frequently in the paintings of Veronese.] And it is said the same churches were once upon a time temples of Jove. But now there is in the same place a large monastery of the order of St. Benedict. In this city is also the most celebrated university of Italy. In addition to Livy, other brilliant and learned men were born at Padua, namely Paulus[ Paulus Julius was one of the most distinguished Roman jurists. He was in the auditorium of Papinian, and consequently was acting as a jurist in the reign of Septimius Severus. He was exiled by Elagabalus, but recalled by Severus when the latter became emperor, and was made a member of his consilium. Paulus also held the office of praefectus praetorio. He survived his contemporary Ulpian. Paulus was perhaps the most fertile of all the Roman law writers, and there is more excerpted from him in the than from any other jurist, except Ulpian. Upwards of seventy separate works by Paulus are quoted in the . Of these his greatest work was , in eighty books. The industry of Paulus must have been unremitting, and the extent of his legal learning is proved by the variety of his labors. Perhaps no legal writer, ancient or modern, has handled so many subjects. It is said that there are 2462 excerpts from Ulpian in the , and 2083 from Paulus, which make about one-sixth of the whole .], the jurist, and Peter de Aponodess, whose excellent writings and teachings for the common good of mankind are held in great esteem. Item: Albertus[Probably Albertus Magnus.], of the hermit order, a highly renowned teacher and preacher of the Holy Scriptures. Item: Stella[Arruntius Stella.], Flaccus[There are many persons by the name of Flaccus in Roman history and literature, but the here probably intends C. Flaccus, a native of Padua, was a poet who lived in the time of Vespasian. He is the author of the , an unfinished epic poem in eight books, on the Argonautic expedition, in which he follows the general plan and arrangment of Apollonius Rhodius. The eighth book terminates abruptly at the point where Medea is urging Jason to take her with him back to Greece.], Volusius[This probably refers to Volusius Maecianus, a jurist, who was in the consilium of Antoninus Pius, and was one of the teachers of M. Aurelius. He wrote several works, and there are forty-four excerpts from his writings in the .], and many others, exceptional men in all the arts. From the sea upward this city has navigation on the river Brenta, which flows by it. From Lucafusina (Lucia fusina) it is possible to sail for six miles to Padua on an artificial canal.

ILLUSTRATION
THE CITY OF PADUA

Illustrated by the same woodcut that has already been used for Trier (Folio XXIII recto)

Padua (Patavium, Italian Padova), an ancient town of the Veneti on the river Bacchiglione, twenty-five miles west of Venice and eighteen miles southeast of Vicenza, is said to have been founded by the Trojan Antenor. It became a flourishing town in early times and was powerful enough in 302 BCE to drive back the Spartan king Cleomenes with great loss when he attempted to plunder the surrounding country. Under the Romans it was the most important city in Northern Italy. According to Strabo it possessed 500 citizens whose fortunes entitled them to equestrian rank. It was plundered by Attila, and in consequence of a revolt of its citizens, it was subsequently destroyed by Agilulf, king of the Lombards, and razed to the ground; for this reason the modern town contains few remains of antiquity. It is celebrated as the birthplace of the historian Livy.

The most famous of the Paduan churches is the basilica dedicated to St. Anthony, commonly called Il Santo. There rest the bones of the saint in a richly ornamented chapel. The basilica was begun after his death in 1231 and was completed in the following century. It is covered by seven cupolas. In the piazza in front of the church is Donatello’s magnificent equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni, the Venetian general, who died in 1443.

At the Diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (828) the duchy and march of Friuli, in which Padua lay, was divided into four counties, one of which was named after the city. At the beginning of the eleventh century the citizens established a constitution. During the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of waterway on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta—so that, on the one hand, the city grew in power and self reliance, while on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D’Este, and Da Romano began to emerge and to divide the Paduan district between them. The citizens, to protect their liberties, elected a podesta , and their choice fell first on one of the D’Este family (c. 1175); but in 1237 Frederick II established his vicar Ezzelino da Romano in Padua and the neighboring cities.

When Ezzelino met his death in 1256, Padua enjoyed a brief period of rest and prosperity. The university flourished; the basilica of the saint was begun. But this advance brought them into dangerous proximity to Can Grande Della Scala, lord of Verona, to whom they had to yield in 1311. As a reward for freeing the city from the Scalas, Jacopo da Carrara was elected lord of Padua in 1318. From that date until 1405 (with the exception of two years, when Gian Galeazzo Visconti held the town), nine members of the Carrara family succeeded one another as lords of the city. Padua passed under Venetian rule in 1405, and so remained, with a brief interval, till the fall of the republic in 1797.

It is strange that the chronicler, Doctor Schedel, a graduate of the University of Padua, and undoubtedly familiar with the city, had so little to say about his alma mater and this interesting town.