Aligned 
First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO XII verso and XIII recto
ILLUSTRATION
Map of the World

This map extends over two pages. The shape is irregular. The upper and lower bounds are concentrically circular, the sides straight and vertical for a short distance, and then converging at an obtuse angle in straight lines to the circular bounds at the top of the map. The map is held by Japheth, Shem and Ham, the three sons of Noah, who divided the continents between them. They occupy three corners of the woodcut. A wide band or frame surrounds the map, and in this frame appear twelve heads with cheeks distended, blowing from as many different directions toward the world. All the heads are very similar—round faces, pug-noses, and unruly hair—with one exception: the wind-god who blows from the direction of Shem is of a decidedly Semitic type, having a pronounced nose and thick black hair. An exception might have been made to the general design in case of the cold north winds which, by reason of their savage inclemency, are often pictured as rude barbarians with heavy beards; but this was not done.

Ancient superstitions, mythology, and literature have all contributed additional and special names for the winds blowing from the different quarters of the earth. The Greeks personified the winds as divine beings under the control of Zeus and Poseidon (Neptune). The principal ones were Boreas, the north wind; Eurus, the east wind; Notus, the south wind, and Zephyrus, the west wind. All were the offspring of Eos and Astraeus. The character and appearance ascribes to each of these deities was such as to suggest the phenomena of each wind, such as the strength and fury of the north wind, the genial warmth of the south west wind. Some were thought of as male, some as female, and all were winged. Eurus, who brought warmth and rain from the east, was usually represented as holding an inverted vase, as if pouring rain from it Zephyrus, coming from the warm, mild west, was lightly clad, and carried a quantity of flowers in a scarf.

Just as we find Roman names for most of the Greek deities, so with the winds. Among the Latins the north wind was also known as Seprentrio (Septrentrio, or Septemptrio), and as Aparcias; the east wind, also as Subsolanus (erroneously referred to in the Chronicle, folio V verso, as Bubsolanus); the south wind, as Auster; the west wind, as Favonius. Septemptrio and its variable forms simply designate direction, as septentrianos venti (north wind). Subsolanus, the designation of the east wind, is simply a personification of subsolar, under the sun; specifically, tropical. Auster is simply a Latin designation of direction and not a personification.

The prevalence in particular districts of winds blowing from this or that point between the chief quarters, gave rise to further names in order to distinguish these special winds: Aquilo or Aquilon, the north or northeast wind; Euronotus (erroneously spelled Euronothus in the Chronicle), Euroauster, and Vulturnus, the shoutheast wind; Africus, Lips and Libonotus, as well as Apliotes, all personifications of the southwesters; and Caurus, or Corus (Chorus, in the Chronicle), for northwesters. Aquilo is to be connected with Aquilus, the black stormy one. Euronotus and Euroauster are easily recognized as compounds of Eurus (east wind), and Notus or Auster (south wind); hence southeast. Vulturnus is so called from the Roman Vultur, a mountain dividing Apulia and Lucania, near Venusia, and which is a branch of the Appenines. This mountain is celebrated by Horace as one of the haunts of youth. Africus requires no explanation. Lips, designating the southwest wind, is not to be confused with Libs, the west-southwest wind. Libonotus is easily recognized as a combining form. Apeliotes, also a personification of the southwest wind, is represented as carrying fruits of many kinds and not so lightly clad as Zephyrus.

All the winds contained in the border of this map bear names—some single, others in the alternative. Beginning at the center of the upper portion of this border, the winds are designated as follows:

  1. Seprentrio vel Aparcias
    , the north wind.
    Vel
    is the Latin for the alternative “or.”
  2. Aquilo vel Boreas
    , also the north wind, according to the Latin and the Greek names.
  3. Vulturnus
    (Latin) southeast wind.
  4. Subsolanus
    (Latin) east wind.
  5. Eurues
    (Latin adaptation from the Greek), and also meaning east wind.
  6. Euronothus
    , southeast wind.
  7. Auster vel Nothus
    , the south wind, Auster being the Latin and Nothus the Greek names.
  8. Libanotus vel Euroauster
    . Although the artist considers these names synonymous, they are not the same: Libonotus is a south by southwest wind; Euoauster is a southeast wind.
  9. Afficus vel Lips
    . The former is a southwest wind; the latter, a west by southwest wind.
  10. Favonius
    ,
    Zephyrus
    , synonyms for west wind.
  11. Chorus qui et Agrestes
    : The northwest wind, which is wild or savage. Correctly spelled Caurus or Corus.
  12. Circius
    (Cercius)
    vel Tracias
    (Thracias): Circius has been defined as a violent wind blowing in Gallia Narbonensis; perhaps from circus, on account of its circular motion. To the Romans it meant a west-northwest wind. Thrascias (Thracias, or Tracias, as it is spelled in the Chronicle), is the north-northwest wind, and is therefore not exactly synonymous with Circius, a west-northwest wind. The name Thrascias probably had its origin in the fact that Boreas and his satellites had their home in Thrace, from whence they blew for better or for worse.

Map Inscription

Japheth, Shem and Ham not being sufficient in number to cover the four corners of the map, the fourth corner was filled with the following inscription in Latin:

Ventorum quatuor cardinales sunt Primum, septentrio flat rectus ab axe, faciens frigora et nubes; huic dexter circius nives et grandines. A sinistris Boreas constringens. Secundus, subsolanus ab ortu temperatus; vulturnus deluctans eurus nubes generans. Tertium, auster humidus fulmineus. A dextris euro auster calidus; a sinistris euro nothus tempestuosis. Quartus, Zephyrus, hiemem resolvens producens flores; a latere affricus generans fulmins et corpus nubile faciens.

Translation of Map Inscription

The four cardinal winds are: Firstly, Septrentrio, which blows straight from the Pole, producing cold and clouds; at its right Circius, snow and hail; at its left Boreas, constricts by freezing. Secondly, Subsolanus, is tempered by its origin; Vulturnus is a dry wind; Eurus produces clouds. Thirdly, Auster is moust and produces lightening; at its right Euro, hot; at its left Euronotus, stormy. Fourthly, Zephyrus, putting an end to winter and bringing forth blossoms; at its side Africus, generating thunderstorms and producing clouds in masses.

Place Names on the Map
AFFRICAAfrica
ANGLIAEngland
ARABIA FELIXS.E. Arabia, anciently
ASIA MINORAsia Minor
BRECIABrescia
CANDIACrete
CARTHAGOCarthage
CIPRIUMCyprus
COLLONE HERCULESPillars of Hercules
CORSICACorsica
DACIADenmark
DALMACIADalmatia
EGYPTEgypt
ETHIOPIAEthiopia
ETHIOPIA INTERIOREthiopia Interior
FELIXArabia Felix
FRANCIAFrance
GALICIAGallaecia (A province in N.W. Spain)
HIBERNIAIreland
HIERUSALEMJerusalem
HISPANIASpain
INDIA EE GANGEM India beyond the Ganges
INDIA INTRA GANGEMIndia within the Ganges
INSULE FORTUNATEFortunate Islands (Canaries)
ITALIAItaly
JUDEAJudea
LIVONIALivonia (now partly in Latvia)
MARE CASPIUMCaspian Sea
MARE INDICUMIndian Ocean
MARE MEDITERRANEUMMediterranean Sea
MARE RUBORRed Sea
MARE PERSIUMPesian Gulf
MARITIMA ETHIOPIAMaritime Ethiopia
MAURITANIAMauretania (now Morocco and part of Algeria)
MEDIAMedia
MONS SINAIMt. Sinai
MOSCAMoscovy
NILUS FLUVISNile River
NOGARDUMNovgorod
PALUS MAEOTISSwamps of Maeotis (Sea of Azov)
PARTHIAParthia
PERSIAPersia
POLONAPoland
PRUSSIAPrussia
RHODOSRhodes
SARDINNASardinia
SAXONIASaxony
SCITHIAScythia
SCOCIA (SCOTIA)Scotland
SICILIASicily
SERICASerica

A tract of country in the eastern part of Asia inhabited by people called Seres. According to Ptolemy, it was bounded on the west by Scythia extra Imaum, on the northeast by an unknown land, on the east by the Sinae, and on the south by India. Modern opinions vary respecting its site, but the best geographers concur in placing it at the northwest angle of the present empire of China. The name of Serica as a country was not known before the first century of our era, though there are earlier accounts of the people called Seres.

The first silk reached the Greeks and Romans from this region. The words “silk” and “serge” are certainly from Latin Seres (“the Chinese”); a word probably of Chinese origin, notwithstanding the fact that the Chinese do not employ the letter ‘r.’

SUECIASweden
TAPROBANA INSULACeylon
TARTARIATartary
TUNISTunis
UNGARIAHungary
RUSSIARussia