Aligned 
First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO CCLXXXII recto

find the Thüringians mentioned in connection with the first advent of the Franks, who came to Germany in the time of the emperor Valentinian. Emperor Charlemagne conducted many wars against the Saxons before they were converted to Christianity, and defeated them in great battles. But when, upon the termination of his lineage, the Roman imperial sovereignty passed to the Germans of the East, the Saxon influence increased; and among them were many kings celebrated for their exceptional intelligence and noble achievements. In the land of Pomerania, which adjoins Saxony to the east are many distinguished and renowned cities, - Wismar, Smidis, Grisvold (Greifswald?), Stettin, and Rostock. A university is situated by the sea, and many wealthy merchants live here. In the Saxon division lies an episcopal city, Cammin, whose bishopric is very extensive and no smaller than that of Mainz. The bishop there is subject to the Roman See alone. Brandenburg is divided into two Marks, one the old (Altmark) the other the new (Neumark). The Elbe runs through Altmark, and therein lie the cities of Stendal, Gadoin (Gardelegen?), Salzwedel, and Osterburg. Neumark is divided by the river Oder, and in this Mark lies Frankfurt, a wealthy commercial city. This region is also watered by the Spree, on whose banks the city of Berlin is situated. Item: Another river, called the Hortel (Havel?), divides the city of Brandenburg, from which city the Mark took its name, into two parts, one called the old city, the other the new. And therein is an episcopal seat and the court of the margrave’s jurisdiction. On the banks of this river lies the episcopal city of Havelberg, surrounded by a terrain called Prignitz, containing a number of towns and a warlike population. Meissen is a capital city from which Meissen derived its name. The Elbe runs through this city, and here is a secure castle, and in it an episcopal church. There are many cities in this province, and many people skilled in arms. Of these we may name Merseburg, as well as Leipzig, an industrial city with a university. In Thüringia lies Erfurt, a noble capital city subject to the bishop of Mainz. It is adorned with a commendable university; also the city of Naumburg, which is subject to the duke of Saxony. They all avail themselves of Saxon laws, language and customs. The true Saxons are those of Magdeburg; also those of Bremen, Halberstadt, Hildesheim, Werden, Braunschweig, Hamburg, Lüneburg, and Lübeck. At Halberstadt is an episcopal church founded by Charlemagne. In this city, once a year, a person regarded as a great sinner, chosen from among the people, arrayed in wretched raiment, his head covered, is escorted to the church on the first day of Lent; and after the divine office has been performed, he is cast out again. Daily for the entire forty days of the fast he walks barefoot through the city and about the churches, but not into them. He speaks to no one, and, after midnight, sleeps in the streets. On holy Maundy Thursday, after the blessing of the oil, he is again escorted into the church, and, after prayer, is absolved of his sins and given money by the people; but this same money is left to the church. They call him Adam and now look upon him as freed of all sins. The soil in the vicinity of Halberstadt is very fertile, producing grain, whose stalks tower over a man on horseback. Braunschweig is a large city and renowned throughout Germany. It has a large population, and is fortified with battlements, moats, towers, and bow-windows.