Aligned 
First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
THE FOURTH AGE OF THE WORLD
FOLIO XLVI verso

The Fourth Age of the World has its inception with the advent of David, and ends with the Babylonian captivity, a period of 484 years, according to the Hebrew teachers, and of 485 years according to the seventy interpreters. David was the first king out of the tribe of Judah over which he reigned at Hebron for 47 years; but over all Israel he ruled for 33 years. This Fourth Age begins with David, not as king of Israel, but as the first king of the tribe of Judah. To him was made the express prophecy that Christ would be born of the tribe of Judah. His deeds and history appear throughout the entire second Book of Kings, &c.[2 Kings according to the Vulgate; 2 Samuel according to the Authorized Versio.] When David learned of Saul's death, he and his relatives mourned him; and he fasted and wrote a song of lamentation in which he acknowledged Saul as the first king of Israel and as his lord.[]

David, a prince among prophets, son of Jesse of the tribe of Judah, first king of the Hebrews, began his reign over them 941 years after the death of Abraham; and altogether at Hebron and Jerusalem he reigned 40 years. He was dauntless, of a beautiful countenance and rosy complexion, of great strength, and of still greater intellect. Before the beginning of the kingdom he slew the strongest man, the giant of the Philistines, with a slingshot. In behalf of his subjugated people, he accepted leadership, and was always the first in places of danger and risk. When he assumed the reins of government, he first besieged Jerusalem, and thereafter drove out the captured Canaanites and Jebusites. And he dispersed all the Palestinians and other enemies. Finally, full of days and good deeds, he went to rest in the Lord at the age of 70 years and was buried properly at Jerusalem by his son Solomon.

Solomon (in the Year of the World 4165)[The parenthesis "(in the Year of the World 4165)" is not in the German edition of the .], a son of David by Bathsheba,[Bathsheba was the daughter of Eliam. She became the wife of Uriah, an officer in David's army. Her beauty ensnared David, for he not only committed adultery with her, but treacherously procured the death of her husband. The child of this intercourse died. When the days of mourning were over, David married her, and she afterward bore him three sons besides Solomon. When Adonijah attempted to seize the throne, Bathsheba told the king at the instigation of Nathan. It was to her as queen mother that Adonijah went with the request for the hand of Abishag. (II Samuel 11; I Kings 2:13-22).] the second king of the Hebrews, began his reign while his father still lived, and he ruled 40 years. Soon after he was born, his father gave him to Nathan the prophet, a very learned and holy man, to bring up and educate. When Solomon became a young man, his father, because of his good conduct and obedience, and in accordance with the command of the Lord, preferred him in the kingdom to his rejected brothers. Solomon fought the enemy and secured peace. Afterwards he built the most celebrated temple in the world, and in good fortune he excelled all other kings. He died at the age of 94 years, and was buried at Jerusalem.

When Queen Sheba (Saba) heard of the fame of Solomon she came from other parts of the world to hear his wisdom. And he satisfied her on all the questions that she asked. After she saw the order of his house, and his people, she praised him greatly; and they gave one another great presents. Solomon erected a throne of ivory which was approached by six steps; for all the people craved to look upon Solomon's countenance. Sheba was a prophetess, and was therefore called a sibyl. For she prophesied from the wood of the holy cross, and of the destruction of the Jews. She held the one true God in high esteem.[Sheba was a wealthy region in Arabia bordering on the Red Sea. The Queen of Sheba visited Solomon, coming to Jerusalem "with a very great train, with camels that bear spices, and very much gold and precious stones." (I Kings 10:1-13; II Chr. 9:1-12) Many ancient writers noted the abundance of spices in the Yemen, or Sabaean country. Herodotus says that the whole country exhaled an odor of marvelous sweetness, and Diodorus relates that the perfume extended far out to the sea. They used gold and silver lavishly in their furniture and utensils, and even on the doors and roofs of their houses. Precious stones also abounded there.]

FOLIO XLVII recto

On the advice of the Lord, David and his people went to Hebron. There, in his youth, he was elected king of the tribe of Judah and anointed by Samuel. Ish-bosheth (Hysboseth),[Ish-bosheth was the son and successor of Saul. He was persuaded by Abner to go to Mahanaim and assume the government while David reigned at Hebron (II Sam. 2:8-11); and all Israel, except Judah, acknowledged him as king. A severe battle soon afterward occurred at Gibeon, between the army of David under Joab, and the army of Ish-bosheth under Abner, in which the latter was utterly defeated. Abner was afterward killed by Joab. Ish-bosheth, thus deprived of his strongest supporter, was assassinated after a brief reign of two years. (II Samuel 4:5-7) ] the son of Saul, was, through the procurement of Abner, his uncle, made king of the other eleven tribes; and he reigned two years. And now assembled the armies of David and Joab, his commander, as did also the forces of Ish-bosheth and Abner, his commander. And out of sheer willfulness twelve men on the one side fought with twelve men from the other, and they slew one another at a single stroke. Then those who were with Abner were defeated and fled; and Asahel, the brother of Joab, pursued Abner; and as he would not desist in the pursuit, Abner finally wounded Asahel in the groin with a spear; and Asahel died.[The contest between the twelve men on either side was followed by a general battle, which resulted in Abner's defeat. He fled, but was pursued by Asahel. When in the heat of the pursuit, Abner counseled him to desist, and threatened to turn upon him and slay him if he did not, Asahel refused to turn aside, and Abner, "with the back end of the spear struck him under the fifth rib, that the spear came out behind him; and he fell down there, and died in the same place." (II Samuel 2:19-23) This is according to the . The nature of the injury is somewhat differently recorded in the (II Kings 2:23): "But he (Asahel) refused to hearken to him (Abner), and would not turn aside; wherefore Abner struck him with his spear with a back stroke in the groin, and thrust him through, and he died upon the spot." ] Although the war between the house of Saul and the house of David lasted for a long time, David made more progress and his strength increased; but the house of Saul declined daily. To David were born at Hebron the following sons: The first, Amon (Amnon); the second, Cheliab (Chileab); the third, Absalon (Absalom); the fourth Adonias (Adonijah), and many others by numerous wives.[The issue of David is divided into two parts: (1) that born at Hebron, according to II Samuel 3:2-5; and (2) that born at Jerusalem, according to II Samuel 5:13-16. Both lines are given in I Chron. 3:1-9. The issue born at Hebron is not fully given in the . According to II Samuel 5:14-16, the children born there were as follows: Amnon, Chileab (called Daniel in I Chronicles 3:1), Absalom, Adonijah, Shephatiah, and Ithream.] But Abner, who ruled the house of Ish-bosheth, was called to account by his lord because he had slept with Saul's concubine; and thereupon they became enemies.[This was an offense against Saul's family. He had taken Rizpah, the concubine of Saul, into his harem, and this act was interpreted according to ‘eastern' ideas, as an attempt to seize the throne. Abner was exceedingly irritated by the charge, and he immediately forsook the interests of Saul's house and espoused the cause of David.] And he went to David and promised him that he would bring the entire people of Israel under his rule. He undertook to deal in this way, and returned to Michal,[Michal was the second daughter of Saul, the king and the wife of David, who paid in dowry two hundred slaughtered Philistines. She was passionately devoted to her young husband and once saved him from the fury of her father. During David's exile, she was married to another man with whom she lived for ten years. After the accession of David to the throne, she was restored to him, but an estrangement soon took place between them, and on the occasion of the greatest triumph of David's life—the bringing up of the ark to Jerusalem—it came to an open rupture between them, after which her name does not again occur (II Samuel 6:1-23).] David's wife, to David. Joab, to avenge his brother Asahel, treacherously slew Abner.[Abner, the son of Ner, was a first cousin of Saul, and a faithful and distinguished general of his armies (I Samuel 14:50). We first hear of him particularly as the captain of the host, of whom Saul inquired concerning the daring young David who had just gained the victory over Goliath to the king's great astonishment.] This did not please David, who caused Abner to be buried with his own, and to be mourned and fasted.[After Abner's desertion of the house of Saul, David received him cordially and sent him away in peace to persuade Israel to submit to David. While he was gone on this errand, Joab returned; and hearing what had been done, he went to the king and warned him against Abner as a spy and traitor. Soon after, and without David's knowledge, Joab sent for Abner; and when he arrived, took him aside privately and murdered him in revenge of the death of his brother, Asahel. The estimation in which he was held by the king and people appears from the sacred history. The king wept and refused his food, and all the people wept; "And the king said to his servants, don't you know that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" (II Sam. 3:7-38).]

This David was a real miracle in human flesh; for in him were combined qualities never again found present together (in the same individual): Greatness and humility; great fairness and kindness; great solicitude for worldly affairs, and pure and devout regard for things spiritual; the slaughter of many people, and the shedding of many tears; the commission of great sins on one hand, and atonement on the other. Item: To him were born at Jerusalem the following sons: Shammuah (Salma), Shobad (Saba), Nathan, and Solomon (Salomon), out of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah; also eight others, not counting the sons of his concubines.[ Here we come upon the second branch of David's issue, namely, the children born to him at Jerusalem: Shammuah (Salma), Shobab (Saba), Nathan, Solomon, Ilhar (Jabaar), Elishua (Helisus), Nepheg, Juphia (Jaahia), Elishama (Helisama), Eliada (Helida), and Eliphalet (Helifeleth). (II Samuel 5:13-16)] And after he had restored peace to the land, he decided to enumerate the people, contrary to the laws of Moses; and he counted 1,100,000 fighting men; and of the tribe of Judah alone 470,000. But the census displeased God, and he struck Israel with a plague to which 70,000 Israelites succumbed.[According to the Old Testament twelve censuses were taken. The first was under Moses, three or four months after the Exodus, its object being to raise funds to build the tabernacle, each numbered person (every male of twenty years of age and upward) being obliged to pay half a shekel. The second numbering occurred in the second month of the second year after the Exodus (Num. 1:2). The third was immediately before the entrance of the Hebrews into Canaan (Num. 26). For a long time thereafter no reckoning was made; but David, instigated by Satan, out of mere curiosity and ambition to know how large a people he governed, ordered a count, with the result stated (I Chron. 21:5; II Sam. 24:9). ]

These three (referring to the triple portrait of Gad, Nathan, and Aseph below) prophesied in the time of David; and Nathan was David's brother's son, and an adopted son of Jesse.

FOLIO XLVI verso and XLVII recto
ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Continued)

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio XLII verso, where the line of descent was brought down to include Jesse and all of his children, except David, with whom the present branch of the genealogy therefore begins. And so here the Psalmist makes his debut. Strumming on a harp, he gracefully steps forth upon the root-branches of his genealogical tree. He wears his crown and his regal robes, which the artist has turned aside to expose the king's shapely leg. He moves forward as though about to dance to his own music. The costume, a tight-fitting outer garment with skirt, sleeves puffed and slashed, and the pointed shoes, are well done according to medieval fashion, but are hardly consistent with the period under consideration.

From the main trunk upon which David stands proceed three branches—one straight downward to King Solomon, his favorite son; another to the left, portraying the children of David born at Hebron; and a third, which proceeds to the opposite folio (XLVII recto), portraying the children born to him at Jerusalem:

  1. Solomon Rex, although shown at full length, appears as a rather diminutive figure. His body is dwarfed, his head is large, and the crown he wears is of greater diameter than the king himself from shoulder to shoulder. He carries the orb and scepter, and is clad in an embroidered and fur trimmed robe. His footwear is rather meager, and he gives the appearance of having stepped forth in his stocking-feet.
  2. The Sons of David at Hebron, shown to his left (Folio XLVI verso), are given as follows: First (Primus), Amon (Amnon), 2nd, cheliab (Chileab, also called Daniel), 3rd, Absolon (Absalom), 4th, Adonias (Adonijah), 5th, Saphacias (Shephatiah) and 6th, hietra (Ithream). This group is represented by a single woodcut, and there is nothing of particular interest about any of the portraits. Each emerges from a floral cup, and all are connected by a vine-like stem.
  3. The Sons of David at Jerusalem are represented by a single woodcut that occupies almost one half of the opposite page (Folio XLVII recto). For purposes of identification the names are here repeated, firstly as given in the Chronicle, and secondly according to the text of II Samuel 5:13-16: Namely, Salma (Shammuah), Sab (Shobab), Nathan, Salomon (Solomon), Jabaar (Ibhar), helisua (Elishua), Nepheg, Japhia, helisama (Elishama), helida (Eliada), and helifelech (Eliphalet). And a rather quarrelsome lot these men appear to be. They stare and glare, frown and droop at the mouth, and gesture with both hands.

(B) THE QUEEN OF SHEBA (Saba)

The Queen of Sheba is represented opposite Solomon by a small woodcut of exquisite design. Her headdress and flowing veil as well as other raiment are entirely medieval. In her extended hand she offers Solomon a beautiful piece of jewelry, probably a cup or chalice, and no doubt one of the good will offerings of her visit from the land of Arabia.

(C) THE MURDER OF ABNER

The Murder of Abner is represented at Folio XLVII recto by a small woodcut approximately 3½" square. Abner has just returned to Hebron. Joab, the commander of David's forces, has taken him aside in the gate, as if to speak to him quietly; but he "struck him there under the fifth rib, that he died, for the blood of Asahel, his brother." (II Sam. 3:27) The incident is quaintly depicted. The men stand in a doorway, face to face, each with one leg extended forward as though engaged in a dance. But Joab is driving his trusty blade of no mean dimensions into Abner's back, producing in the latter a vacant far away look.

(D) GAD, NATHAN AND ASETH

Gad, Nathan and Aseph are represented at Folio XLVII recto in a triple portrait, above which appears this inscription: "These three prophesied in the time of David; and Nathan was David's brother's son, and an adopted son of Jesse."

  • Gad was a prophet and particular friend of David, the history of whose reign he wrote (I Chron. 29:29). He came to David when the latter was in the cave Adullam (I Sam. 22:5). He then began his career of counselor, under divine direction, which eventually won him the title of "the king's seer." (II Sam. 24:11,13; I Chron. 21:9)
  • Nathan was a distinguished prophet of Judea, who lived in the reigns of David and Solomon and enjoyed a large share of their confidence (II Sam. 7:2). To him, David first intimated his design to build the temple, and he was divinely instructed to inform the king that this honor was not for him but for his posterity. Nathan was also charged with the divine message to David upon the occasion of his sin against Uriah, which he conveyed under the significant allegory of the rich man and the ewe-lamb. Nathan was one of David's biographers (I Chron. 29:29) and also Solomon's (II Chron. 3:5).
  • Aseth or Aseph (correctly Asaph) a Levite, was the chief leader of the temple choir, and a poet. (I Chron. 6:39). Twelve of the Psalms are attributed to him, namely Ps. 50 and Ps. 73 to 83. He is also spoken of as a "seer" in connection with David (II Chron. 29:30). The "sons of Asaph" were probably a school of musicians.
FOLIO XLVII verso

Solomon went up to Gibeon to offer sacrifice in the high place where the tabernacle and altar of Moses stood. And he offered a thousand hosts (burnt offerings) as one entire sacrifice. And the Lord appeared to him by night in a dream, and asked Solomon to say what he desired the Lord to give him. And he wished for wisdom in ruling over his people. This wish pleased the Lord, and the Lord said, because you have not asked for riches, nor for the death of your enemies, nor long life (for yourself), you have been heard. I have given you a wise heart, so that there was none like you before you.[I Kings 3:1-15.] The first judgment in which Solomon's wisdom manifested itself was in the case of the sons of two women (that were prostitutes), one of whom had lain upon her child during the night. And they quarreled as to which of them the surviving child belonged. But when Solomon gave judgment that the living child should be divided into two parts, the true mother asked that the child be given alive and entirely to the other woman. And Solomon judged that she was the rightful mother and he awarded her the child.


I Kings 3:16-28. Added to the end of this paragraph in the German edition of the Chronicle is the following passage:

And although in no other single individual before him were found such clear wisdom, such high degree of pleasure, such great honor, such riches, and such secret communion with God, yet in his later years Solomon marred and perverted these qualities by his love of women and his idolatrous practices.


Which, in turn, is derived from 1 Kings 11:1-8:

But Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; of the nations concerning which the Lord said to the children of Israel, you shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in to you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clung to these in love. And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart. For it came to pass when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David, his father. . . . And Solomon did evil in the sight of the Lord, and went not fully after the Lord, as did David, his father. Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon. And likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed to their gods.

In the fourth year of his reign Solomon began to build to the Lord the most celebrated temple in all the world. This was in the 480th year after Israel's exodus from Egypt, and the birth of Abraham the 984th; and he completed the structure in the eighth year. The temple was built in Jerusalem on Mount Moriah, where Abraham wanted to sacrifice his son, and where Jacob, in his dream, saw the ladder that reached from heaven to the earth. This temple was built entirely of white stone. It was erected with much skill and constructed of polished stones wonderfully joined together. Its length was 60 cubits; and the breadth of it 20 cubits; and the height 120, with such proportions that the height from the pavement at the ground to the first floor was 30 cubits; and from the first floor to the second 30 cubits; and from this to the third, that is to the roof of the temple, is 60 cubits. And so the temple had two floors between the pavement and the roof. And at each floor and at the roof there was a balcony round about; and there, it is said, the Lord Christ was tempted by the devil; and before these balconies were grates, so that persons passing about the same would not fall off. The temple was divided into two parts. One was called the sanctum (‘holy'). It was 40 cubits in length, and at this end was the entrance to the temple from the east. The other was called the sanctum sanctorum (‘holy of holies'), 20 cubits in length. Between the sanctum and the sanctum sanctorum was a wall of cedar boards, overlaid with plates of gold, and 20 cubits in height. Before it there hung a thin, beautifully woven veil, which at the time of Christ's suffering was rent from top to bottom. In the sanctum sanctorum was placed the ark of the Lord that Moses had made. Within the ark were the tablets of the Ten Commandments. Into this sanctum sanctorum the high priest alone went once in each year, on the day that is called the Day of Atonement with great solemnity and adoration. But into the sanctum the priests often went because of various sacrifices, to light the candles or lamps. And there, to the south was the golden candlestick with the seven lights that Moses had made. To the north was the table of offering. In the middle was the golden altar that Moses had made. But to this Solomon added ten other candlesticks equally beautiful, but larger, five to the right and five to the left; likewise ten larger golden tables. In the middle was the altar of incense.[For the original and more accurate description of the temple and its furnishings, see I Kings 6.]

ILLUSTRATION
THE JUDGMENT OF SOLOMON

5½" x 8⅞"

"Then came there two women, who were harlots, to their king, and stood before him. And the one woman said, My lord, I and this woman dwell in one house; and I was delivered of a child with her in the house. And it came to pass the third day after that I was delivered, that this woman was delivered also: and we were together; there was no stranger with us in the house, save we two in the house. And this woman's child died in the night; because she lay upon it. And she arose at midnight and took my son from beside me, while your handmaid slept, and laid it in her bosom, and laid her dead child in my bosom. And when I rose in the morning to give the child suck, behold it was dead: but when I had considered it in the morning, behold, it was not my son, which I did bear. And the other woman said, No; but the living is my son, and the dead is your son. And the other one said, No; but the dead is your son, and the living is my son. Thus they spoke before the king. Then said the king, The one says, This is my son that lives, and your son is the dead one: and the other says, No; but your son is the dead one, and my son is the living one.

"And the king said, Bring me a sword. And they brought a sword before the king. And the king said, Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other. Then spoke the woman whose living child was before the king, for her heart yearned for her son, and she said, My lord, give her the living child, and in no way slay it. But the other said, Let it be neither mine nor yours but divide it. Then the king answered and said, Give her the living child, and in no way slay it: she is the mother of it.

"And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the king: for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do judgment."


I Kings 3:16-28

Of course, no artist creating pictorial material for a work of this nature would overlook the opportunity of portraying the judgment of Solomon upon the rival claims to motherhood. And so here the artist has wisely chosen, and he has done a good piece of work.

Complacently Solomon sits upon the judgment seat. He wears a crown and a simple but voluminous robe and in the exercise of his authority he holds the scepter to indicate that he is wielding the authority of his office. At this point the hearing is really over. The corpus delicti–a dead child and a live one–are present at the foot of the throne. The rival claimants to the living youngster have made their interesting pleas, as set forth in the biblical narrative quoted above. We are beyond the point of tentative judgment that the living child was to be divided, and the executioner who stands at the right idly holds his sword in his left hand, while with the right he pushes back his cap and scratches his head as though puzzled by the proceedings, or disappointed in the result. The false mother and the true, in their attitude toward the living child, have given the king the true solution.

To the left of the picture kneels the false claimant to whom the judgment has left the dead child. Behind her, silhouetted against a window with diamond-shaped panes, are two venerable men, one with a flowing beard, the other with a braided one, who may be councilors or advisers to the king; certainly they are not acting for either of the claimants, as each woman pleaded her own cause.

To the right of the throne is a space apparently open to the general public—a sort of porch, resembling the old Court of the Arches in London. The place is crowded with people, deeply interested in the proceedings. It is in this direction that the successful mother turns, holding her child by the hand. In parting, she looks back at the king in gratitude and proud satisfaction, and even the child seems to wave the good judge a ‘Thank you!' And so, there was no work for the Lord High Executioner.

FOLIO XLVIII recto

Ahijah (Achias) the Shilomite (Silonites), a prophet, prophesied to Jeroboam (Hieroboam) that he would rule over the ten tribes of Israel in the beginning of the kingdom.

Jeroboam received the ten rents in his mantle at the hands of Ahijah, the prophet, and fled into Egypt. After Solomon's death he was elected king of the ten tribes. He set up calves of gold at Dan and Naphtali and became an arch idolater. He caused the people of Israel to commit the sin of idolatry, resulting in the dispersion of the entire people of Israel.

The Bible states that in the later years of his reign Solomon did much to displease God; for he had become a despot, and idolater and a lover of many strange women. And God stirred up many adversaries against him and otherwise troubled his closing years. (I Kings 11:1-25) Among these adversaries was one Jeroboam, who raised his hand against the king
(I Kings 11:26-32):

And it came to pass at that time when Jeroboam went to Jerusalem, that the prophet Ahijah the Shilomite found him in the way; and he had clad himself with a new garment; and the two of them were alone in the field: And Ahijah caught the new garment that was on him, and rent it in twelve pieces: And he said to Jeroboam, Take ten pieces: for thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, Behold I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to you: (But he shall have one tribe for my servant David's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel.

Hearing of Abijah's prophecy, Solomon saw in Jeroboam, the youthful Ephraimite, an insubordinate spirit, and a usurper of his throne. The relation was strikingly similar to that of Saul and David, except that David did not lift his hand against the king. Realizing his position, Jeroboam fled to Shishak, the kid of Egypt; and in that country he remained until Solomon's death. (I Kings 11:40) When Solomon died, after a reign of forty years, his son Rehoboam went to Shechem, a central meeting place for the northern tribes, to make himself king. In the meantime, Jeroboam in Egypt, heard of Solomon's death and the oppressed people called him forth as a leader. And he and the people met Rehoboam at Shechem, demanding relief against the yoke that his father had imposed upon them. But Rehoboam not only ignored their plea, but answered them roughly, promising that he would add to their yoke, and where his father had chastised them with whips, he would chastise them with scorpions. (I Kings 12:1-15) And so the ten tribes rebelled and chose Jeroboam king over all Israel. Rehoboam came to Jerusalem and prepared for war against Jeroboam and vainly attempted to subdue the rebellion. Jeroboam enlarged and fortified Shechem for a royal residence. He feared the return of the house of David to power, and calculating that should the people go up to do sacrifice in the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, they would reaffirm their allegiance to Rehoboam, and kill him. So he took counsel and made two calves of gold, and he said to the people, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold your gods, O Israel, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt. And he set up the one in Dan in the northern part of the kingdom, and the other at Bethel (not Nephtali) in the southern, thus catering to the convenience of the people. And he ordained a feast and offered up sacrifices to these new gods at both places. (I Kings 12:20-33)

Shemaiah (Semeias) silenced Rehoboam in the war against Jeroboam, and he also wrote a history of Rehoboam's reign; and he prophesied that Shishak (Sesac) the Egyptian king would do much mischief in the land of Judah, namely in the fifth year of Rehoboam.


Shemaiah was one of the prophets of the age, who, according to the Bible, wielded a great moral power over the king and nation (I Kings 12:22-24):

The word of God came to Shemaiah, the man of God, saying, Speak to Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, king of Judah, and to all the house of Judah and Benjamin, and to the remnant of the people, saying, You shall not go up and fight against your brothers the children of Israel; return every man to his house; for this thing is from me. They listened therefore to the word of the Lord and returned to depart, according to the word of the Lord.

The prophet's words on this occasion, though doubtless much against the royal will, awed the king into submission. He appeared again in the time of Shishak's invasion, and his ministry was instrumental in averting the possible consequences of that invasion—the destruction of Jerusalem. (II Chron. 12:5-7) He also composed a history of Rehoboam's reign. (II Chron. 12:15)

Abdo the prophet, prophesied against the golden calves; and the hand of Jeroboam withered. And as he was returning to Jerusalem he was killed by a lion.[Jeroboam, having set up the idols, assembled the people to engage in the solemn worship of them; and to show his zeal for the service he officiated at the altar himself. But while he was thus occupied, a mysterious prophet from the land of Judah (whose name is here given as Abdo, but is nowhere given in the Bible) appeared in the midst of the assembly and uttered a prediction that a man by the name of Josiah should arise and destroy that altar, and should burn upon it the bones of the priests; and to confirm his authority he gave this sign, that the altar should immediately be broken in pieces and the ashes upon it be poured out; and it was so. Greatly provoked by this interference, Jeroboam put forth his hand to seize the prophet; but it was stiffened, so that he could not draw it in. Intimated by this miraculous judgment, and convinced that the man was indeed a prophet of the Lord, he begged him to intercede for him that his withered arm might be restored, which was done accordingly. Jereboam, however, was not reformed by these miracles, but continued in his idolatries. (I Kings 13:1-6) The incident that the prophet was killed by a lion on his way back to Jerusalem still requires explanation. In sending him on his mission God had commanded him, Eat no bread, nor drink water, nor turn again by the same way you came. He was first tempted to break this mandate by Jeroboam, who invited him to his house to refresh himself and to reward him; but he refused. The purpose of God's command was that he should have no fellowship or communion with the works of darkness of these people, not so much as even to eat or drink with them. He was to deliver his message in passing, so to speak. Yet when "an old prophet" invited him to his house to eat bread, and assured him that he too was a prophet, and falsely represented to him that an angel of the Lord had spoken to him to bring him back into his house that he might eat bread and drink water, he believed him and accepted his hospitality. For this transgression, a lion afterward met him on the way and slew him. (I Kings 13:7-24) In the German edition of the , this paragraph follows that of Baasha and precedes that of Elah.]

Nadab, son of King Jeroboam, was the second king of Israel. He began to reign in the second year of Asa (Aza) the king of Judea, and, like his father, he committed much evil. But Baasha (Baasa) slew him and reigned in his stead, according to the prophecy of Ahijah.[Nadab was the son and successor of Jeroboam. His wicked reign of two years was brought to a close at Gibbethon, a city of the Philistines, by the successful conspiracy of Baasha. (I Kings 15:25-28)]

Baasha, of the tribe of Issachar, third king of Israel, also committed evil before the Lord and wandered in all the wicked ways of Jeroboam. He would not listen to Jehu (Hieu), the prophet, who was sent by him, but killed him. However, he himself was killed by Chreone. [Baasha was the third king of Israel and founder of a dynasty, though probably of non-aristocratic birth. (I Kings 16:2) He rose to the throne by his slaughter of Nadab, king of Israel, and all his family, while the king was besieging Gibbethon. (I Kings 15:27) By this cruel act he unwittingly fulfilled the prophecy regarding Jeroboam's posterity. (I Kings 14:10) He followed in the wicked ways of Jeroboam and was visited with the most fearful judgments. The warnings he received through Jehu, the prophet, did not deter him from his wicked course. He reigned 24 years, a period filled with war and treachery, and his family and relatives were cut off according to prediction. (I Kings 16:3-11) ]

Hela (Elah) the son of Baasha, was the fourth king of Israel. He and his father's entire house were slain by his servant Zimri (Zambricum), who "left not one that pisses against a wall." [Elah was the son and successor of Baasha, king of Israel. He reigned two years, and was assassinated by Zimri, "captain of half his chariots," while he was "drinking himself drunk in the house of Arza, steward of his house in Tirzah." The record of this king is a repetition of that of Nadab, the son of Jeroboam. As Nadab ended the first, so Elah ended the second dynasty of the Israelite kings.]

Zadok (Sadoch), a high priest, began to function at the beginning of Solomon's reign. He was in the line of bishops the eighth.

Achimas (Achimaas), the son of Zadok.

Ahimaaz (Achimas), the ninth high priest of the Hebrews, was renowned and held in the greatest honor by the Jews.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE

The woodcut of Solomon's Temple is intended to amplify the text on the verso of the opposite folio. It measures 5-9/16" x 8-3/4". It is a rather inferior piece of work and neither complies with the specifications of that "noble pile" in the Bible, nor is it in accord with the consensus of conjecture as to what the temple really looks like. According to the present artist, it was hexagonal in outline, while the biblical narrative gives it only length and breadth, and a rectangular shape. There is also a lack of balconies and the necessary guardrails. The temple was apparently a three-story structure, but it is not so shown here. The place, to which the temple was after all a mere adjunct, is not in evidence, unless the slender square tower to the left, with the grand staircase, is meant to represent the "great house" of the celebrated king. The minor structures in the foreground to either side of the temple are apparently intended as porches or antechambers to the temple, although they appear in a rather unrelated position.

In the temple court seven persons, probably priests, are promenading about, while an eighth one is upon his knees in front of a flat object that resembles a prayer rug. All is surrounded by a fortified wall with turrets at frequent intervals. All the structures have cupolas, most of which resemble a fair sized and rather ripe squatty tomato. In the distance is a hilly landscape.

(B) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (continued)

The Priestly Lineage is here continued from folio XLI verso, where Eli,Phinehas, Ahitub, Ahimelech and Abiathar were portrayed. The present panel contains but two illustrations, the son and grandson of Ahitub:

  1. The first of these is a portrait of Zadok (Sadoch), son of Ahitub. Zadok was one of the two high priests in the time of David, Abiathar being the other (II Sam. 8:17). He joined David at Hebron and was always faithful to him, staying behind in Jerusalem at his request during Absalom's rebellion. He subsequently anointed Solomon as king, and was rewarded by him for his faithful service by being made sole high priest.
  2. The second is a portrait of Ahimaaz (Achimas), son of Zadok, and it is a duplicate of the portrait of Bukki in the Priestly Lineage shown at Folio XXXVII verso. The line of the priests up to the time of the captivity is to be found in I Chron. 6:3-48.

(C) LINEAGE OF THE ISRAELITE KINGS

Here begins the Lineage of the Israelite Kings, the first four of whom are portrayed in a narrow panel in the usual form. They appear in order of the text: Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha (Baasa) and Elah (Hela). Neither the Bible nor the Chronicle give these potentates very good characters, and their portraits are about as "tough" as their records. The portrait of Hela is a duplicate of the portrait of Amytitas found in Folio XXV recto.

(D) THREE HEBREW PROPHETS

The three Hebrew prophets, Ahijah (Achias), Shemaiah (Semeias) and Abdo (the mysterious prophet who remains unnamed in the Bible) are portrayed by three small woodcuts scattered through the text.

FOLIO XLVIII verso

Perusia (now Perugia) is a very ancient and noble city of Etruria; and although formerly the first, it is now the third of all the Etrurian cities. According to Justin[Justin (the English form of his Latin name Justinus) was, like Schedel, also a compiler of sorts. He is the author of (known in English as the , short for the ), a work described by himself in his preface as a collection of the most important and interesting passages from the very lengthy , written in the time of Augustus by Pompeius Trogus, but now lost. His date is unknown, except that he must have lived after Trogus. Although the main theme of Trogus was the history of the Macedonian monarchy, Justin permitted himself a certain amount of freedom of digression, and thus produced an anthology instead of a mere summary (the meaning of ‘epitome'). Justin's history was widely used in the Middle Ages, during which the author was sometimes confounded with Justin Martyr.] it was built by the Achaeans. It had its beginning at the time the city of Rome was built, although some say that Perusius, the Trojan prince, was its builder, and that it was named Perusium, or Perusiam, after him. More than any other city in Italy, Perugia enjoyed the blessings of good fortune, and that to an incredible degree. This position it maintained, together with the same manners, customs and commercial dealings which it enjoyed before the building of Rome; and these it continued to enjoy when Rome was ruled by kings, consuls, emperors, and tyrants. Yet Perugia suffered from various attacks. After the death of Alexander the Great, it was forced to submit to the Romans, under the power and compulsion of L. Posthumus, the consul.[ Posthumus (M. Cassianus Latinius Postumus) is second on the list of the thirty tyrants, enumerated by Trebellius Pollio. He was a man of humble origin and owed his advancement to merit. Valerian nominated him governor of Gaul, and he was specially entrusted with the defense of the Rhenish frontier.] Livy relates that Fabius, the Roman, during the period of unrest and wars in Etruria, slew 4500 Perugians. Later, under the rule of the Roman triumvirate, the city was very unfortunate. The emperor Octavian besieged L. Antonius, the brother of M. Antonius (Mark Anthony), in the city of Perugia, and during that time the forces of Anthony and the Perugians suffered famine to an unheard-of degree. The city was captured and destroyed. When Octavian became sole ruler, he soon rebuilt the city, securing it with forts and turrets, which are still to be seen there. He called the city Augusta (Augusta Perusia), after himself; and to this cubit-high inscriptions on the fortifications testify to this day. The city is so situated, surrounded by sharp peaks and mountains, that it requires no other form of defense. Although there has been much dissension among the people of the city, and they were at times oppressed by tyrants, Perugia is now free and has within it good and highly educated men and laws. Here are to be found mighty churches, and beautifully adorned cloisters for the spiritual, tall palaces for the laity, large hospitals for the poor, a very renowned school, a large market, a beautiful fountain and a park well improved with buildings. Its fields produce oil, wine, saffron and all manner of sweet fruits. Here flourished Baldus[ Baldus de Ubaldis, Petrus (1327-1406) was an Italian jurist of the noble Ubaldi family. He studied civil law at Perugia under Bartolus, gaining the doctorate at the age of 17. Federicus Petrucius of Siena was his master in the canon law. Baldus taught at Bologna for three years, and then became a professor at Perugia, where he stayed thirty-three years. Later he taught at Pisa, Florence, Padua, and Pavia, when the schools of law in those universities disputed supremacy with Bologna. The extant Treatises of Baldus hardly account for the reputation he enjoyed, due partly to his public career, and partly to the fame of his consultations of which there are five volumes.], who was held in high esteem; and he, together with Bartolus Sassoferrato[Bartolus (1314-1357) was an Italian jurist, and the most famous master of the dialectical school. He was a native of Sassoferrato; whence his name Bartolus Saxoferrato. He studied law under Cinus at Perugia and other noted men at Bologna. His reputation was probably due to his revival of the exegetical system of law teaching. His treatises and are his best known works, although his has been sometimes exalted to equal authority with the code itself.], were supreme in knowledge of the civil and canon law. Similarly, Angelus and Petrus, brothers.[Angelus and Petrus were brothers of Baldus, and also eminent as jurists.] And Cinus before them was a very skillful lawyer of Perusia. During our time Matheolus, the celebrated physician, was born here, and with his learning and teaching he flourished in the University of Padua.[Perusia (now Perugia) was an ancient city in the eastern part of Etruria. It was one of the 12 cities of the Etruscan confederacy. It was situated on a hill, and was strongly fortified by nature and by art. In conjunction with the other cities of Etruria, it long resisted the Roman power, but at a later period was made a Roman colony. It is memorable in the civil wars as the place in which L. Antonius, the brother of the triumvir, took refuge, when he was no longer able to oppose Octavian in the field, and where he was kept closely besieged by Octavian for some months, from the end of 41 BCE to the spring of 40. Famine compelled it to surrender; but one of its citizens having set fire to his own house, the flames spread, and the whole city was burnt to the ground. It was rebuilt and colonized anew by Augustus, from whom it received the surname of Augusta. In the later time of the empire it was the most important city in all Etruria, and long resisted the Goths. Part of the walls and some of the gates still remain. Perugia, the capital of Umbria, is the seat of an archbishopric and of a small university founded in 1320. It lies in a group of hills about 1,000 feet above the valley of the Tiber. Of the Etruscan walls that enclosed the old town, over 3,000 yards in length, considerable portions still remain. In the 14th-15th century, Perugia was the most powerful city in Umbria, but in 1370, rent by internal quarrels; it had to surrender to the pope. The struggle for independence was, however, continued under various leaders, notably Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone, who usurped the supreme power in 1416, and later under Giovanni Parlo Baglioni, down to the end of the 15th century. Perugia was famous as the seat of the Umbrian school of painting. Perugino and Pinturicchio lived there. Matheolus, to whom Doctor Schedel refers in the text, was for three years his instructor in medicine at the University of Padua (see folio CCLII verso).]

ILLUSTRATION
CITY OF PERUGIA

The old Etrurian city of Perusia (now Perugia) is here represented by the same woodcut that at folio XXIII verso is used to represent the city of Damascus.

FOLIO XLIX recto

The writings of the religious teachers treating of these times give no consideration to the history of the pagans, perhaps because they are of no service in an understanding of the Holy Scriptures. Some make no mention of intermediate kings up to the time of Sardanapalus, the last Assyrian ruler.

Rehoboam (Roboam), son of Solomon, and third Hebrew king, did not follow the wisdom of his father; he scorned the advice of his elders, and followed the willful inclinations of younger men; and in consequence he depressed the people and retained but two of the tribes. This was called the kingdom of Judah. Because of his sinful conduct he was obliged to endure the violence and persecutions of the Egyptian king. Rehoboam had eighteen wives and thirty concubines, twenty-eight sons, and forty daughters. The kingdom of David was divided in the first year of his reign, and was never reunited.

Jehu (Hyeu), son of Hanani (Anani) the prophet, was sent to Baasha; and he firmly suffered martyrdom unto his death.

Jehu, Eleazar (Eliezer) and Uzziel (Oziel), together with Azariah (Azaria), prophesied for Asa (Aza), Jehoshaphat (Josaphat), and Joram, the kings of Judea.

After Silvius, the son of Aeneas from Lavinia, and third king of the Latins, the succeeding kings were called Silvius. He was called Silvius because he was raised in the woods and was a hunter. He was born after the death of his father. And he is called Postumus because he was born after the burial of his father Aeneas, according to that account of Virgil. By the common people he was called Postumus, and he reigned 29 years.

The German edition of the Chronicle replaces this paragraph with the following sentence: "The successors of Silvius Aeneas, son of the third king of Latium, were called Silvius after him."

All succeeding kings of Alba bore the name Silvius. These mythical kings according to Livy, Ovid and Dionysius, were as follows:

LIVYOVIDDIONYSIUS
1.AeneasAeneasAeneas
2.AscaniusAscaniusAscanius
3.SilviusSilviusSilvius
4.Aeneas SilviusAeneas Silvius
5.Latinus SilviusLatinusLatinus Silvius
6.AlbaAlbaAlba
7.AtysEpytusCapetus
8.CapysCapysCapys Silvius
9.CapetusCapetusCapetus
10.TiberinusTiberinusTiberinus
11.AgrippaRemulusAgrippa
12.Romulus SilviusAcrotaAlladius
13.AventinusAventinusAventinus
14.ProcaPalatinusProcas
15.AmuliusAmuliusAmulius

Aeneas, son of said Silvius Postumus, reigned 31 years, and left an heir, Latinus, and died.[Postumia Gens was one of the most ancient patrician family clans at Rome. Its members frequently held the highest state offices. The most distinguished family in the gens was that of Albus or Albinus; but we also find at the commencement of the republic families of the names of Megellus and Tubertus.]

Abijah, son of Rehoboam, and fourth king of the Jews, reigned three years. He was wicked before the Lord and followed in the evil ways of his father, and therefore reigned but a few years. Jeroboam, the king of Israel, made war against him, and in that war Jeroboam employed 80,000 fighting men and Abijah 40,000. And although Abijah saw such a great force coming against him, he trusted in God and he easily silenced and overcame it, and he slew 5,000 men in a single battle.[II Chron. 13:1-22. ]

Hanani, the prophet, reproved Asa, and was therefore imprisoned.[II Chron. 16:7-10. The German edition of the switches the order of this paragraph and the one that follows it.]

Latinus reigned 50 years in the time of David.

Alba Silvius was the son of Aeneas Silvius. He built the city of Alba, after which the kings of the Albans were named.

Atys (Achis) reigned for 24 years in the time of Rehoboam. His son Capys survived him.

Asa, in the beginning of his reign and up to the thirty-sixth year, did what was good before the Lord, and followed in the way of David, his father. He abolished idolatry and defeated the Ethiopians who came against him.[II Chron. 14:1-5.] Finally, he made a league with Benhadad (Benedab), king of Syria. This was a mistake, and the Lord sent the prophet Hanani to him; but Asa imprisoned him.[II Chron. 16:7-10.] For this reason he was diseased in the feet; and from that he died.[II Chron. 16:12-13. ] While Asa ruled and all was well with the kingdom and according to the law of God, Zerah (Zara), king of the Ethiopians, attacked him with a vast army. Asa and his forces went forth to meet them. And he called upon the Lord, and the Ethiopians were frightened off, and turned in flight.[II Chron. 14:9-15.] Thereupon Azariah the prophet ran to meet Asa, and he comforted him with the prophecy that Jerusalem would be taken by the Chaldeans.[II Chron. 15:1-8.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (continued)

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio XLVI verso, which there ended with Solomon. We here resume, and add:

  • Rehoboam (Roboam), son of Solomon;
  • Abijah (Abya), son of Rehoboam; and
  • Asa, son of Abijah.

And so we have just another line of kings, with crown, orb and scepter; the portrait of Rehoboam being a repetition of the woodcut called Belus, first king of Assyria at Folio XVII verso; while that of Asa stood for Ninus of the same line at the same place. The portrait of Abijah is new, but there is nothing unusual about it.

(B) JEHU, ELEAZER, OZIEL (UZZIEL), AND HANANI, THE PROPHETS.

Jehu, Eleazer and Oziel (Uzziel) are shown in a small triple portrait of no particular interest; while Hanani is found further down the page surrounded by the black letter text. His portrait did service for Rechab at Folio XXXIV verso.

(C) LINEAGE OF THE ITALIAN KINGS (continued)

The Lineage of the Italian Kings is continued from Folio XLIII recto, and the following are here added:

  • Silvius Postumus.
  • Aeneas Silvius.
  • Latinus Silvius.
  • Alba Silvius.
  • Atys (Achis) Silvius.

The Lineage of Italian Kings began at Folio XXXV recto.

FOLIO XLIX verso

Azariah, son of Obed, was a prophet and flourished at this time. He prophesied from prison. He went forth to meet Asa, the king. The king was encouraged by his words; and he was warned to abolish idolatry from the land of Judah and Benjamin.[He met Asa's victorious army at Mareshash and urged them to begin religious reform. (II Chron. 15:1-8)]

Zimri (Zamri), a king of Israel, annihilated the house of Baasha; but Zimri was before long himself defeated by Omri (Amri), who afterwards ruled in his place.[Omri was one of the most important kings of Israel and the founder of a dynasty. He was one of the generals of the army under Elah, son of Baasha. This king was assassinated by Zimri, another officer of the army who usurped the throne. Omri was at the siege of Gibbethon at the time, and his troops acclaimed him king in the place of his rival. A civil war of some duration followed. The forces of Omri marched forth to Tirzah, where Zimri resided, and captured it. Zimri set fire to the house he occupied and was consumed. The Israelites were then divided into two parties; but after a short struggle Omri prevailed and for a time occupied the old capital Tirzah. In the sixth year of his reign Omri built Samaria, which thereafter became the capital of the ten tribes. The prophet Micah (Micah 6:16) speaks of the "statutes of Omri," and denounces them. They were probably of an idolatrous character. Omri subdued Moab to Israel. The Assyrians first became acquainted with Israel in the time of Omri, and they called the country "the land of the house of Omri," even after the extinction of his dynasty. The length of his reign is stated to have been twelve years.]

Elijah (Helia) the prophet, though prayers brought about a drought of three years upon the land; and he was fed by a raven at the brook Cherith (Carith). The raven brought him meat and bread early and late. He was also fed at Zarephath (Sareptana) by a widow who still had a small quantity of flour, which never grew less. And he raised her son from the dead.[] On Mount Carmel, before the assembled people, he caused the fire of heaven to come down upon the sacrifice, something which the 400 priests of the idolaters could not accomplish; and he slew them.[I Kings 18:19-40.] Therefore Jezebel pursued him, and Elijah fled into the wilderness. An angel appeared to him as he slept under a juniper tree. And the angel awakened him, and urged him to eat the bread which he had brought him; by the strength of which Elijah journeyed 40 days unto Mount Horeb.[I Kings 19:1-8.] And from there he went to Damascus. Thereafter the Lord drew him up into heaven by means of a whirlwind.[]

Obadiah (Abdyas), one of the twelve prophets, was a steward of the house of Ahab (Achab), king of Israel. Now when the queen, Jezebel (Jezabel)[Jezebel was a daughter of Ethbaal, king of Tyre, and previously high priest of the Tyrian Baal. She was the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel, of the dynasty of Omri. Her influence in the land of Israel, particularly in combating the religion of Yahweh in the interests of Baal worship, was exercised not only during the twenty-two years of Ahab's reign, but also during the thirteen years of the rule of her sons, Ahaziah and Joram. Moreover, this influence extended, though in a less degree, to the Southern Kingdom of Judah, where Athaliah, the daughter of Jezebel, seems to have followed in the footsteps of her mother (II Kings 8:18). In her strength of character, her lust for power, her unshrinking and resolute activity, her remorseless brushing aside of everything and anything that interfered with her plans, she was the prototype of Catherine de Medici. In the Old Testament, the figure of Jezebel is presented in connection with some dramatic episodes—such as the account of the trial of strength between the prophets of Baal and Elijah (I Kings 18:19 to 19:3); the narrative about Naboth and his vineyard (I Kings 21:1-16), and, as illustrating her obstinate and unbending character to the very end—note particularly her words to Jehu in II Kings 9:31, and the story of her death in II Kings 9:30-37.], Ahab's wife, slew the prophets of the Lord, Obadiah hid fifty from among them in one cave, and fifty in another; and for this he earned the spirit of prophecy.[I Kings 18:4.]

Ahab, the sixth king of Israel, chiefly because of the influence of his wife, Jezebel, exceeded all his predecessors in wickedness. Finally he was wounded in battle, and died. Jezebel was the daughter of the king of Sidon, and a symbol of wrath. She killed Naboth and the prophets of the Lord, but was herself slain by Jehu and eaten by dogs.[]

Micaiah or Micah (Micheas), a prophet out of the tribe of Ephraim (Ephrem), often reproved Ahab for his sins, and prophesied to him that he would die; and so in a war against Syria, he was shot to death while alone on a chariot.

Micaiah, or Micah, the son of Imlah, is called by Ahab, at the request of his ally, Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, to prophesy the result of a projected expedition against the Syrians, and he foretells the disaster which will befall them if they go up to Ramothgilead to battle. But Ahab, king of Israel, and Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, nevertheless gave battle there.

And a certain man drew a bow on a whim, and struck the king of Israel between the joints of the harness: and so he said to the driver of his chariot, Turn your hand, and carry me out of the battle; for I am wounded. And the battle increased that day: and the king remained in his chariot against the Syrians, and died in the evening; and the blood ran out of the wound into the midst of the chariot. . . So the king died, and was brought to Samaria; and they buried the king in Samaria. And one washed the chariot in the pool of Samaria; and the dogs licked up his blood; and they washed his armor; according to the word of the Lord which he spoke.

I Kings 22:34-38

Ahaziah (Ochosias), the seventh king of Israel, sent (messengers) to Beelzebub, the local deity of Ekron (Accaron)[Ekron was the most northerly of the five cities of the Philistines, in the lowlands of Judah. It is now called Akir and is on a hill 12 miles south of Joppa.], to learn whether he would get well again. But he died as Elijah had prophesied. He began to reign in the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, and he left no son. Joram, his brother, succeeded him in the kingdom.["Ahaziah, the son of Ahab, began to reign over Israel in Samaria the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years over Israel." (I Kings 22:51) "Then Moab rebelled against Israel after the death of Ahab. And Ahaziah fell down through a lattice in his upper chamber that was in Samaria, and was sick, and he sent for messengers and said to them, Go, enquire of Beelzebub the god of Ekron whether I shall recover of this disease. But the angel of the Lord said to Elijah the Tishbite, Arise, go up to meet the messengers of the king of Samaria, and say to them, Is it not because there is not a God in Israel, that you go to enquire of Beelzebub the god of Ekron? Now, therefore, thus says the Lord, You shall not come down from that bed on which you now are, but shall surely die. And Elijah departed. (II Kings 1:1-4) "So he died according to the word of the Lord which Elijah had spoken. And Jehoram reigned in his stead in the second year of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah; because he had no son." (II Kings 1:17)]

Jonah (Jonas), the son of Amittai (Amathi), was a brilliant prophet, and prophesied many things that are not here related. He was thereafter sent to Nineveh, as is related in his book. While still a child he is said to have been awakened from the dead by Elijah. He was swallowed by a whale. By his dangerous sea voyage he presaged the sufferings of Christ.[Jonah, the prophet, was the son of Amittai. Nothing certain is known of his history except his autobiography, contained in his own book. According to the biblical text bearing his name, he was sent by God to Nineveh, the metropolis of ancient Assyria, to preach repentance, and to announce the city's impending doom. For a reason not mentioned until the conclusion of the Book of Jonah—the fear that God would repent of his purpose—he refused to obey; and in order to escape from the immediate jurisdiction of God, he took passage at Joppa for Tarshish (Tartessus in Spain), in a heathen ship. A great storm arose, and the crew holding him responsible for this misfortune to their craft, cast him overboard. He was swallowed by a whale, but after three days and nights he was spewed up on land.]

Jehoram (Joram) was besieged in Samaria by Benhadad; but he was relieved by the efforts of Elisha. He began to reign in the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat the king, in the place of his brother Ahaziah. But thereafter he followed in the wicked ways of Jeroboam, and was slain, together with all his father's house, by Jehu; although for many years he had observed the laws of God and ruled his subjects justly, and had held Elisha the prophet in honor and respect. The Moabite king made war upon his kingdom and overthrew and plundered it.[Jehoram of Israel, was a son of Ahab, and came to the throne after the brief reign of his brother Ahaziah. The first thing that claimed his attention was the revolt of Moab. This he endeavored to suppress, and with the aid of Jehoshaphat of Judah, he obtained some successes; but in the end the allied forces retreated without having accomplished their purpose. It is probably that the Moabites assumed the offensive, and took some of the Israelite cities. The prophet Elisha was active during the reign of Jehoram, and it is likely that the siege of Samaria, of which there is a graphic account in II Kings 6 and 7, also belongs to this period. Jehoram of Israel is to be distinguished from his namesake of Judah, the son of Jehoshaphat, who came to the throne of Judah during the reign of the other Jehoram in Israel. He was married to Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel (II Kings 8:16-24).]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) HEBREW PROPHETS

To the left of this page we see a vertical array of the five Hebrew prophets, all of whom are briefly mentioned in the accompanying text:

  1. Azariah (Azarias), who was Abdon at Folio XLI recto.
  2. Elijah (Helya), who was Hercules at Folio XXXVII recto.
  3. Obadiah (Abdias).
  4. Micaiah (Micheas).
  5. Jonah (Jonas).

(B) LINEAGE OF THE ISRAELITE KINGS (continued)

The Lineage of Israelite Kings is here continued from Folio XLVIII recto (Jeroboam I, Nadab, Baash and Elah), and the following are added:

  1. Zimri (Zamri).
  2. Omri (Amri).
  3. Ahab (Achab) and Jezebel (Jesabel), a new dual portrait.
  4. Ahaziah (Ochosias).
  5. Jehoram (Joram).

As noted, the only new woodcut is the dual portrait of Ahab, and his queen Jezebel, both of whom appear with sword in hand, as though ready for any bloody work that might present itself.

FOLIO L recto

Jericho, at one time a royal residence and celebrated city, has now become a little village. It lies in a very beautiful region in the valley of the Jordan. It has about eight houses. All evidence of its holy character has entirely disappeared. The Holy Scriptures state that the Lord did much in Jericho. He miraculously broke down its walls, and caused Joshua to pronounce a curse against anyone who should rebuild them.[Josh. 6:26.] Rahab the prostitute was of this city.[Rahab, Josh. 2:8-23; 6:17-25.] And there Christ was given lodging in the house of Zacchaeus.[Zacchaeus was chief revenue officer of the district. (Luke 19:1-9) ] There also bears tore asunder those who mocked Elisha the prophet. In this city the Lord made the blind to see.[Matt. 20:24-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-58.] Near it was a garden of balsams, of whose delights something has been written. This valley with its adjacent mountains which enclose it like a wall, covers an area of 200,000 jugera.[The Latin edition of the uses the word >jugera; the German, morgen. It is a Roman land measure, corresponding to our acre. But the Roman has 28,800 square feet, equivalent to 240 feet in length by 120 feet in width; while the English and American statute acre contains 43,560 square feet, or 4,840 square yards, or 160 square rods. The English and American rod is 5½ yards in length; so the square rod has 30.25 square yards.] Therein is a grove widely renowned for its fruitfulness and its delights. The balsam trees resemble pines, but are lower in stature.[The balsam or balm grows to a height of 12 to 14 feet. It belongs to the evergreen family. The resin that it produces is exceedingly odoriferous. It was anciently found in Judea and particularly in Gilead, from whence the Ishmaelites carried it as merchandise to Egypt. It was reckoned very valuable in the cure of external wounds, and was known as "the balm of Gilead."] They are grown like the vineyards. Although the sun is hottest in this region, the atmosphere is moderated by the shade of these trees.[Jericho is a very ancient city mentioned in the Old Testament as well as the New. It is situated in the valley of the Jordan, about five miles west of the river, and six or seven miles north of the Dead Sea. The portion of the plain on which it stood was noted for its fertility, being watered by a large spring, called the "Fountain of Elisha." Jericho is first mentioned as the city against which the Israelites were encamped before entering the Promised Land. (Deut. 34:3; Num. 22:1; 26:3). The town was of considerable size, strongly fortified, and a royal seat. Spies were sent into the city and received by Rahab the harlot. The wall fell after being encompassed seven days. A curse was thereafter pronounced against anyone who should rebuild it (Josh. 6:26). This curse was fulfilled upon Hiel, 553 years later (I Kings 16:34). In spite of many conquests, Jericho continued to flourish. The city is mentioned 56 times in the Old Testament and 7 times in the New.]

As Elijah wandered about with his disciple Elisha, they came to the river Jordan. And as Elijah struck the waters with his mantle, a path was formed, and they went through the middle. Thereupon Elijah asked Elisha to express a wish before he (Elijah) was taken away from him. And he prayed Elijah to give him a double portion of his spirit, that is, to do miracles, and to prophesy. And Elijah said, if you see me when I am taken from you, you shall receive it. And while they thus talked to one another, a fiery chariot appeared, with fiery horses. And Elijah stepped in the chariot, and was taken up into heaven, that is, into the earthly paradise. There he will stay, alive, with Enoch, up to the time of Antichrist. Then he will depart from there to preach. And Elisha cried, my father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof, etc. And he took hold of the mantle that had fallen from Elijah, and returned to the Jordan. And he struck it with the mantle a second time; and the waters parted. And he went to Jericho to live there. At the request of the inhabitants he cured the evil waters of the region with a new jar containing salt, which he let down into the waters, making them fresh and good. And he went up from there to Bethel, and the children laughed at him, and said, go up, you bald head. And he cursed them, and two bears came and tore 42 of the children.[] Elijah, the greatest prophet of his time, was, during this period, thus taken away from the people. Nobody saw the end. During his lifetime he worked many miracles; and he was like a burning fire, and his words like a flaming torch. Finally, in the presence of Elisha, he was carried to heaven in a whirlwind, and he left Elisha behind in his stead.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) THE CITY OF JERICHO.

Jericho is represented by a woodcut 5"x 8-⅞". The place has the appearance of desolation. Before us are the city walls and gate. In the distance are the ruins of what was probably a castle or fort. Except for a few trees and shrubs, the landscape is barren, the city deserted. The woodcut is here used for the first time.

(B) ASCENSION OF ELIJAH.

(B) The Ascension of Elijah is represented by a woodcut approximately 5-1/4" square. The prophet is leaving the earth in a fiery four-wheeled box-shaped wagon, resembling those used by children at play. The vehicle is rather diminutive in comparison with its load. The horses disappear in a cloud of fire. Elijah looks back at Elisha who has seized the mantle of his master.

FOLIO L verso

Ben-hadad (Benedab), a son of Tab-rimmon (Tabremmon), a son of Hezion (Ozyon), king of Syria, entered into a league with Baasha, the king of Israel. After breaking this alliance, he entered into a league with Asa the king of Judah; since which time the kings of Syria afflicted the kingdom of Israel, etc.[I Kings 15:16-22.] Ben-hadad, the king of Syria, assembled his forces; and he had thirty-two kings to aid him. He joined in battle with Ahab, the king of Israel. The Lord, through a prophet, prophesied a victory (for Israel) and the defeat of the enemy. And so it happened, for the enemy fled. But the king of Syria at the return of the year strengthened himself with a new army, and he came on to give battle to Israel in the plains, saying that the gods of the hills were the gods of Israel; for which reason they (the Syrians) were formerly defeated. But the Syrian army was again routed, and of their number 100,000 were slain and over 47,000 fled to the city, where they were crushed by the falling of the wall. But Ben-hadad the king of Syria concealed himself; and he sent messengers to Ahab in hairy raiment, and with ashes upon their heads, to plead for mercy. And this Ahab granted, and left him free. For this a prophet, clad in disguise, called him to account by means of the parable of the man who was asked to keep another man prisoner, on pain of losing his own life if he escaped. And as Ahab had released Ben-hadad, who was deserving of death, therefore he prophesied that Ahab would lose his own life for Ben-hadad's and his people theirs in lieu of the lives of Ben-hadad's people.[]

Hazael (Asael), king of Syria, was, according to prophecy and by the secret judgment of God, made a king of Syria, to punish the children of Israel. Over him Elisha wept, prophesying that he was a future king of Syria, and would do great evil in Israel. And as a punishment for their sins, the Lord sent him into all the lands of Gilead, Ruben, and Manassa;[Hazael was an officer at the court of Syria, and subsequently its most powerful king. Elijah was to anoint him, but left this duty to Elisha; and so when Hazael was dispatched by the king, Ben-hadad, to Elisha to inquire about the consequences of his affliction, the prophet predicted the elevation of Hazael to the throne of Syria, and that he would fire the strongholds of the Israelites, slay their young men with the sword, dash their children, and rip up their women with child. (II Kings 8:7-13) And so he warred against the kingdom of Israel and Judah. "And he attacked them in all the coasts of Israel; from Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites and the Reubenites, and the Manassites, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan." (II Kings 10:32, 33)] and he was a blight all the days of Jehoahaz (Joathas).


Cf. II Kings 13:1-3:

In the three and twentieth year of Joash, the son of Ahaziah king of Judah, Jehoahaz, the son of Jehu, began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned seventeen years. And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and followed the sons of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, which made Israel to sin; and he did not depart from there. And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of Hazael, king of Syria, and into the hands of Ben-hadad, the son of Hazael, all their days."
The reign of Jehoahaz was disastrous to Israel. The country was pillaged by the Syrians. The army was reduced to but a shadow. When his troubles multiplied, Jehoahaz sought the Lord whom he had forsaken, and the Lord ultimately raised up a deliverer in the person of Jehoash, or Joash, his son.

But by the grace of the Lord God, Joash (Joas), his son, took the cities from the hands of Ben-hadad, the son of Hazael, after Hazael's death.

Ben-hadad was the son of Hazael. Joash, the son of Jehoahaz (Joachas) and the king of Israel, took from the hands of Ben-hadad the cities that his (Ben-hadad's) father Hazael had won by war from Jehoahaz. For Joash defeated him three times.[Hazael oppressed Israel all the days of Jehoahaz. When Hazael died, Ben-hadad his son reigned in his stead as king of Syria. And Jehoash (Joash), son of Jehoahaz, took again out of the hands of Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, the cities which he had taken out of the hand of Jehoahaz his father, by war. Three times Joash defeated him and recovered the cities of Israel (II Kings 13:22-25).]

Jehoiada (Joiada) was a distinguished man. He prevented Athaliah from ruling over Judah, and placed Joash, the son of Jehoram, in her stead. As one reads, he lived, according to Moses, 130 years. Pursuant to divine will he arranged matters so that Athaliah was slain in the house of the king.[Jehoiada was a high priest of the Jews. He was the husband of Jehosheba. His administration was so important to the civil and religious interests of the nation, that when he died at an advanced age he was buried in the royal sepulchers at Jerusalem. Athaliah was the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. She introduced Baal-worship into Judah. She advised her own son in his wickedness, and after Jehu had slain him, she resolved to destroy the children of her husband by his former wives, and then take the throne of Judah. But Jehosheba, a half-sister of Ahaziah, secured Joash, one of the children and heir, and secreted him and his nurse for six years. In the seventh year, everything being prepared for the purpose, Joash, the young prince, was brought out and placed on the throne. Attracted by the crowd of people who had assembled to witness the ceremony, and unsuspicious of the cause, Athaliah hastened to the temple. When the people had assembled, and when she saw the young king on the throne, and heard the shouts of the people, and found that all her ambitious designs were about to fail, she tore her clothes and shouted, Treason! Treason! hoping probably to rally a party in favor of her interests. The priest commanded her to be removed from the temple, and she was slain between the temple and the palace. And Jehoiada made a covenant between the Lord and the king and the people, that they should be the Lord's people; between the king also and the people. (II Kings 11:13-17)]

Rezin (Raasim), the king of Syria, devastated Judah in the time of Ahaz (Achas). For this reason Tiglath-pileser (Teglatphalazar) besieged him at Damascus. He captured the city, and slew Rezin.

Ahaz succeeded his father Jotham as the eleventh king of Judah. He worshipped other gods, and even sacrificed his children to the gods. This course brought upon him and his kingdom severe judgments. God made them flee before their enemies. Their allies often proved unfaithful. Early in his reign, Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin, king of Syria, who just at the close of Jotham's reign had confederated for the destruction of Judah, invaded the kingdom with a powerful army and laid siege to Jerusalem. The allies, though defeated at Jerusalem, captured Elath, wasted Judah, and carried 200,000 into captivity. Ahaz in his extremity made a league with Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, who freed him from his enemies, but at the cost of the Judaic kingdom, which became tributary, and Ahaz sent him all the treasures of the temple and palace, and appeared before him in Damascus as a vassal. His only permanent service to his people was the introduction of the sun dial, which was probably connected with the Assyrian astrology and necromancy.

This paragraph and the next have their order switched in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Zechariah (Zacharias) the son of Jehoiada, was stoned between the altar and the temple at the command of the king because he upbraided the king for leaving the way of the Lord.[]

Azariah (Azarias), relying on the laws of God, resisted Uzziah (Ozie), the king of Judah, who was about to sacrifice there, etc.[Azariah was the high priest who in the reign of Uzziah resisted with the eighty priests the king's attempt to perform priestly functions. (II Kings 14:21; II Chron. 26:17-20)]

Naboth, an Israelite, had a vineyard by the house of King Ahab. Ahab attempted to purchase the vineyard, in order to make a garden of it. To this Naboth was opposed. And as Jezebel, the king's wife, saw that Ahab was saddened by this, she comforted him, and so arranged matters that Naboth was accused of blasphemy by false witnesses. Although innocent, he was stoned. When Ahab came to take possession of the vineyard, the Lord sent Elijah, the prophet, to him, to prophesy his extermination and that of his house, because of this sin.[This is substantially the story of Naboth and his vineyard as told in I Kings 21.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (continued)

The Priestly Lineage is here continued from Folio XLVIII recto (where Zadok and his son Ahimaaz were shown); and now are added the following:

  1. Azariah (Azarias), the son of Ahimaaz, represented by the woodcut which did service for Ozy at Folio XXXVII verso.
  2. Jehoiada (Yoyada), represented by woodcut used for Abishua at Folio XXXVII verso.
  3. Azariah, (designated Asarias).

(B) LINEAGE OF THE SYRIAN KINGS

The Lineage of the Syrian Kings has its inception here with the following:

  1. Ben-hadad I (Benedab).
  2. Hazael (Asael).
  3. Ben-hadad II (Benedab).
  4. Rezin (Raasim).

NOTE: There were two Syrian kings named Ben-hadad (I and II), father and son. The first was hired by Asa, king of Judah, to make war on Baasha, king of Israel (I Kings 15:18-22). The second, his son, made war on Ahab, king of Israel (I Kings 20; II Kings 6:27; 7:6; 8:7-15). There was also a Ben-hadad III, son of Hazael, and who was thrice defeated by Joash and lost all his father had gained (II Kings 13).

(C) ZECHARIAS

Zechariah (Zacharias) son of the high priest Jehoiada, branches out from his father into the midst of the text. It was he who was stoned for rebuking Joash for his idolatry (II Chron. 24:21). It is the same woodcut that served for Yepte at Folio XLI recto.

(D) NABOTH

Naboth, owner of the vineyard coveted by Ahab and his Jezebel, is represented by a portrait in the lower right side of the page. It is the same woodcut that served for Abymelech at Folio XXXVII verso and Achias at XLVIII recto.

FOLIO LI recto

Aquileia (Aquileia), a city of Italy, and located beyond Padua, while once the first and mightiest (city), and also the most beautiful, and situated a short distance from the sea, is in our time almost entirely abandoned. It was named after the Trojan, Aquilus, who, with others was driven out of Troy. Then the building of the city began, and from him it has its name. And although a few priests and canons in a small way provide holy services in a decorated and beautiful little church, and a few herdsmen and fishermen reside there, yet a people do not live there now; so that this once magnificent city can hardly be called a citadel now. At present there is the church, just mentioned, and the patriarchal court, the walls about the city, and a convent, and evidences of the work of Peponis, the patriarch. The city began to flourish when the Romans began to raise their hands against the barbarian people living on the Danube. And although the Emperor Augustus Octavianus conducted the war largely though emissaries, yet to be nearer to them he marched (as Suetonius writes) from Rome to Ravenna, Milan and Aquileia. Julia traveled with him, and she was delivered of a child.[This may refer to Julia, the only daughter of Augustus, who was born to him by his wife Scribona.] The Aquileians sided with the Romans against the Maximinians, and were so faithful and ingenious that when there was a scarcity of sinews for bow-strings, they used the locks of their wives and made bow-strings from that.[Maximinus was Roman emperor from 235 CE to 238. He was born in a village on the confines of Thrace, of barbarian parents, his father being a Goth and his mother a German from the tribe of the Alani. Brought up as a shepherd, he attracted the attention of Septimius Severus by his gigantic stature and marvelous feats of strength, and was permitted to enter the army. He eventually rose to the highest rank in the service; and on the murder of Alexander Severus by the mutinous troops in Gaul (235), he was proclaimed emperor. He immediately bestowed the title of Caesar on his son Maximinus. During the three years of his reign he carried on war with success against the Germans; but his government was characterized by a degree of oppression and bloody excesses. The Roman world at length became tired of the monster. The senate and the provinces gladly acknowledged the two Gordiani, who had been proclaimed emperors in Africa; and after their death the senate itself proclaimed Maximinus and Balbinus emperors (238). As soon as Maximinus heard of the elevation of the Gordians he hastened from his winter quarters. Having crossed the Alps, he laid siege to Aquileia, and was there slain by his own soldiers along with his son Maximus. The most extraordinary tales are related of the physical powers of Maximinus. His height exceeded eight feet. The circumference of his thumb was equal to that of a woman's wrist, so that the bracelet of his wife served him for a ring. It is said that he was able to single-handedly draw a loaded wagon, could with his fist knock out the grinders, and with a kick break the leg of a horse; while his appetite was such that in one day he could eat forty pounds of meat and drink an amphora of wine.] Industry and trade in oriental and occidental wares which were brought together there made this city wonderfully and superabundantly rich; for while this city flourished there was no other place on the Adriatic Sea where the people of the Orient and the Occident could get together for the purchase and sale of their merchandise. And after this city had flourished for a long time, it was finally completely destroyed by Attila. The inhabitants fled to Venice and they augmented the city wonderfully. When the holy evangelist St. Mark was sent to Alexandria by St. Peter, and the ships were being prepared at Aquileia, he converted the Aquileians to the Christian faith. And the gospel, which he wrote with his own hand, is held in great esteem at Venice. The pious Hermagoras (Hermacoras)[Hermagorus, the tutelary and first bishop of Aquileia.], who was also converted by the preaching of St. Mark, and in Aquileia by St. Peter, and who was appointed the highest councilor over all Venetia, won over this whole region for our Lord by his conversion to the Christian faith. He and St. Fortunatus were slain with an axe by the Emperor Nero. Chromatius[Chromatius was a Latin writer and bishop of Aquileia. He flourished at the close of the fourth century and the commencement of the fifth. The year and place of his birth are unknown. Though he condemned the writings of Origen, his friendship for Rufinus continued. The latter also dedicated some of his works to him, especially Latin translation of the ecclesiastical history of Eusebius. Jerome showed his regard by inscribing some of his writings to him. He urged Jerome to translate the Hebrew Scriptures into Latin. When Anasthasius, the Pope, condemned both Origen and Rufinus, Chromatius was so far from coinciding, that he received Rufinus into the communion of his church. Of his works there are extent his and some tracts on the beatitudes and on parts of the Gospel of Matthew. A few epistles also remain. Several epistles addressed to Chromatius by Jerome are extant among the voluminous works of the latter. Jerome styles him most holy and learned; but he seems to have been a man of judgment and determination rather than of great ability.] of whom the glorified Jerome has written much, was also of Aquileia; also Rufinus (Ruffinus), the priest, so learned in the Latin and the Greek[ Rufinus (surnamed Tyrannius or Turranius, or Toranus), was a celebrated ecclesiastical writer. He was born in Italy about 345 CE and was at first an inmate of the monastery at Aquileia. Later he resided for many years at a monastery in Palestine, where he became intimate with Jerome. The two afterwards quarreled, and Jerome attacked Rufinus vehemently because he supported the tenets of Origen. After spending twenty-six years in the east, Rufinus returned to Italy in 397, where he published a Latin translation of Pamphilus' for Origen, as well as Origen's , together with an original tract . In the preface to the , he quoted a panegyric, which Jerome had at an early period pronounced upon Origen. This led to bitter correspondence between the two former friends, which was crowned by the Apologia (‘Defense') of the one adversus Hieronymum, and the Apologia of the other adversus Rufinum. Rufinus died in Sicily in 410. He had fled to the island when Alaric invaded Italy.] that we in no small measures esteem his books and interpretations among all the works of the teachers of the church.[Aquileia was located at the very head of the Adriatic, about 60 stadia from the sea. It was founded by the Romans in 182 BCE as a bulwark against the northern barbarians, and it is said to have derived its name from the favorable omen of an eagle (Aquila) appearing to the colonists. Being the key of Italy on the northeast, it was made one of the strongest fortresses of the Romans. From its position it also became a most flourishing commercial center. The Via Aemilia was continued to this town, and from it all the roads to Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, Istria and Dalmatia branched off. It was taken and completely destroyed by Attila in 452 CE, but its inhabitants escaped to the Lagoons, where Venice was afterwards built.]

ILLUSTRATION
THE TOWN OF AQUILEIA

Is here represented by the same woodcut that was used for Mainz at Folio XXXIX verso.

FOLIO LI verso

Treviso (Taruisium), a city lying in the March of Treviso, was at this period (as Sicardus the bishop of Cremona states) founded by some Trojans. The city is divided by the river Sile that flows out of the mountains nearby, and by this and other rivers, having their sources there; it is watered and rendered productive. Treviso is said to have originated in the time of the Ostrogoths, and was then as it appears today; for the father of Totila, the king, made it his royal seat. Totila was the fifth king of the Ostrogoths, and a very distinguished man. He was born and brought up a Treviso. But thereafter, in the beginning of the Lombard kingdom, Alboin, the king of the same, went into Italy, and Aquileia and other cities surrendered to him. Treviso, however, was slow in doing so, and he decided to plunder and destroy it. Felix, the bishop of the city (as Gregory writes), a wise and fearless man and native of Ravenna, was not to be intimidated by the king's grimness. This city was also graced with another distinguished bishop, named Hermalao, who (as becomes a bishop) was more interested in being useful to his people than in merely lording over them. And while the whole March of Treviso was named after this city, yet I believe this was merely due to awkwardness in the use of the name; for in this region are other large cities like Verona and Padua, which excelled Treviso in reputation, power, and wealth. The Lombards possessed a large share of the lands of Italy and among them were four duchies; but in these their sons and grandsons had no lawful rights of inheritance. These were the Beneventian, Spoletanian, Taurinian and Floriaulian regions; also two others, namely the Anconitanian and Trevisian regions, of equal rank with the aforesaid in size and wealth, and held upon condition that whosoever should attain to the kingship with the consent of the king, or through a general assembly of the Lombard people, should have the right and power to pass the lordship on to his sons or other male issue by inheritance. This city, like Padua, did not escape the ravages of Celim and his brother Alberti of Rumano, at whose hands it suffered innumerable troublesome attacks, worries, and sorrows.[ The ancient Tarvisium lay off the main roads, and was not often mentioned by the ancients. In the sixth century it appeared to be an important place and was the seat of a Lombard duke. Charlemagne made it the capital of a marquisate. It joined the Lombard league and was independent after the peace of Constance (1183) until in 1339 it came under the Venetian sway. From 1318 it was for a short time the seat of a university. Its walls and ramparts were renewed under the direction of Fra Giocondo (1509). Treviso was taken in 1797 by the French under Mortier (duke of Treviso). In March 1848, the Austrian garrison was driven from the town by the revolutionary party, but in the following June the town was bombarded and compelled to capitulate. The modern Treviso is the Episcopal see of Venetia, and capital of the province of Treviso. It is situated on the plain between the Gulf of Venice and the Alps, and is eighteen miles by rail from Venice, at the confluence of the Sile and the Botteniga. The former flows partly around its walls, the latter through the town, and it has canal communication with the lagoons. It contains many fine works of art.]

ILLUSTRATION
TRAVISIUM (TREVISO)

The ancient city of Travisium (now Treviso) is represented by a woodcut that was used to represent Paris at Folio XXXIX recto.

FOLIO LII recto

Jehoshaphat (Josaphat) did good in the sight of the Lord, and one reads of him nothing more deserving of punishment than that he gave assistance to an unworthy king of Israel. He extinguished all men of feminine inclinations from the soil of Judah, destroyed idolatry, observed the laws of the fathers; and by such virtues he overcame all the princes in the vicinity. The Palestinians began to pay him tribute. He lived sixty years, and his body was buried at Jerusalem with great pomp.[Jehoshaphat was the son and successor of Asa, king of Judah (I Kings 15:24; II Chron. 17:1). He came to the throne at the age of thirty-five and reigned 25 years. He was a man of distinguished piety, and his reign was powerful and prosperous (II Chron. 17:3-6). He caused the altars and places of idolatry to be destroyed, diffused knowledge of the law throughout the kingdom, and the place of judicial and ecclesiastical authority to be filled by the best men of the land (II Chron. 17:6-9). His sin in forming a league with Ahab, contrary to the counsel of Micaiah, against Ramoth-gilead was severely censured by Jehu (II Chron. 19:2), and nearly cost him his life (II Chron. 18:31). Later in life he connected himself with Ahaziah, son and successor of Ahab, kind of Israel, in a naval expedition; but this alliance with another wicked king also turned out disastrously; for the fleet was utterly destroyed in a storm (II Chron. 20:35, 37). Again, he involved himself in an alliance with Jehoram, the second son of Ahab, and also with the Edomites, for the purpose of invading the land of Moab; but while they attempted to make their way through the wilderness their water supply failed, and the whole army would have perished with thirst had not a miraculous supply been granted in answer to the prayers of Elisha, who accompanied the army (II Kings 3:6-20). Jehoshaphat had seven sons, one of whom, Jehoram, succeeded him.]

Capys (Capis) Silvius built Capua in Campania, and he reigned 28 years and left the kingdom to his son Capetus (Carpentus).

Jehoram (Ioram), the ill-tempered, murdered his brother, and walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. Therefore he was unlucky in all his undertakings and died miserably. Although born of a spiritual father, he was inclined to infidelity and led the sons of Judah to unchaste practices. He followed the unchaste Ahab, whose daughter named Athaliah was his wife, and through her influence he daily committed acts of madness.[Jehoram (Ioram or Joram) was the eldest son of Jehoshaphat, and his successor as king of Judah. He married Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and proved himself as wicked as his relatives. One of the first acts of his government was to put to death his six brothers and several of the chief men of the kingdom (II Chron. 21:4). To punish him for this and other abominations of his reign, the Edomites revolted and secured their independence from the throne of Judah (II Chron.21:8-10). One of his own cities also revolted, and at about the same time he received a writing from Elisha, admonishing him of the dreadful calamities which he was bringing on himself by his wickedness. His territory was overrun by the enemy; the king's palace was plundered, and the royal family, except the youngest son, made prisoners. The king himself was struck with an incurable disease that carried him off unlamented (II Chron. 21:14-20).]

Capetus (Carpentus)[No doubt intended for Capetus, the eighth in the line of the kings of Alba who bore the cognomen Silvius (See note on Silvius, Folio XLIX recto, above).] reigned 30 years after his father, in the time of Jehoshaphat.

Ahaziah (Ochosias), son of Jehoram, and eighth king of Judah, was, like his father, wicked in the sight of the Lord. And soon he was slain by Jehu. Matthew, the evangelist, left this king and the two succeeding ones, namely Joash and Amasias by the wayside. For he wished to mention but three foreigners; or (as Jerome and Augustine state) since Jehoram took to wife the daughter of the most evil Jezebel, therefore his sons to the fourth generation were rejected by the Lord. For Ahaziah walked in the way of Ahab, his maternal ancestor. This Ahaziah, Jehu, the prince of the house of Jehoram, the king of Samaria, exterminated with the entire house of Ahab. His corpse was taken from the city of Megiddo and buried in Jerusalem.[Ahaziah, also called Azariah, was a son of Jehoram and Athaliah. At the age of 22 he succeeded his father as king of Judah (II Kings 8:25). He continued the idolatry of the house of Ahab, and was governed by the advice of his infamous mother. He reigned but one year. He allied himself with his uncle Jehoram, king of Israel, and attacked Hazael, king of Syria, who defeated them at Ramoth-gilead. Jehoram was severely wounded and carried to his palace at Jezreel. There Ahaziah visited him. Israel meanwhile rebelled under Jehu. The two kings went out to meet him, and Jehu killed Jehoram. Ahaziah fled, and was pursued to the pass of Gur, where he was mortally wounded, but escaped, and died at Megiddo.]

Tiberius (Tiberius) Silvis reigned nine years, and after he was drowned in the Tiber, formerly called the Albula, the river was named after him.[Albula was the ancient name of the river Tiber (Tibris).] And so Romulus[Probably Remulus (Agrippa) the royal successor of Tiberinus.] made Tiberius a god, for he believed him to be the ruler of the river Tiber, whose use was very necessary to Rome.

Athaliah, a very vain and proud woman, after the death of her son Ahaziah, brazenly assumed sovereignty over the kingdom; and she slew all the royal seed except Joash (Joas) whom the wife of Jehoiada the bishop, and daughter of Jehoram, nourished in concealment for seven years. After she had reigned seven years Jehoiada cruelly murdered her.[Athaliah, see note on Jehoiada and Athaliah, Folio L verso.]

Agrippa Silvius, king of the Albans, or Italians, reigned for 40 years after his father, the aforesaid Tiberinus.[Agrippa (Silvius), so called by Livy and Dionysus, but called Remulus by Ovid. See note on the Silvian kings of Alba, Folio XLIX recto.]

Jonadab, son of Rechab, was a highly renowned man, in whom the very pious line of the Rechabites originated. When Jehu determined to slay the priests of Baal, Jonadab prophesied to him; for he and his sons were zealous lovers of divine honor, great moderation, and piousness.[The Rechabites were a tribe of Kenite or Midianite origin, descendants of Jehonadab or Jonadab and named from his father or ancestor Rechab. They were worshippers of the true God, though not fully identified with Israel. Jonadab aided Jehu in exterminating the idolatrous house of Ahab (II Kings 10:15-23). He laid an injunction on his posterity not to drink wine, build houses, sow seed, plant vineyards or hold lands, but to dwell in tents (Jer. 35:6-7). These rules were obeyed by his descendants, and their nomadic life and simple habits may have facilitated their escape from the Assyrians, who carried captive the Israelites of the northern kingdom, in which Jonadab had dwelt. Nearly 300 years after Jonadab's day, the Rechabites took refuge in Jerusalem on Nebuchadnezzar's invasion of Judea in the reign of Jehoiakim. Jeremiah was commanded by God to invite them into the temple and offer them wine to drink, that their refusal and filial obedience might rebuke the Jews for their disobedience to God's commands. A divine promise of continued existence was conveyed to the Rechabites by Jeremiah (Jer. 35:1-19) and was undoubtedly fulfilled though it may not now be possible to distinguish them, as some claim to do, among the tribes of Central Arabia.] And mark that the sons of Rechab, by command of their father, lived in the tabernacle as pilgrims and guests upon the earth, isolated from all mankind. They built no house, sowed no seed, and drank no wine.

During the time of Jehoram (Joram), king of Judah, the roof of the temple and its furniture, which had become old and neglected during the reign of Athaliah, were repaired with funds which were collected at the command of the king; for up to this time the priests had neglected to repair such things, although they had received the full measure of necessary funds from the people.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (continued)

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio XLIX recto, which there ended with the portrait of Asa. To this we now add:

  1. Jehoshapaht (Josaphat), son and successor of Asa as king of Judah. Same portrait as was used for Rehoboam (Roboam) at Folio XLIX recto, and for Belus at Folio XVII verso.
  2. Jehoram (Joram), eldest son of Jehoshaphat, and his successor as king of Judah. Same woodcut as Pharaoh Anefre, Folio XXVII recto.
  3. Ahaziah (Ochozia), son and successor of Jehoram.

(B) ATHALIAH

Athaliah (Athalia), infamous daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. This woodcut is used here for the first time. The subject appears crowned, scepter in her right hand, sword in her left.

(C) JONADAB

Jehonadab (Jonadab), was a son or descendant of Rechab. He was a chief among the descendants of Rechab, but not a king, and therefore he appears without royal accessories.

(D) LINEAGE OF THE ITALIAN KINGS (continued)

The Lineage of Italian Kings is here continued from Folio XLIX recto, where the Mythological kings of Alba (with the cognomen of Silvius) began. We now add the following, all of the same surname:

  1. Capys (Capis) Silvius, alleged founder of Capua.
  2. Capetus (Carpentus Silvius), son and successor of Capys.
  3. Tiberius Silvius.
  4. Agrippa Silvius.

FOLIO LII verso

Lycurgus, according to Eusebius, was a distinguished and highly renowned man. He made the laws for the Lacedaemonians. Although a pagan, he made very just laws, equally applicable to natural and divine rights. He ordained nothing for which he himself had not furnished a precedent. He refused to tolerate the use of gold and silver, or any other material that might become an instrument of wantonness. He divided the land equally among all the people, so that the inheritance of one person would not be larger than that of another. In order that riches might not be secreted, he ordained that all transactions should be public. To each youth he permitted but one outfit of dress per year. No one was to go about more elegantly dressed than another, nor to dine more sumptuously. He also made certain regulations, not for the sake of money, but to facilitate exchange. He decreed that children of sufficient age should not be placed in trade, but upon the farms, to spend their early years in work and labor, and not in wantonness and luxury; nor were they to employ any bedding on which to sleep. They were to live on vegetables alone, and were not to frequent the cities until they had become grown-up men. He also decreed that maidens were to be married without a dowry, so that wives would not be chosen for money alone, and so that the men would take their courtship more seriously and without money as the incentive. The greatest honors were accorded to the aged, and not to the rich and mighty. But as these and other laws, contrary to the loose customs of the people and difficult of observance, met with opposition, Lycurgus assured the people that he had secured them from the Delphian Apollo, a pagan god. To give these laws permanence, Lycurgus obligated the people by an oath to observe them, and not to make any changes in these divine commandments until he returned home; in the meantime he would pay another visit to Apollo to inquire what could be done about these laws. But instead, he went to the island of Crete, to which he voluntarily exiled himself for the remainder of his life. He made provision that in the event of his death his remains be placed in a lead casket and thrown into the sea; for should his body be brought home, the Lacedaemonians might interpret his return as releasing them of their obligation.[According to the Spartan tradition preserved by Herodotus, Lycurgus was a son of Agis I and brother of Echestratus. On the latter's death he became regent and guardian of his nephew Labotas (Leobotes), who was still a minor. Other accounts give him a different origin, and make him regent of Charillus. According to Herodotus he introduced his reforms when he became regent; but the generally accepted story is that after being regent for some time, and spending several years in travel, he returned to Sparta and carried through his legislation when Charillus was king. He is said to have visited Crete, Egypt, and Ionia, and some versions even took him to Spain, Libya and India. In any case, details of his career are almost entirely mythical. Herodotus derives his constitutional ideas from Crete, but there is a fifth century tradition ascribing them to the initiative of Delphi. Herodotus says that Lycurgus changed all the customs; that he created the military organization, and instituted the ephorate and the council of elders. To him also are attributed the foundation of the apolla (the citizen assembly), the prohibition of gold and silver currency, the partition of the land into equal lots, and in general, the characteristic Spartan training. It is said that some of these statements are false. The council of elders and the assembly are not peculiar to Sparta; the ephorate is generally not considered to be his, and the partition of land never seems to have taken place at all—it is probably an attempt to give traditional sanction to the ideas of Agis and Cleomenes in the third century. Tradition presented him as finding Sparta the prey of disunion, weakness and lawlessness, and leaving her united, strong, and subject to the most stable government that the Greek world had ever seen.]

Jehu (Hieu), son of Jehosaphat, king of Judah, and the tenth king of Israel, anointed by Elisha, slew Jehoram with the entire house of Ahab, and destroyed the house of Baal, putting all its prophets to death. But he did not leave the calves of gold at Bethel and Dan; for which reason Azahel, the king of Syria, as a visitation from the Lord, slew many in Israel. And he himself died there in the 28th year of his reign.[Jehu (Hieu), "son" of Jehoshaphat, a general in the army of Joram, slew his master and usurped the throne of Israel. He reigned 28 years. His history is to be found in I Kings 19:16-17 and II Kings 9:10. And although he slew Jezebel and zealously destroyed the priests of Baal, the Bible states that his heart was not right with God; for his "zeal for the Lord" was really a zeal for himself; for he continued the worship of the golden calves, and Jehovah began to cut Israel short. The Syrians took his eastern frontier, and his dynasty was extinguished in the fourth generation. (Hos. 1:4)]

Isaiah (Ysayas), a noble prophet, is said by the blessed Jerome to be more evangelist than prophet. Alone during the reign of four kings in those times was he considered famous on account of the clarity of his prophecy.[This paragraph does not appear in the German edition (though, surprisingly, the image of Isaiah does!). Isaiah is one of the major prophets of the Hebrew scriptures, and is considered the most important Old Testament prophet by Christians. Jerome, in the preface to his translation of Isaiah in the Vulgate said that Isaiah "should be called an evangelist rather than a prophet."]

Jehoahaz (Joachas) was, together with all his people, almost entirely dispersed by Hazael (Azahel), king of Syria; and so he called on the Lord, and was somewhat comforted.[Jehoahaz I was a son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel. He reigned 17 years. In punishment for his sins and those of his people, Israel was invaded and reduced to great extremities by the Syrians under Hazael and Ben-hadad. The king humbled himself before God, and deliverance came by the hand of Joash, his son.]

Hosea (Osee) the prophet, first of the twelve sent against the ten tribes, was a son of Beeri, although we find no prophecy by Beeri. Hosea prophesied in the time of Jeroboam, king of Israel, the son of Joash, and the same, who with Uzziah (Osia) the king of Judah, reigned for fourteen years. In Judah were four kings – Uzziah (Osia), Jotham (Joathas), Ahaz (Achaz) and Hezekiah (Ezechias); and under these Hosea prophesied.[Hosea was probably the first of the prophets in chronological order exercising his office from the early part of Uzziah's long reign – which coincided with the last 14 years of Jeroboam II of Israel (II Kings 14:23; 15:1) – until sometime in Hezekiah's reign.]

Joash (Joas) defeated the Syrians three times, according to the prophecy of Elisha (Helizei), and he took the cities from the power of Ben-hadad, son of Hazael (Azahel), and brought them back into his own kingdom. He also punished Amaziah, and not willfully but involuntarily, humbled him. He began to reign in the 37th year of Joash, king of Judah.[Joash, or Jehoash, here first referred to, was the son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel. He had great regard for the prophet Elisha, and visited him on his deathbed, where by a divine oracle he was assured of three victories over the Syrians. He was also victorious when forced to give battle to Amaziah, king of Judah, when he broke down the north wall of Jerusalem and despoiled the temple. Although one of the best kings of Israel, worship of the golden calf continued during his reign. The other Joash here mentioned was the seventh king of Judah, only son of Ahaziah not slain by Athaliah.]

Joel (Johel), the second of the twelve prophets of Judah, prophesied his own future tribulation.[Joel, one of the 12 minor prophets, lived in Judah at a time when the temple and temple worship still existed (Joel 1:14; 2:1, 15, 32; 3:1). He prophesied in the reign of Uzziah, nearly 800 BCE.]

Jeroboam was a very warlike and successful man. He drove off the king of Syria, and restored the kingdom of Israel to its former status; and he also took Damascus.[Jeroboam II, here referred to, was the 13th king of Israel, and was the son and successor of Joash. He was the 4th of the five kings of Jehu's dynasty, which was the 4th in the northern kingdom, and his reign was the most prosperous of all. It continued for 41 years. He followed up his father's successes over the Syrians, took Hamath and Damascus, and all the region east of the Jordan down to the Dead Sea, and advanced to its highest point the prosperity of that kingdom. After him the kingdom rapidly declined, and his own dynasty perished within a year, fulfilling the prediction of Jonah. (II Kings 14:23-29; 15:8-12)] Mark how unsteady is the status and rule of kingdoms. Israel was dispersed and humbled in the end; and the Syrians were elevated; but now they in turn were miraculously oppressed by misfortune. He who was on top is now underneath. Then again he who was at the bottom rises up, only to fall again thereafter. This is the revolving wheel of time. Therefore it is not to be wondered that but few of the world are taken up by the Lord, and that the understanding and considerate men of the human race flee with all their might from participation in such uncertainties. Compare what Augustine says in many places in his City of God: If good men rule many men they do good, and the opposite if evil men etc.[This last sentence has been deleted from the German edition of the .]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LYCURGUS

Lycurgus, the great lawgiver of Sparta, is represented by a woodcut which represented Franco at Folio XXXVIII recto and Naashon (Naason) at Folio XXX recto.

(B) ISAIAH, HOSEA AND JOEL

Isaiah, who is not mentioned in the text; Hosea, first minor prophet of Israel; Joel (Johel), second minor prophet of Israel. Note the early pair of eyeglasses held by Joel (scholars believe that the first pair of eyeglasses were invented in Italy sometime between 1285-1289).

(C) LINEAGE OF ISRAELITE KINGS (continued)

The Lineage of the Israelite Kings is here continued from Folio XLIX verso, which there ended with Jehoram (Joram) and is now resumed as follows:

  1. Jehu (Hieu).
  2. Jehoahaz (Joachas).
  3. Joash (Joas).
  4. Jeroboam (II).

FOLIO LIII recto

Jonas (in the Year of the World 4306)[ This parenthetical phrase is not found in the German edition of the .], when seven years of age, was set up as a king of Jehoiada, the bishop; and he did good in all the days of Jehoiada. After the latter's death, however, Joash was softened by the flattery of the mighty, and his heart became evil; and so it remained to the end. He caused Zecharias (Zacharias), son of Jehoiada, the highest bishop, to be stoned between the temple and the altar in next to the last year of his reign.[This Joash, or Jehoash, was the seventh king of Israel (878-838 BCE). He was the only son of Ahaziah who was not slain by the usurping Athaliah. How he came to be saved and raised to the throne has already been told in the joint note on Jehoiada and Athaliah at Folio L verso (see also II Kings 11:16). While Jehoiada lived, for a period of twenty-three years, Joash served God and prospered. Idols were banished and the temple was repaired. But later Joash followed less wholesome counsel. Idolatry revived. How Zecharias was stoned when he rebuked the guilty people has already been told (Folio L verso, and note; see also II Chron. 24:20-22). Misfortunes soon multiplied. The king was repeatedly humbled by the Syrians under Hazael, and he gave them the temple treasures as a ransom. A loathsome disease embittered his life, which was soon cut short by a conspiracy of his servants (II Kings 11:12; II Chron. 23:24).]

Aremulus (Romulus Silvius) reigned nineteen years in the time of Joash, king of Judah, and he laid the foundation of Alba between the hills were Rome is now located. His sons, Julius and Aventinus, survived him.[Romulus Silvius was the twelfth mythological king of Alba. See note, Folio XLIX recto.]

Amaziah (Amasias) (in the Year of the World 4346)[This parenthetical phrase is not found in the German edition of the .] made a bad end of a good beginning; which has been lamentably and commonly true of the mighty up to our own time. He also crushed many worthy officials, of which there are many examples today.[Amaziah, ninth king of Judah, son of Joash, began to reign at the age of 25, and he ruled 29 years in Jerusalem. The Bible states that he did good in the sight of the Lord, but not with a perfect heart. Having established himself on his throne and slain the murderers of his father, he mustered a host of 300,000 men of Judah and hired 100,000 of Israel for a war on Edom; but the latter he reluctantly dismissed at the command of God, who gave him victory without their aid. Yet he carried home the idols of Edom and set them up as gods. For this he was threatened with destruction by a prophet of the Lord. Soon after he made war with Joash, king of Israel, but was defeated, taken to his own capital a prisoner, and obliged to ransom himself. 15 years later he was slain by conspirators (II Kings 14:1-20; II Chron. 25).] He also worshipped the gods of Seir (Seyr).[Seir probably refers to a chief of the Horites, who early occupied the mountainous region later possessed by the Edomites (Gen. 36:20; comp. Gen. 14:6; Deut. 2:12).]

Aventinus Silvius reigned 37 years; and for him the Aventine Hill at Rome was named after he was buried there.[Aventinus was one of the seven hills of Rome.]

Procas (Prochas), son of Aventinus, ruled 33 years, and whose praises eulogized Vergil extols in this verse: Next is Procas, the glory of the Trojan nation.[The quote is from Virgil's 6.776. The German edition of the removes the poetic citation and simply states that Virgil praised him in his works.] Two sons survived him, Amulius and Numitor, father of Rhea, the mother of Romulus and Remus (Rhemus).[For Proca (Procas = 's Prochas) and Amulius, see table of Silvian kings, Folio XLIX recto and note.]

For 13 years after the death of Amaziah, Judah was without a king. This one must infer by adding together the years of the kings of Israel and Judah; for Amaziah began to reign in the second year of Joash, king of Israel, and Uzziah (Ozias), the son of Amaziah in the 27th year of Jeroboam, king of Israel. This time covers a period of 41 years, and if the years of Amaziah are deducted from that, 13 years remain, during which Uzziah was small and incompetent to rule. However, the Seventy Interpreters and many historians do not have this; they compute it otherwise. In such a manner the matter must be made clear or you will be confused in reckoning the years.

Naaman, a general of the court of Syria, was a leper. To be cured he traveled with letters of recommendation to the king of Israel. When he came to the house of Elisha the prophet, Elisha told him that if he bathed seven times in the river Jordan, he would be cured. And although at first he did not want to do so, yet on advice of his retinue he went there and he bathed, and was cleansed of the leprosy. Then he returned to Elisha, and begged him to accept a present; but Elisha would have nothing. After Naaman had departed, Gehazi (Giezi), Elisha's disciple, came after him and asked a present on Elisha's account. And this he brought back to his house. Elisha discovered his disciple's sinful conduct, and therefore Gehazi was smitten with leprosy.

Naaman was a distinguished Syrian general, but a leper. Hearing through a captive Jewish girl who waited on his wife of the fame of the prophet Elisha, he set out on a journey to Israel with letters from his sovereign to the king of Israel. When the latter read them he was filled with apprehension, probably fearing that the king of Syria intended to find a pretext for a quarrel in his ability to cure his general. In this predicament, Elisha dispatched word to the king to give up his fears, and to send the distinguished stranger to him. Naaman received from Elisha's messenger the prescription to bathe seven times in the Jordan. The leper at first disdained the remedy. It was too simple, and attributed to the Jordan a virtue that he knew Abana and Pharpar, rivers of his own land, did not possess. His retinue wisely advised him not to spurn the remedy. Following their counsel, he bathed seven times in the Jordan and his "flesh became again like the flesh of a child." In gratitude Naaman offered the prophet a present, but he would not take it. Subsequently Gehazi, by uttering a falsehood, secured it, but in turn received Naaman's leprosy.

This paragraph on Naaman and the one that follows it on Amulius are switched in the German edition of the Chronicle—most probably to place the text about Naaman directly above the woodcut illustrating the text.

Amulius deposed his brother Numitor from the kingdom, and killed his son Lausus. In order to destroy all hope of inheritable issue, he gave his daughter Rhea to the goddess Vesta as a perpetual virgin, on the pretense of thus conferring an honor upon her. But after he had reigned seven years Rhea begot twins, Remus and Romulus. After they grew up they slew Amulius, and Numitor was restored to the kingship; for he was their ancestor.[Romulus, founder of Rome, was the figure around whom the Roman people credit their origin. The legend is this: At Alba Longa there reigned a succession of kings descended from Julius, son of Aeneas. One of the last of these kings left two sons, Numitor and Amulius. The latter, who was the younger, deprived Numitor of the kingdom, but allowed him to live in the enjoyment of his private fortune. Fearful, however, lest the heirs of Numitor might not submit so quietly to his usurpation, he caused his only son Lausus to be murdered, and made his daughter Sylvia one of the vestal virgins. Sylvia was raped by the god Mars, and in the course of time gave birth to twins. Amulius doomed the guilty vestal and her babes to be drowned in the river. In the Anio, Silvia exchanged her earthly life for that of a goddess, and became the wife of the river god. The stream carried the cradle in which the children were lying into the Tiber. It was stranded at the foot of the Palatine, and overturned on the root of a wild fig tree. A she-wolf that had come to drink of the stream carried the children into her den and suckled them. There they were discovered by the king's shepherd. He took them to his own house. They were called Romulus and Remus, and were brought up with the other shepherds on the Palatine Hill. A quarrel arose between these shepherds and the herdsmen of Numitor. Remus was taken by stratagem, during the absence of his brother, and carried off to Numitor. This led to the discovery of the parentage of the twins, who now slew Amulius and placed their grandfather Numitor on the throne. ]

This (referring to the woodcut opposite) is Elisha (Heliseus) the prophet, who divided the Jordan with the mantle of Elijah; who with salt made the waters sweet; who cursed 42 children who mocked him and were torn by bears; who supplied the hosts of three kings with sufficient water; multiplied the widow's oil, awakened the son of the Shunamite (from the dead); improved the bitter (soup of) colocynth (colloquintidas);[The wild gourd of which the noxious soup was made is a poisonous plant, conjectured to mean the colocynth (colloquintidas), which has a cucumber-like vine, with several branches, and bears fruit of the size and color of an orange, with a hard woody shell, within which is the white mast or pulp, exceedingly bitter, and a drastic purgative (II King's 4:39). It was very inviting to the eye, and furnished a model for the carved and molten "knops" in Solomon's temple (I Kings 6:18; 7:24). According to Hasting's , (Gourds), the wild gourds were either the common squirting cucumber, one of the most drastic of known cathartics, or more probably the colocynth (citrullus colocynthis), a trailing vine-like plant with rounded gourds, intensely bitter to the taste and an irritant poison. ] multiplied the loaves of barley for the multitude; cleansed Naaman; made Gehazi (Giezi) and his descendants leprous; blinded the hosts of Syria; prophesied the relief of Samaria from siege and starvation; placed Hazael on the throne of Syria and Jehu on the throne of Israel; prophesied that king Joash would three times defeat the Syrians; awakened the dead, etc.[ Prophecies and miracles of Elisha: (1) dividing the Jordan with Elijah's mantle, (II Kings 2:14); (2) sweetening of spring waters (II Kings 2:19-22); (3) cursing children for irreverence, (II Kings 2:23-25); (4) supplying water sufficient for the hosts of three kings, (II Kings 3:16-20); (5) increase of widow's oil, (II Kings 4:1-7); (6) raising the Shunammite's son from the dead, (II Kings 4:18-35); (7) healing the noxious soup, (II Kings 4:38-41); (8) multiplying the barley loaves, (II Kings 4:42-44); (9) cleansing Naaman the leper, (II Kings 5:1-19); (10) making Gehazi and his issue leprous, (II Kings 5:20-27); (11) blinding the hosts of Syria, (II Kings 6:18); (12) prophesying the siege and relief of Samaria, (II Kings 7); (13) placing Hazael on the Syrian throne, (II Kings 8:7-13); (14) placing Jehu on Israel's throne, (II Kings 9:1-6); (15) prophesying three victories for Joash, (II Kings 13:18); and (16) awakening the dead, (II Kings 13:20).]

Numitor was restored to the kingship, and soon thereafter was slain by Romulus.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (continued)

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio LII recto, which there ended with Ahaziah (Ochozia). We now add:

  1. Joash (Joas), son of Ahaziah, called Ozias in Matthew 1:8, 9.
  2. Amaziah (Amasias), son and successor of Joash.

(B) LINEAGE OF ITALIAN KINGS (continued)

The Lineage of the Italian Kings is continued from Folio LII recto, which there ended with Agrippa Silvius. We now continue with:

  1. Romulus (Aremulus) Silvius.
  2. Aventinus Silvius.
  3. Proca (Prochas) Silvius, son of Aventius.
  4. Amulius.
  5. Numitor, brother of Amulius.

(C) ELISHA AND NAAMAN

Elisha and Naaman. By a woodcut 3½" x 3-3/8" the first meeting of Naaman with Elisha is depicted. The prophet stands before the door of his house. Naaman, mounted on a horse and clad in pilgrim's raiment, has just arrived. In his left hand he holds the idle reins of his frisky steed. In his right he holds up an object which may be a leper's rattle, or clapper, and which lepers carried to mark their coming and to warn the healthy from their path. A like object appears in the hands of Rembrandt's "Leper". In some cases the afflicted used a horn or bell. Lepers also work masks to hide their deformities, and it will be noted that the lower part of Naaman's face is covered, probably for the same reason. Leprosy as a public menace did not die out in Europe until the end of the sixteenth century, almost one hundred years after the Chronicle was first published.

In the distance appears the river Jordan, and in it a person holding his hands in an attitude of prayer is seen immersed to the waist. Above him is the inscription "Sirus," probably meaning Syria, or Syrian. This may be one of those unusually sophisticated pictures in which two actions by the same person are depicted. This may represent Naaman after he has finally agreed to try the prophet's remedy.

FOLIO LIII verso

Here the kingdom of Israel was without a king for 33 years, as is discovered by adding together the kings of Judah.

Amos was the third among the twelve prophets, and he prophesied against many peoples, particularly the ten tribes.[Amos, third of the minor prophets, was a herdsman of Tekoah, a small town of Judah, about twelve miles from Jerusalem. He prophesied concerning Israel, at Bethel, in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and Jeroboam II king of Israel, about 800 to 787 BCE. He was a contemporary of Hosea and Joel, first and second of the minor prophets. The first two chapters of Amos contain predictions against the surrounding nations, enemies of the people of God. But the ten tribes of Israel were the chief subject of his prophecies. Their temporary prosperity under Jeroboam led to gross idolatry, injustice and corruption, for which sins he denounced the judgment of God upon them. His boldness in reproving sin drew upon him the wrath of the priests who labored to procure his banishment. (Amos 7:10-17)]

Obadiah (Abdias) was the fourth of the twelve prophets. He prophesied against Edom. He was quite old when he died, and was buried in the grave of Elisha.[Obadiah (Abdyas), fourth of the minor prophets, is supposed to have prophesied about 587 BCE. He was probably contemporary with Jeremiah and Ezekiel, who denounced the same dreadful judgments on the Edomites, and foretold the ultimate triumph of Zion (v. 17-21). The prophecy, according to Josephus, received its initial fulfillment about five years after the destruction of Jerusalem.]

During this time the Spartans or Lacedaemonians roved about in wars for a hundred years, and they wrote their wives to take other husbands so that the race would not die out.

Jonah (Jonas), one of the twelve prophets, was sent to the people of Nineveh, who heard him.[Jonah was the fifth of the minor prophets. See Jonah, text and note, Folio XLIX verso.]

Micah (Micheas) was the sixth of the twelve prophets.[ Micah, or Micaiah. See text and note, Folio XLIX verso.]

Nahum (Naum) was the seventh of the twelve prophets.[Nahum, the seventh of the twelve minor prophets, was a native of Elkosh, probably a village in Galilee. His prophecy consists of three chapters, in which he foretells the destruction of Nineveh. Opinions are divided as to the time in which he prophesied, but probably in the time of Hezekiah, after the war of Sennacherib in Egypt, mentioned by Berosus. Isaiah and Micah were his contemporaries. Nineveh perished about 100 years later in 606 BCE; and its exhumed remains well accord with his description of it.]

Here the entire imaginary history of Tobias is given.

Tobit (Tobias) died at the age of 102 years. He was a holy man, of good works, and illustrious in the spirit of prophecy; for before the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, he prophesied that future event with a certainty as though it had presently happened. Soon after his death his wife died also. And after the young Tobit (Tobias) with his children left Nineveh, it was destroyed.[The Book of Tobit or Tobias is one of the most interesting of the Apochrypha of the Old Testament. Tobit, or Tobias, was a Naphtalite who remained faithful to the temple service amidst the defection of his countrymen; but, notwithstanding, he shared with them in their misfortunes and was carried to Nineveh by Shalmanezer. His wealth and position at court gave him opportunity to help his people and thus win their regard, and for a time his life was enviable. But a change of rulers changed his fortune. When Sennacherib came to the throne, he was compelled to flee from the king's wrath because he buried the Jews whom the king had killed. All his property was confiscated, but on the entreaty of a nephew, the new king who succeeded Sennacherib allowed him to return to Nineveh. Soon thereafter he lost his eyesight through an injury his opened eyes received from warm swallow's dung which fell upon them, causing albugo, that is, white, hard flakes on the eyes, which are of greater or less extent and not transparent. A quarrel with his wife about a young goat led to reproaches, under which he wept grievously and prayed in sorrow. At this point, the episode of Sarra of Ecbatana, in Media, is introduced. She was the wife of seven men who were successively killed on their wedding night by Asmodaeus. Her prayer for death was made at the same time with Tobit's prayer for the same, "and Raphael was sent to heal them both" – that is, to scale away the white spots from Tobit's eyes" – and "to give Sarra for a wife to Tobias, the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodaeus the wicked demon." This was brought about thus: Tobit sent his son to Media to recover some money lent out in the days of his prosperity. He improved the occasion to give his son some good advice. The angel Raphael in the guise of "Azarias, son of Ananias the great," saluted Tobias and made the journey in his company. The capture of a fish put in Tobias' hands the means of curing his father and ridding Sarra of the demon. His journey was eminently successful. He recovered the money loaned, married Sarra, to whom Raphael introduced him, and returned home with these treasures, greatly to the delight of Tobit, who had begun to be a little fearful for his safety. The book ends with the restoration of Tobit's eyesight and prosperity, his consequent psalm of gratitude (perhaps the best piece of writing in the book), and mention of the death of Tobit and Tobias.]

Zechariah (Zacharias), the king of Israel, began to reign in the 38th year of Uzziah (Ozia), king of Judah. He did evil, as his forefathers had done. He was the fourth (king) after Jehu.[Zechariah, the 14th king of Israel, was the last member of the house of Jehu to come to the throne and he occupied it only six months. His assassination begins the period of virtual anarchy with which the history of Israel comes to an end (II Kings 14:29; 15:8-12). The name Zechariah, or Zachariah, is a very common one in the Old Testament. There were at least thirty different individuals so named.] He was slain by Shallum (Sellum), who then ruled in his stead.[Shallum I murdered Zechariah, king of Israel, and usurped his throne in 772 BCE. He reigned only one month, and was killed in Samaria by Menahem (II Kings 15:10-15). Shallum was a son of Jabesh, and his murder of Zechariah fulfilled what the Lord had told Jehu, that his children should sit on the throne of Israel to the fourth generation. (II Kings 14:29; 15:8-11)] The latter was soon thereafter slain by Menahem (Manahem), who deprived him of the kingship and of his life.

Menahem began to reign in the 39th year of Uzziah (Ozia) king of Judah. He did evil before the Lord; wherefore God gave him up to the king of Assyria, who required of him a tribute of a thousand talents of silver.[Menahem, the 16th king of Israel, was previously general of the army of Zechariah. When he heard of his master's murder, he immediately marched against the usurper Shallum, who had shut himself up in Samaria. He captured and slew him, and ascended the throne, reigning ten years in Samaria. He was a tyrannical and cruel idolater. Pul, king of Assyria, having invaded Israel during the reign of Menahem, obliged him to pay a tribute of a thousand talents, which he raised by a tax of 50 shekels per head on all his rich subjects. He apparently died a natural death.]

Pekahiah (Phaceya) was slain by Pekah (Phacee), who then reigned in his stead.[Pekahiah, son and successor of Menahem, was also a wicked prince, and he reigned but two years. Pekah, son of Remaliah, conspired against him and slew him in his own palace (II Kings 15:22-25).]

Pekah (Phacee) was slain by Hoshea (Ozee), who then reigned in his stead. He (Pekah) formed an alliance with Rezin (Raasin) the king of Syria, and ravaged Judah; wherefore Tiglath-pileser (Theglatphalazar), the king of the Assyrians, crushed him and carried three of the tribes into Assyria.[Pekah was a general of Pekahiah, king of Israel. He conspired against his master, slew him, and reigned in his place twenty years (II Kings 15:25-28). In the latter part of his evil reign he formed an alliance with the Syrians of Damascus, and early in the reign of Ahaz, Pekah and Rezin invaded Judah and besieged Jerusalem (II Kings 16:1-6). Though unable to take the holy city, the allies killed many warriors of Judah, and took many prisoners (II Chron. 28:5-8), but the Israelites were divinely ordered to restore their captives. Ahaz, seeking the aid of Assyria, Tiglath-pileser defeated Syria and Israel, and deprived Pekah of the country beyond the sea of Galilee. Later Pekah was slain by Hoshea. He was the last of the four kings of Israel assassinated in the troubled times of the prophet Hosea.]

Hoshea (Ozee) was the last king of Israel. He was made prisoner by Shalmaneser (Salmanazar), king of the Assyrians, who carried the Israelites into captivity in Assyria.[Hoshea, 19th and last king of Israel, slew Pekah, and after a 9 years' interregnum usurped the throne (II Kings 15:30). When his land was invaded by Shalmaneser, Hoshea became tributary to Assyria. Because he formed a secret alliance with Egypt, Shalmaneser ravaged Israel and besieged Samaria, and his successor Sargon, more than two years later took the city, imprisoned Hoshea, and carried the Israelites as captives to Assyria and Media.]

Israel is taken over by the Assyrians.

In the eleventh year of Hoshea, which was the 3,151st year of the world, and of the Fourth Age of the World the 261st, the kingdom of Macedonia began. There Cararius, or Carnaus, first reigned, and for a period of 28 years. This kingdom endured until the time of Alexander the Great, through 24 kings. Carnaus began to rule in the 3530th year of the world, and he reigned 12 years and 6 months. After his death the kingdom was largely taken over by the Babylonia.[Caranus (the misspells his name as Carnaus) was a Heracleid (descendant of Heracles) of the family of the Temenidae, and according to some accounts, the founder of the Argive dynasty in Macedonia about the middle of the eighth century. The legend tells that he led into Macedonia a large force of Greeks, and, following a flock of goats, entered the town of Edessa in the midst of a heavy rain storm and a thick mist, unobserved by the inhabitants. Remembering the oracle that had desired him "to seek an empire by the guidance of goats," he fixed here the seat of government; and he named the place Aegae (after the Greek word for ‘goat') in commemoration of the miracle.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (continued)

The Priestly Lineage is here continued from Folio L verso, which there ended with Azariah (Azarias), as follows:

  1. Amariah (Amarias), son of Azariah, the father of Ahitub (I Chron. 6:11). This high priest is not to be confused withAmariah, son of Meraioth, a descendant of Aaron in the line of Eleazar, and who also had a son named Ahitub, and a grandson named Zadok (see Folio XL verso).
  2. Ahitub (Achitob), son of Amariah, and father of Zadok, is not to be confused with Ahitub, son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli (see Folio XLI verso).
  3. Zadok (Sadoch), son of the above Ahitub, is not to be confused with another Zadok, son of another Ahitub and father of Ahimaaz (see Folio XLVIII recto).
  4. Shallum (Sellum) the last portrait in the priestly lineage, was the husband of Huldah (Olda), the prophetess (see Folio LV verso, post), who ranked with Deborah and Hannah among the women prophets of the Old Testament.

NOTE: The author of the Chronicle has avoided considerable responsibility and confusion by total silence as to this portion of the priestly lineage. It is difficult to follow these names through the Bible. They may refer to the same person or to many persons.

(B) MINOR PROPHETS OF ISRAEL (continued)

The Twelve Minor Prophets of Israel began at Folio LII verso with Hosea and Joel. We now add Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah and Nahum, respectively the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh minor prophets:

  1. Amos, third of the minor prophets of Israel.
  2. Obadiah (Abdias).
  3. Jonah (Jonas), fifth minor prophet.
  4. Micah or Micaiah (Micheas), sixth minor prophet.
  5. Nahum (Naum), seventh minor prophet.

(C) TOBIT AND TOBIAS

Tobias or Tobit (Thobias), the apocryphal prophet, is represented by the same woodcut which has already been used for Jair (Yair) at Folio XXXVII verso.

(D) LINEAGE OF THE KINGS OF ISRAEL (concluded)

The Lineage of the Kings of Israel is here concluded with the following:

  1. Zechariah (Zacharias), the fourteenth king of Israel, who was slain by Shallum.
  2. Shallum (Sellum), the fifteenth king of Israel, who slew Zechariah and was in turn slain by Meneham.
  3. Meneham (Manahen), the sixteenth king of Israel, who was taken prisoner by the Assyrians and compelled to ransom himself with 1000 talents of silver.
  4. Pekahiah (Phacee), the seventeenth king of Israel, who was slain by Pekah.
  5. Pekah (Phacee), the eighteenth king of Israel, who slew Pekahiah, and was in turn slain by Hoshea.
  6. Hoshea (Ozee), the nineteenth and last king of Israel, who lost himself and his kingdom to the Assyrians.

FOLIO LIIII recto

Arbaces, by birth a Mede, and formerly a vicar or satrap under Sardanapalus, founded the Median Empire in the sixth year of Hoshea. Sardanapalus was the last king of the Assyrians, and of him Diodorus Siculus has written much in his Greek histories. Justinus has also mentioned him. He was more depraved and lewd than any woman. When Arbaces, his vicar, found him in the company of villainous women, spinning costly silk on a distaff, and clad in female apparel, he became provoked; and he prevailed upon the nobility to enter into an alliance against him; and so the king was defeated in battle.[Arbaces, according to Ctesias, founded the Median Empire. In conjunction with Belesis, he is said to have taken Nineveh, and to have destroyed the old Assyrian empire in the reign of Sardanapalus in 876 BCE. Ctesias assigns 28 years to the reign of Arbaces, and makes his dynasty consist of eight kings.] Thereupon Sardanapalus went to his royal funeral pyre, which he himself had built, ignited it and burned himself and his countless treasures, and (as Tullius states) he ordered these words to be written at the place of his cremation: The things I had, I made; as well as those which have been produced by consummate licentiousness.[Sardanapalus was the last king of the Assyrian empire of Ninus or Nineveh, according to Ctesias, who states that the Assyrian empire endured 1306 years; that the first king was Ninus, who was succeeded by Semiramis, and she by Ninyas, and that he was followed by thirty kings, sons succeeding fathers without interruption; that all these kings from Ninyas downward were sunk in luxury and sloth, till their degradation became climaxed in Sardanapalus, who passed his time in his palace, unseen by his subjects, dressed in female apparel, surrounded by concubines, and indulging in every species of licentiousness and effeminacy. When Arbaces, satrap of Media, saw this, he resolved to throw off his allegiance to so worthless a monarch. Supported by Belesis, noblest of the Chaldean priests, he advanced against Sardanapalus with a formidable army. But suddenly the latter threw off his luxurious habits, placed himself at the head of his troops, and twice defeated the rebels; but at length he was worsted and obliged to shut himself up in Nineveh. There he was besieged for two years and when his condition became intolerable, he collected all his treasures and women, and placing them on an immense pyre, set it on fire and thus destroyed himself and them. The enemies then obtained possession of the city. The whole narrative of Ctesias is purely mythical, and cannot be reconciled to genuine history. The legend of Sardanapalus, effeminate at one time and heroic at another, probably arose from him being equated with the aged god Sandon who was worshipped in Asia both as a heroic and a female deity. "Then, a little above the sea (one comes) to Anichiale, which, according to Aristobolus, was founded by Sardanapalus. Here, he says, is the tomb of Sardanapalus, and a stone figure which represents the fingers of the right hand as snapping together, and the following inscription in Assyrian letters: "Sardanapalus, the son of Anacyndarxes, built Anichiale and Tarsus in one day. Eat, drink, be merry, because all things else are not worth this," meaning the snapping of fingers. Choerilus also mentions this inscription: and indeed the following verses are everywhere known: "Mine are all that I have eaten, and the delights of love that I have enjoyed; but those numerous blessings have been left behind." The whole of the epigram, as found in some of the MSS, is as follows: "Well aware that you are by nature mortal, magnify the desires of your heart, delighting yourself in merriment; there is no enjoyment for you after death. Mine are all the food that I have eaten, and my loose indulgences, and the delights of love that I have enjoyed; but those numerous blessings have been left behind. This to mortal men is wise advice on how to live." (Strabo, 14:5.9)] And so this greatest of empires after a long time came to an end and was taken over by Media after 1305 years (as Augustine states in book 8 chapter 22 of his City of God); and so also the time of Belus[Belesis, here called Belus, was a Chaldean priest at Babylon, who is said, in conjunction with Arbaces, the Mede, to have overthrown the old Assyrian empire. Belesis afterward received the satrapy of Babylon from Arbaces.] the first king, is reckoned. Under the Medes the empire endured 128 years, for he turned this monarchy, or the rule of the East (as Justinus states) over to the Medes with expectations and not by deeds. This was afterward accomplished by Darius. Yet there were kings in Assyria after Sardanapalus (although they were not actually rulers or monarchs) up to the time of the destruction of Nineveh. Media is a country in Asia Minor, bordering on Assyria and Persia, and on the Caspian (Hyrcanian) Sea; and in it are said to be four regions. Medus, son of Media, built the city of Media in honor of his mother, and there he also founded the empire of Media, named for himself. The government of this country and the rule of the East were at that time in his hands. Although the empire attained to greatness and renown under Astyages the king,[Astyages, son of Cyaxares, last king of Media, ruled from 594 to 559 BCE. Alarmed by a dream, he gave his daughter Mandane in marriage to Cambyses, a Persian of good family; but another dream induced him to send Harpagus to destroy the offspring of this marriage. The child, future conqueror of the Medes, was given to a herdsman to expose, but he brought it up as his own. Years later, circumstances arose which brought the young Cyrus to the notice of Astyages, who then discovered his parentage. He inflicted a cruel punishment on Harpagus, who waited his time for revenge. When Cyrus had grown up, Harpagus induced him to instigate the Persians to revolt, and, having been appointed general of the Median forces, he deserted with a great part of them Cyrus. Astyages was taken prisoner and Cyrus mounted the throne. He treated the captive monarch with mildness, but confined him until his death.] as stated in the first chapter of the Book of Judith, yet Cyrus the Persian king wiped it out and made it a part of Persia. After the Persians the Medes appear to have been subject to the Macedonians, and later to the Parthians.[Media was an important country of western Asia, occupying the extreme west of Iran. It was fertile, very productive, well populated, and altogether one of the most important provinces of ancient Persia. The early history of Media is involved in obscurity, and Herodotus and Ctesias (in Diodorus) give different chronologies for its early kings. The last king, Astyages, was dethroned by a revolution, which transferred the supremacy to the Persians, formerly a subordinate people in the united Medo-Persian Empire. Media/Persia fell to Alexander two centuries later. Then it formed part of the kingdom of the Seleucids, from whom it was taken by the Parthians.]

Caranus (Carnaus), the Macedonian, founded Macedonia, for he was quick of perception and active with his hands. After countless wars, which he conducted with great vigor against his nearest neighbors, the land of his origin became subservient to him, and there he set up his throne. As Eusebius states, he began to reign in the 12th year of Hoshea, and he reigned 28 years.[Caranus of Argos, a descendant of Hercules, and a brother of Phidon, is said to have settled at Edessa in Macedonia with an Argive colony about 750 BCE, and to have become the founder of the dynasty of Macedonian kings.] But they say that Macedonia is a part of Europe, and we find that it was first named after Macedon, the son of Osyridis (Osiris?).[Macedonia, a country in Europe, north of Greece, is said to have derived its name from an ancient king Macedon, a son of Zeus and Thyia, a daughter of Deucalion.] According to Solinus, this land is bounded on the east by Thrace, on the south by Epirote Thessaly, on the west by Dardania and Greece, and on the north by Paphlagonia. The empire was small in the beginning, but by the might, power, and strength of its kings, the ambition of its people and its oppression of its neighbors, it became so great (as Pliny writes) that it embraced 150 peoples. Although the various parts of the empire were known by different names, it is now, like a single body, called by the single name Macedonia. The Macedonian empire, particularly in the time of Alexander the Great, was a splendid and powerful one; but in the time of Onie,[Probably Onias. There were four high priests of this name.] the bishop of the Jews, it was destroyed. In that empire, indeed, we read that a certain memorable deed took place when the Illyrians and the Thracians, after gathering together, tried to destroy their neighbors, the Macedonians. After the battle had been engaged, the Macedonians were forced to flee. They brought the infant son of their dead king in his cradle, placed him next to the line of battle, and renewed the fight more fiercely, as if they had been defeated before because the fortune of their king of future victory was not with the soldiers fighting. Finally, with great slaughter, they routed the Illyrians, revealing to their enemies that in the earlier battle it was not courage that was lacking to the Macedonians, but their king, whose name, indeed, is unknown.


Here Hartman Schedel (the author/compiler of the Chronicle) paraphrases ever so slightly—but also somewhat awkwardly—Justin's Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum libri XLIV (7.6-12):

6 Sed Macedonibus adsidua certamina cum Thracibus et Illyriis fuere quorum armis, ueluti cotidiano exercitio, indurati, gloria bellicae laudis finitimos terrebant. 7 Igitur Illyrii infantiam regis pupilli contemnentes, bello Macedonas adgrediuntur. 8 Qui, proelio pulsi, rege suo in cunis prolato et pone aciem posito, acrius certamen repetiuere, 9 tamquam ideo uicti antea fuissent, quod bellantibus sibi regis sui auspicia defuissent, 10 futuri uel propterea uictores, quod ex superstitione animum uincendi ceperant; 11 simul et miseratio eos infantis tenebat, quem, si uicti forent, captiuum de rege facturi uidebantur. 12 Conserto itaque proelio, magna caede Illyrios fudere, ostenderuntque hostibus suis priore bello regem Macedonibus, non uirtutem defuisse.

The Macedonians had perpetual contests with the Thracians and Illyrians, and, being hardened by their arms, as it were by daily exercise, they struck terror into their neighbors by the splendor of their reputation for war. The Illyrians, however, despising the boyhood of a king under age, attacked the Macedonians, who, being worsted in the field, brought out their king with them in his cradle, and, placing him behind the front lines, renewed the fight with greater vigor, as if they had been defeated before, because the fortune of their prince was not with them in the battle, and would now certainly conquer, because, from this superstitious fancy, they had conceived a confidence of victory; while compassion for the infant, also, moved them, as, if they were overcome, they seemed likely to transform him from a king into a captive. Engaging in battle, therefore, they routed the Illyrians with great slaughter, and showed their enemies, that, in the former encounter, it was a king, and not valour, that was wanting to the Macedonians.

(Translated by the Rev. John Selby Watson; London, 1853)

And Macedonia, at that time, took possession of an empire of those lands that extend between two seas, the Aegean and the Adriatic. Its south flank touched the backs of Thessaly and Magnesia, while Paeonia and Paphlagonia were on its northern part, regions themselves which afterwards yielded to the power and authority of the Macedonians and were added to Macedonia. Also Epirus and the Illyrian land, the first south, the other north of Macedonia, extending to the Adriatic shore.[A large block of text, from the sentence that begins "In that empire, indeed, we read that a certain memorable deed…" to the end of this paragraph, has been deleted from the German edition of the .]

ILLUSTRATIONS

Crown, orb, and scepter, differently arranged in two groups, are here used as paragraph divisions in the manner of Folio XLV recto, Folio XXIV recto, Folio XVIII, recto and verso. Where these designs occur, empires and kingdoms are treated of in the text.

FOLIO LIIII verso

Ardisius, or Ardis, a native of Greece, and a man celebrated and renowned for his magnanimity, founded the empire of Lydia, and in the 48th year of the kingdom of Hoshea (Ozie) he began to rule over the Lydians. According to Eusebius, he reigned 26 years. Lydia is a district in Asia Minor, and is now in part called Morea. And, as Pliny would have it, it was formerly called Maeonia (Meonia); but thereafter it was called Lydia after Lydus, son of king Atys (Athis) and brother of Tyrrhenus (Tyrrenus). For as the two brothers by reason of the meagerness of the kingdom were not able to get along, Tyrrhenus went away to a district in Italy, by the lower sea. This he called Tyrrhenia (Tyrrenam) after himself. But Lydus stayed at home, and he called the land of Maeonia, Lydia, after himself. In it were the cities of Ephesus, Colophon, Clazomenae, and Phocaea. But this kingdom was not renowned or celebrated, for it was overthrown by the Persians under King Croesus (Cresius), who gave assistance to the Chaldeans against the Persians. This kingdom endured for 230 years under nine kings, whose names and times are as stated:

1.Aridisius36 years
2.Aliates (Aliaces)14 years
3.Meles12 years
4.Candaules17 years
5.Gyges (Gigius)36 years
6.Ardys (Ardis)37 years
7.Sadyattes (Sadyates)15 years
8.Alyattes (Aliactes)49 years
9.Croesus (Cresus)15 years[Lydia is a district in Asia Minor, in the middle of the west side of the peninsula between Mysia on the north, and Caria on the south, and between Phrygia on the east and the Aegean Sea on the west. Its boundaries varied from time to time. In early times the country had another name, Maeonia, by which alone it is known to Homer. In the mythical legends the common name of the people and country, Lydi and Lydia, is derived from Lydus, the son of Atys, the first king. The Lydians appear to have been a race closely connected with the Carians and the Mysians, with whom they observed a common worship in the temple of Zeus Carius at Mylasa. They also practiced the worship of Cybele, and other Phrygian customs. Lydia was a very early seat of Asiatic civilization, and it exerted a very important influence on the Greeks. The Lydian monarchy, which was founded at Sardis before the time of authentic history, grew up into an empire under which the many different tribes of Asia Minor, west of the river Halys, were for the first time united. Tradition mentions three dynasties of kings: the Atyadae, which ended about 1221 BCE; the Heraclidae, which reigned 505 years, down to 716; and the Mermnadae, 160 years, down to 546. Only the last dynasty can be regarded as historical, and the fabulous element has a large place in the details of its history. The names and computed dates of its kings are as follows: (1) Gyges, 716-678; (2) Ardys, 673-629; (3) Sadyattes, 629-617; (4) Alyattes, 617-560; (5) Croesus, 560 (or earlier) – 546. Under these kings the Lydians appear to have been highly civilized, industrious, and wealthy people, engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing, and acquainted with various arts. Among the inventions that the Greeks are said to have derived from them were weaving and dyeing; various processes of metallurgy; the use of gold and silver money, and various metrical and musical improvements. After being conquered by the Persian King Cyrus, they were forbidden to carry arms, and gradually they became known as a byword for effeminate luxuriousness. Under the Persians, Lydia and Mysia formed the second satrapy. After the Macedonian conquest, Lydia belonged first to the kings of Syria, and next (after the defeat of Antiochus the Great by the Romans) to those of Pergamus, and so passed by the bequest of Attalus III, to the Romans, under whom it formed part of the province of Asia.]

Olympiad (Olimpias) is a period of four years that the Latins and Greeks at times used in their histories and narratives, just as we now calculate our dates according to the year of Hoshea (Ozie), and it was instituted for the practice of games of war. From the capture of Troy to the first Olympiad was a period of 406 years. The first Olympiad was held in the second year of Aeschylus, judge of the Athenians. In the games of this same Olympiad Coroebus (Chorebus) of the city of Elis (Heliensis) was the victor. Those of the same city in the fifth year played games in which princes were leaders. These Olympiads were first instituted by Iphitus (Iphirus), son of Praxonidis or Hemonis. Some state that Hercules in the eighth year of Jair, a judge of Israel, first instituted such Olympiads among the Greeks on Mount Olympus, in honor of Jupiter; and he desired that those after the fifth year should take place every five years; from which time to the present is reckoned 405 years. But after the Greeks became accustomed to holding the games every fifth year, they also appointed princes for four years; and they called this period an Olympiad. The games occurred every fifth year as they might be forgotten if postponed longer. On the other hand, if they were held oftener than every four years, the cost would have been burdensome. Therefore an Olympiad includes four full years. Our Lord Jesus Christ is said to have been born in the 193rd Olympiad. From this time on it is said that the Greek histories are authentic; but before then they were contradictory.[An Olympiad, in Greek chronology, was a period of four years, used as a method of dating for literary purposes. The four years were reckoned from one celebration of the Olympian games to another. The first Olympiad began with 776 BCE, the last with 394 CE, when they were abolished during the reign of Theodosius the Great. The system was regularly used by the Sicilian historian Timaeus. The Olympia, usually called the Olympic games, was the greatest of the national festivals of the Greeks. It was celebrated at Olympia in Elis, the name given to a small plain to the west of Pisa, which was bounded on the north and northeast by the mountains of Cronius and Olympus, on the south by the river Alpheus, and on the west by Cladeus, which flows into the Alpheus. Olympia does not appear to have been a town, but rather a collection of temples and public buildings. The origin of the Olympic games is buried in obscurity. The legends of the Elean priests attributed the institution of the festival to the Idaean Heracles, and referred it to the time of Cronus. According to their account, Rhea committed her newborn Zeus to the Idaean Dactyli, also called Curetes, of whom five brothers, Heracles, Paeonaeus, Epimedes, Iasius and Idas, came from Ida in Crete, to Olympia, where a temple had been erected to Cronos by the men of the golden age; and Heracles the eldest, conquered his brothers in a foot-race, and was crowned with the wild olive tree. Heracles then established a contest, which was to be celebrated every five years, because he and his brothers were five in number. There are other legends as to the origin of these games. Strabo rejects all these legends, and says that the festival was first instituted after the return of the Heraclidae to the Peloponnesus by the Aetolians, who united themselves with the Eleans. Though these traditions are contradictory, they show that religious festivals had been celebrated at Olympia from the earliest times. The first historical fact connected with the Olympic games is their revival by Iphitus, king of Elis, who is said to have accomplished it with the assistance of Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, and Cleosthenes of Pisa. The celebration of the festival may have been discontinued in consequence of the Dorian invasion, and we are told that Iphitus was commanded by the Delphic oracle to revive it as a remedy for intestine commotions and for pestilence, with which Greece was then afflicted. Iphitus therefore induced the Eleans to sacrifice to Heracles, whom they had formerly regarded as an enemy, and for this the games were regularly celebrated. The interval of four years between each celebration was called an Olympiad; but the Olympiads were not employed as a chronological era till the victory of Coroebus in the footrace 776 BCE. The most important point in the renewal of the festival by Iphitus was the establishment of a sacred armistice, the formula for proclaiming which was prescribed. The proclamation was made by peace heralds, first in Elis and afterwards in the other parts of Greece. It put a stop to all warfare in the month in which the games were celebrated. The territory of Elis itself was considered especially sacred during its continuance, and no armed force could enter it without incurring the guilt of sacrilege. When the Spartans on one occasion sent forces against the fortress Phyrcum and Lepreum during the existence of the Olympic truce, they were fined by the Eleans, according to the Olympic law, 2000 minae, being two for each hoplite. No women were allowed to be present or even to cross the Alpheus during the celebration of the games under penalty of being hurled down from the Typaean rock. Only one instance is recorded of a woman having ventured to be present, and she, although detected, was pardoned in consideration of her father, brothers and sons having been victors in the games. The number of spectators at the festival was very great; and these were drawn together not merely to see the games, but also because it afforded opportunity to do business with persons from distant places. The contests consisted of various trials of strength and skill, which were increased in number from time to time. There were 24 contests in which men took part, and 6 in which boys engaged, though they were never all exhibited at one festival, since some were abolished almost immediately after their institution, and others after they had been in use but a short time. The activities included foot races, chariot races, boxing, wrestling, horse racing, etc. The only prize given to the conqueror was a garland of wild olive, which, according to the Elean legends was the prize originally instituted by the Idaean Heracles. According to another account the olive crown was not given as a prize upon the revival of the game by Iphitus, and was first bestowed in the seventh Olympiad with the approbation of the oracle of Delphi. This garland was cut from a sacred olive tree, which grew in the sacred grove of Altis in Olympia, near the altars of Aphrodite and the Hours. Heracles is said to have brought it from the country of the Hyperboreans, and to have planted it himself in the Altis. A boy, both of whose parents were still alive, cut it with a golden sickle. The name of the victor and that of his father and of his country were then proclaimed by a herald before the representatives of assembled Greece. The festival ended with processions and sacrifices, and with a public banquet given by the Eleans to the conquerors in the Prytaneum.]

[Note: The "Origin of the Spartans," the text that follows the paragraph on the Olympiad in the Latin edition of the Chronicle on folio LIV verso, does not exist in the German edition.]

ORIGIN OF THE SPARTANS

The origin of the Spartan race also itself was at this time. When Alcumene (Alcamenes?[The text seems fundamentally corrupt here (see also the following note). There is no King Alcumene in ancient Greece, nor a people known as the Lacedaeniums. King Alcamenes, however, is a name that appears in Sparta's king lists as a member of the Agiad dynasty, and he in fact is said to have ruled c. 740-700 BCE, exactly at the time when Sparta waged a long but ultimately successful first war against their neighbors to the west, the Messenians.]), the king of the Lacedaeniums (Lacedaemonians?) died, and their kingdom was destroyed, Justinus, in the third book of his Epitomes

Schedel's compilation skills are here quite suspect (perhaps accounting for the editorial decision in the ‘revised' German edition published six months later in 1493 to delete this paragraph?), for either he himself, the typesetter, or the scribe responsible for the text of Justin in Schedel's library made a mistake by substituting ‘Partheniai' for ‘Spartanoi' in the following passage (Justine, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus 4.1-16):

Under such a state of manners, the city acquired, in a short time, such a degree of strength, that, on going to war with the Messenians for offering violence to some of their maidens at a solemn sacrifice of that people, they bound themselves under a severe oath not to return till they had taken Messene, promising themselves so much either from their strength or good fortune. This occurrence was the commencement of dissension in Greece, and the origin and cause of a civil war. But being detained in the siege of this city, contrary to their expectation, for ten years, and called on to return by the complaints of their wives after so long a widowhood, and being afraid that by persevering in the war they might hurt themselves more than the Messenians (for, in Messene, whatever men were lost in the war, were replaced by the fruitfulness of their women, while they themselves suffered constant losses in battle, and could have no offspring from their wives in the absence of their husbands), they in consequence selected, out of the soldiers that had come, after the military oath was first taken, as recruits to the army, a number of young men; whom they sent back to Sparta with permission to form promiscuous connexions with all the women of the city, thinking that conception would be more speedy if each of the females made the experiment with several men. Those who sprung from these unions were called Partheniae (Virgins), as a reflection on their mothers' violated chastity; and, when they came to thirty years of age, being alarmed with the fear of want (for not one of them had a father to whose estate he could hope to succeed,) they chose a captain named Phalantus, the son of Aratus, by whose advice the Spartans had sent home the young men to propagate, that, as they had formerly had the father for the author of their birth, they might now have the son as the establisher of their hopes and fortunes. Without taking leave of their mothers, therefore, from whose adultery they thought that they derived dishonour, they set out to seek a place of settlement, and being tossed about a long time, and with various mischances, they at last arrived on the coast of Italy, where, after seizing the citadel of the Tarentines, and expelling the old inhabitants, they fixed their abode. But several years after, their leader Phalantus, being driven into exile by a popular tumult, went to Brundusium, whither the former inhabitants of Tarentum had retreated after they were expelled from their city. When he was at the point of death, he urged the exiles "to have his bones, and last relics, bruised to dust, and privately sprinkled in the forum of Tarentum; for that Apollo at Delphi had signified that by this means they might recover their city." They, thinking that he had revealed the destiny of his countrymen to avenge himself, complied with his directions; but the intention of the oracle was exactly the reverse; for it promised the Spartans, upon the performance of what he had said, not the loss, but the perpetual possession of the city. Thus by the subtlety of their exiled captain, and the agency of their enemies, the possession of Tarentum was secured to the Partheniae for ever.

(Translated by Rev. John Selby Watson; London, 1853)

, reports that the Spartans began in this way. The Lacedaemonians undertook a ten-year war against the Messenians. After a few years they were called back by the complaints of their wives after so long a widowhood. Afraid that they would lose the hope of future offspring through this never-ending war, they passed a law that their virgin daughters should sleep promiscuously with the young men left at home, supposing that pregnancy would occur sooner if each one of the women should try it with many men. Those born from these women were called Spartans, on account of the disgrace caused by their mother's shame; and, when they arrived at the age of thirty, being alarmed by the fear of poverty (for not one of them had a father to whose estate he could hope to succeed), they chose Phalantus, the son of Aratus, as their leader. And so, without taking leave of their mothers from whose adultery they believed they had had become dishonorable, they set out to seek another place to live, and being tossed about a long time, and suffering various misfortunes, they at last arrived on the coast of Italy, where, after besieging the citadel of the Tarentines, and driving out the original inhabitants, they established their homes in that place. Afterwards the Egyptian kings and the Jews eagerly sought their friendship, as the Books of the Maccabees[There are five separate texts listed under the name ‘Books of the Maccabees,' but the use of that phrase invariably means only the first two: 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees. These deuterocanonical texts, perhaps written c. 100 BCE, describe the revolt of a Jewish faction from the rule of Antiochus IV, the Macedonian ruler of much of what is now known as the Middle East, in the years 175-134 BCE. Nowhere in either text is it mentioned that the Egyptian kings (i.e., the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt) sought an alliance with the Spartans, although Ptolemy III around 228 BCE did form an alliance with Sparta. The attempt by the Jews to make the Spartans (not the Partheniai!) their ally in their revolt from Antiochus IV occurs in 1 Maccabees 12:2ff.] bear witness. But several years later, their leader Phalantus, being driven into exile by a political uprising, went to Brundusium, where the former inhabitants of Tarentum had retreated after they were expelled from their city.

ILLUSTRATION

Crown, orb and scepter appear at the head of the page as usual in the case of empires and kingdoms, as was previously done at Folio XLV recto, XXIV recto and XVIII recto and verso.

FOLIO LV recto

Uzziah (Ozias) (in the Year of the World 4388), son of Amaziah (Amasia) and twelfth king of Judah, was a very gentle and worthy man, who did good before the Lord; except that he usurped the office of priest, in this, that he himself, although Azariah was the priest, presumed to make a burnt offering on the altar of incense. Therefore he was smitten with leprosy.[] And an earthquake occurred, in consequence of which half a mountain was torn asunder and the royal garden was sunk.[Amos 1:1; Zech. 14:5.] Yet Uzziah defeated the enemies all about him and beautified Jerusalem; and he rebuilt the walls that Joash (Joas) destroyed. Because of his leprosy he was removed from the city, and Jotham (Joatham) reigned in his stead. Upon his death Uzziah was buried in the sepulcher of the kings of Jerusalem.

Sardanapalus (Sardanapallus) was a depraved, unchaste, and effeminate man. He first introduced the use of the cushion or pillow. He associated with brazen women; and for these reasons loss and death followed him and divided his realm as previously related.[See Folio LIV recto, and note on Sardanapalus.] Terrible times came and these continued almost to the birth of Christ, during which period human blood was spilled like water throughout the world.

Pul (Phull),[Pul was king of Assyria about 765 BCE, when Assyria is first mentioned in the Bible after the time of Nimrod. He invaded Israel but was induced to retire by a present of 1000 talents of silver. (II Kings 15:19, 20; I Chron. 5:26)] the king of the Assyrians, and his successor endeavored to restore the monarchy; and in consequence they distressed the country in no small degree.

Jotham (Joathan) in the Year of the World 4440.[This sentence does not appear in the German edition of the .]

Tiglath-pileser (Thleglathpalazar) captured the countries of Naphtali (Neptalim) and Galilee (Gallilea) and the lands beyond the Jordan, incorporating these into Assyria. Later, at the behest of Ahaz (Achas) he besieged Damascus and slew Rezin (Raasim), the king of Damascus.[Tiglath-pileser II was king of Assyria in the time of king Ahaz (747-729 BCE), Tiglath-pileser I having begun to reign about 1130 BCE, but not being mentioned in the Bible. The latter king, early in his reign, about 741 BCE, made a campaign against Pekah, king of Israel, overran all the northern part of the kingdom, carried away captive many inhabitants of the cities and placed them in various parts of his own kingdom (II Kings 15:29). Some years later the allied kings of Israel and Syria, Pekah and Rezin, having made war against Judah, Ahaz foolishly applied to Tiglath-pileser for assistance. The Assyrian army captured Damascus and slew Rezin (II Kings 16:9). It then ravaged Israel, chiefly east of the Jordan, carried off many captives, and exacted a very heavy tribute from Ahaz and greatly distressed him (I Chron. 5:26; II Chron. 28:16-21). Tiglath-pileser II reigned about nineteen years, and was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser IV.]

Shalmaneser (Salmanasar) besieged Samaria and added Israel to Assyria. The kingdom of Israel ended after enduring for 282 years.[Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, reigned from 727 to 722 BCE, coming between the reigns of Tiglath-pileser and Sargon. He invaded Israel. Hoshea the king had revolted, but he conquered him and exacted a tribute. (II Kings 17:3) He then returned home, but as Hoshea revolted a second time and allied himself with the king of Egypt, Shalmaneser returned; and he ravaged Samaria, besieged Hoshea in his capital; and after three years the city fell. However, during his period a rebellion headed by Sargon broke out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. ]

Ahaz (Achas) (in the Year of the World 4466)[ The phrase in the parenthesis does not occur in the German edition of the .] reigned in Judah after the death of his father Jotham (Joathan). He was the most evil, and zealously addicted to idolatry. Pekah (Phacee) came against him, and in a single day slew in battle 120,000 fighting men of Judah, and carried off 20,000 children, maidens and women as captives. But these he sent home again on the advice of the prophets.[Ahaz, son of Jotham, was the 11th king of Judah. He ascended the throne in his twenties, and reigned 16 years. He was a polytheist and held God in contempt. He made his own children pass through the fire to idols. He introduced the Syrian gods into Jerusalem, altered the temple after the Syrian model, and even closed it altogether. He met various repulses at the hands of Pekah and Rezin. The Edomites revolted and the Philistines harassed him. He sought the aid of Pul, king of Assyria, and in consequence became tributary to him and to his successor Tiglath-pileser. Ahaz was reduced to great extremities in buying off the Assyrians; and yet he became still more infatuated with polytheism. He died in at 36, and was refused burial with the ancestral kings. (II Chron. 28)] At this time Rome was built.[This paragraph and the one that follows it (on Hezekiah) are switched in the German edition of the .]

Hezekiah (Ezechias) (in the Year of the World 4472)[The phrase in the parenthesis does not occur in the German edition of the .], son of Ahaz (Achab) and 15th king of Judah, was the best and most pious, and he led the people back to the service of God. During his time the kingdom of the ten tribes declined and though Shalmaneser, the king, became part of Assyria. Sennacherib, king of Assyria, overran Hezekiah and his kingdom and besieged Jerusalem; but in answer to prayer and penance on the part of Hezekiah and Isaiah (Ysaye), the angel of the Lord in one night slew 285,000 men of the hosts of Sennacherib; and thus was Hezekiah relieved. Now, because of his boastful pride, or by reason of his ingratitude, Hezekiah was taken deathly ill; but through remorse and atonement he was restored to health. And as a sign of the cure the course of the sun was reversed by ten degrees. To the messengers of the king of Babylon he displayed all his riches; whereupon Isaiah prophesied to him that these same riches would be carried off by the Babylonians.

Hezekiah was a distinguished king of Judah, the son and successor of the apostate Ahaz. He ascended the throne at the age of 25 and ruled 29 years, till 697 BCE. During his reign the temple was repaired, and the Passover celebrated. A proclamation was sent from Dan to Beersheba inviting the tribes to Jerusalem to keep the Passover, and as a result of the convocation a national religious zeal broke out. Hezekiah held Isaiah in high esteem and frequently consulted him. He warred against the Philistines, and regained what his father had lost. He rebelled against the domination of Assyria. Sennacherib invaded his kingdom with an immense army, but was miraculously defeated. In the events of his private life, one is to be noted of peculiar significance.
The king became sick to death, and Isaiah uttered his doom, telling him that he must die (II Kings 20:1-11):

Then he (Hezekiah) turned his face to the wall and prayed to the Lord. . . And it came to pass, before Isaiah had gone out into the middle court, that the word of the Lord came to him, saying, Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of my people, Thus says the Lord, the God of David, your father, I have heard your prayer, I have seen your tears: behold, I will heal you. . . And I will add to your days fifteen years; and I will deliver you and your city out of the hand of the king of Assyria. . . And Isaiah said, Take a lump of figs. And they took and laid it on the boil and he recovered. And Hezekiah said to Isaiah, What shall be the sign that the Lord will heal me. . . And Isaiah said, This sign shall you have of the Lord, that the Lord will do the thing that he has spoken: Shall the shadow go forward ten degrees or go back ten degrees? And Hezekiah answered, It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees: No, but let the shadow return backwards ten degrees. And Isaiah the prophet, cried to the Lord: and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down in the dial of Ahaz.

Thus as a sign of the cure the dial was made to go back ten degrees. Another event of note in Hezekiah's life was the punishment pronounced upon his house by Isaiah for the display he made of his riches to the messengers of the king of Babylon, who had come to congratulate him upon his recovery (II Kings 20:15). Hezekiah died in honor and was buried in the "highest of the sepulchers of the sons of David."

Sennacherib (as already stated) disgracefully fled; and he came to Nineveh and tortured the Jews and Tobias. He was finally slain by his own sons.[Sennacherib was the son and successor of Sargon. Judah had paid tribute to Assyria, but under Hezekiah it revolted; and so Sennacherib determined to take revenge on Judah. And so he invaded Palestine on two occasions, on the first of which he was pacified by a tribute. When Hezekiah revolted a second time, Sennacherib sent an embassy demanding submission. In response to which Hezekiah prayed to God for deliverance. In consequence, the Bible claims, 185,000 Assyrians died of the plague in a night, the siege was raised and Sennacherib returned to Nineveh (II Kings 19:35). About twenty years later, while worshipping in the house of his god, Sennacherib was slain with the sword by his own sons. He had reigned twenty-two years, and brilliantly. He crushed the revolt of Babylon, attacked Sidon, made many cities tributary, and as Sargon had done, laid a heavy hand on the neighboring nations. His palaces were large and beautiful, and his monuments exist in unexpected places.]

Manasseh (Manasses) (in the Year of the World 4501)[The phrase in the parenthesis does not occur in the German edition of the .], son of Hezekiah, reigned after him in Judah for 55 years. He was a very evil man and inclined to idolatry and superstition. He slew the prophets, and Isaiah in particular he ordered to be cut apart with a wood saw. He was taken captive to Babylon, but upon his repentance and humility he received pardon and mercy, and was restored to his kingdom. After him reigned Amon, his son, who followed in the footsteps of his father in matters of sin, but not in repentance. He was slain by his relatives.[Manasseh, successor of Hezekiah, as king of Judah, ascended the throne at the age of twelve. The early parts of his reign were distinguished by acts of impiety and cruelty, and he succeeded in drawing his subjects away from the Lord to such an extent that the only kind of worship not allowed in Judah was that of Jehovah (II Kings 21:2-9). In the end he did much to repair the evils of his former life. (II Chron. 33:1-20)]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Continued).

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio LIII recto, where it ended with Amaziah (Amasias). It is here resumed as follows:

  1. Uzziah (Ozias), son of Amaziah, and twelfth king of Judah.
  2. Jotham (Joathan), successor of Uzziah as king of Judah.
  3. Ahaz (Achas), son and successor of Jotham as king of Judah.
  4. Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, and fifteenth king of Judah.
  5. Manasseh (Manasses), son and successor of Hezekiah.

(B) LINEAGE OF THE ASSYRIAN KINGS (Continued).

The Assyrian Lineage is here continued from Folio XLII verson (which there ended with Thineus) and is here resumed as follows:

  1. Sardanapalus (Sardanapallus) is represented by a woodcut that is rather distinctive. The portrait is youthful and clean-shaven, with flowing locks of hair. The other two clean-shaven individuals on this page are Uzziah (Ozias) and Pul (Phull), both of whom are of rather portly individuals who have clearly reached (and surpassed) middle age. The remaining portraits are of older, bearded individuals who stereotypically represent the idea of ‘king.'
  2. Pul (Phull) is represented by a woodcut that gazes diagonally across the page to his physical counterpart, Uzziah (Ozias), the only other middle-aged clean-shaven heavy-set figure, who, in turn, looks back at him.
  3. Tiglath-pileser (Theglathphalazar).
  4. Shalmaneser (Salmanasar).
  5. Sennacherib.
  6. Esar-haddon (Assaradan).

FOLIO LV verso

Zephaniah (Sophonias), the ninth of the twelve prophets, was a son of Cushi (Chus), noblest of men. To the Hebrews he prophesied the destruction and rebuilding of Jerusalem.[Zephaniah, ninth of the minor prophets, was the son of Cushi, and lived in the days of Josiah. His prophecy was uttered in the early part of the ministry of Jeremiah and was mainly designed to excite the Jewish nation to repentance, in view of threatened judgments, and to comfort the people of God with promises of the final triumph of righteousness. The description of the judgment in 1:14, 15, "The great day of Jehovah is near" (in the Latin version, Dies irae dies illa) has furnished the key note to the sublimest hymn of the Middle Ages, the Dies irae, traditionally attributed to Thomas of Celano (c. 1250).]

Uriah (Urias), the prophet, was slain by king Jehoiakim (Jeconia).[Uriah or Urias, son of Shemaiah, a faithful prophet in Judah in the time of Jehoiakim, confirmed the prediction of Jeremiah against Judah; and having fled to Egypt for refuge from the enraged king, and having been sent back by Pharaoh-necho on demand, he was wickedly slain and dishonorably buried (Jer. 26:20-23).]

Minor Prophets

Habakkuk (Abacuck), tenth among the prophets, full of the spirit of prophecy, and held in esteem in Judah, prophesied against Nebuchadnezzar (Nabuchodonosor) and Babylonia. He also brought food to Daniel while in the lion's den in Babylonia.[Habakkuk, or Habbakkuk (Abacuck) was one of the twelve minor prophets of whose birth we know neither time nor place. He lived in the reign of Jehoiakim, or of Josiah. The prophecy of Habakkuk relates chiefly to the invasion of Judaea by the Chaldaeans, and the subsequent punishment of the Chaldaens themselves, ch. 2. The passage, 2:4, "the just shall live by his faith, " furnished Paul the text for his Epistle to the Romans (Rom. 1:17). The Book of Habakkuk consists of three chapters, which all constitute one oracle. The first foretells the woes which the Chaldaeans would soon inflict on his nation; the second, the future humiliation of the iniquitous conquerors; in the third the prophet implores the aid of Jehovah in view of his mighty works of ancient days, and expresses the most assured trust in him. ]

Baruch was the scribe of Jeremiah the prophet. He made a prophetic book, and in it predicted the return from captivity.[Baruch was the secretary of the prophet Jeremiah, and came of a distinguished Jewish family (Jer. 32:12). His friendship for Jeremiah was strong and constant. At his dictation Baruch wrote the prophecies. These he read before the princes, who rehearsed them to Jehoiakim the king, having previously deposited the writing in one of the offices of the temple. The king ordered the writing to be read in his presence, and he became so exasperated that he destroyed the manuscripts and gave orders to arrest both the prophet and his secretary, but they had concealed themselves. Jehovah, however, repeated the prophecies to Jeremiah with some additions, and Baruch wrote them down a second time. Baruch was falsely accused of influencing Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldaeans, and they were both imprisoned until the capture of Jerusalem in 586 BCE. They were afterward forced to go down to Egypt (Jer. 43:6-7). The Book of Baruch is one of the Apochrypha of the Old Testament, of uncertain date and authorship.]

Jeremiah, the holiest of the prophets, sanctified from his mother's womb (of a race) of priests, began to prophesy against Jerusalem and the temple, when he was still a child and but twelve years of age. And he prophesied for forty years, not including the years during which he prophesied in Egypt. And there, after many daring predictions, he was stoned by the people at Tahpanhes and buried in the same region; and after he drove out the snakes, he was honored.

Jeremiah was one of the four major prophets, the other three being Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. He was the son of Hilkiah, of Anathoth, in the land of Benjamin, (Jer.1:1) and lived under various kings from Josiah to the Captivity. As Professor Plumptre observes, "there is no one in the ‘goodly fellowship of the prophets' of whom, in his work, feelings and sufferings, we have so distinct a knowledge, although it is derived almost exclusively from his book. He is the great example of the prophetic life. It is not to be wondered at that he should have seemed to the Christian feeling of the early church a type of Him in whom that life received its highest completion." He was not only the prophet of sorrow and public calamity, but also of a new and better covenant of the heart. Jeremiah was very young when called to his prophetic office, and for 42 years he persisted in this arduous service with diligence and fidelity, in the midst of the severest trials and persecutions. It was probably owing to his youth at the time, and his residence in Anathoth, that when the book of the Law was found in the house of the Lord , the king sent to Huldah the prophetess, instead of to him, to inquire of the Lord (II Kings 22:14). During all this time Jerusalem was in a distracted and deplorable state and the prophet was calumniated, imprisoned, and often in danger of death. But nothing could deter him. His exhortations to the king and rulers were to submit at once to the arms of Nebuchadnezzar, for by that means they would preserve their lives, while continued resistance would bring certain and dreadful destruction on Jerusalem. At this time the city swarmed with false prophets who contradicted Jeremiah and flattered the king and his courtiers that God would rescue them from the impending danger; and after the city was taken and part of the population carried to Babylon, these prophets confidently predicted a speedy return. On the other hand Jeremiah predicted that their captivity would be a long one and would endure for seventy years.

The prophecy of Jeremiah is a reflection of his sad and tender character and the calamities of his age. It embraces a period of 40 years. Jeremiah entered upon the office of prophet in the thirtieth year of Josiah, and his prophecy relates to the judgments that were to come in consequence of the gross idolatry and corruption of the people. His end is uncertain. There are indications that he may have reached extreme old age. On the other hand there is the tradition that the long tragedy of his life ended in actual martyrdom, and that the Jews at Tahpanhes, irritated by his rebukes, finally stoned him to death. Most commentators on the New Testament find an allusion to this in Hebrews 11:37.

This paragraph and the one that follows it (on Saraiah) are switched in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Seraiah (Sarayas) was slain by Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah with other advisers of Zedekiah.[Saraiah is the high priest who in the reign of Zedekiah was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar and killed at Riblah (II Kings 25:18-21; I Chr. 6:14; Jer. 52:24-27).]

Huldah (Olda), the prophetess, was the wife of Shallum (Sellum) the high priest. She was illustrious and prophesied for Josiah (Josia), and particularly concerning the destruction of Jerusalem and the captivity of its people.[Huldah (Olda), a prophetess, wife of Shallum, keeper of the wardrobe under Josiah, and who dwelt in the suburbs, was the most noted person of prophetic gift in Jerusalem while Jeremiah was still at Anathoth. Josiah had recourse to her when Hellish found the Book of the Law, to procure an authoritative opinion on it (II Kings 22:14; II Chron. 34:22).]

These six (referring to portraits of Mizahel, Hananiah (Ananias), Azariah (Azaias) Daniel (the text incorrectly reads David), Ezekiel (Ezechiel), and Merodach (Mardocheus) below the text) all yet children, were, together with Joachim, the king, carried to Babylonia in captivity. Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image, 60 cubits high, in a field, and ordered all princes to attend upon its dedication and for the worship thereof. And the herald called out: You shall worship the image, and you who do not do so, will in this same hour be sent to the oven of the blazing fire. And they all worshipped it, except the servants of Daniel. For this they were accused before the king. Whereupon an oven was lighted sevenfold; and in it they were thrown, bound and fully clad. But the flames killed the men who put them into the oven. And the angel of the Lord entered the oven like a blowing wind of mist, and refreshed them. Thereupon the three children praised and sanctified the Lord God, as with a single mouth.[In the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar made war on Judah, taking the king prisoner. He besieged and took Jerusalem and carried off many of the people as captives, including Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, all of the royal family. He caused these four to be carefully educated in the language and learning of the Chaldeans, so they might be employed at court. They were also given Chaldaean names: Daniel was called Belteshazzar; Hananiah, Shadrach; Mishael, Meshach; Azariah, Abed-ego. Their education completed, the king communed with them, finding them superior to all the magicians and astrologers of the realm. (Dan. 1:1-20) He made Daniel ruler of the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon. At Daniel's request the other three were set over the affairs of the province of Babylon; but "Daniel sat in the gate of the king." (Dan. 2:48-49) And Nebuchadnezzar made a golden image threescore cubits in height and set it up in the plain, calling on all the princes, governors, etc., to come together and worship it, under pain of death in a fiery furnace for failure to obey. And at a given sign the multitudes fell down and worshipped; but certain Chaldaeans made complaint against Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-ego for not having done so. Before the king they admitted the charge and told him they would neither serve his gods nor worship his image. The king ordered the furnace to be heated "one seven times more than it was wont to be heated." The accused were thrown into it. The terrific heat killed the men who threw them in, but they themselves remained unscathed, and while in the midst of the flames sang the praises of the Lord (Dan. 3:1-30). The king recognizing the power of their God and released them.]

Jehozadak (Iosedech), the priest, a son of Seraiah (Azaria), was, when the Lord through Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Judah and Jerusalem by force, taken captive with others to Babylonia. Some say he was Ezdra, the writer and priest, or, perchance his brother.[Jehozadek was the son of the high priest Seraiah, who was murdered by Nebuchadnezzar (II Kings 25:21). He was carried into captivity and never became high priest, but his son, Jeshua, attained to this office, and his descendants held it until Alcimus. He is more frequently called Jozadak or Josedech.]

ILLUSTRATION
(A) THE PRIESTLY LINE (Continued).

The Priestly Line is here continued from Folio LIII verso, which there ended with Shallum (Sellum, misprinted "Bellum"). We resume:

  1. Hilkiah or Helkias (Elchias), who is not mentioned in the text, was high priest in Josiah's reign. He found "the Book of the Law," the sacred copy of the Pentateuch in the temple, and aided Josiah in his reformation. He was probably an ancestor of Ezra (II Kings 22:8-23, 25; II Chron. 34:14-35). This portrait represented Azariah (Azarias) at Folio L verso; Phinehas (Phinees), at Folio XXXVII verso.
  2. Azariah (Azarias), son of Hilkiah, upon whom the text is also silent. This name was very common among the Jews and was born by many briefly referred to in the Scriptures. Three of them were high priests (I Chron. 6:9, 10; II Chron. 26:17-20; 31:10, 13). This portrait represented Uzzi (Ozy) at Folio XXXVII verso.
  3. Seraiah (Sarayas), referred to in the text, was a son of the above named Azariah, and is here represented by a woodcut that served for Jehoiada (Yoyada) at Folio L verso; for Zadok (Sadoch), at Folio XLVIII recto; and for Abishua (Abysue) at Folio XXXVII verso.
  4. Jehozadak or Jozadak (Josedech) is mentioned in the text, and represented by a portrait used for Azariah (Azarias) at Folio L verso; for Achimas at Folio XLVIII recto; and for Bukki (Boos or Buuzz), at Folio XXXVII verso.

(B) THE PROPHETS (Continued)

The prophets are resumed from folio LIII verso:

  1. Zephaniah (Sophonias), the ninth prophet, was Azariah (Azarias) at Folio XLIX verso, and Ibzan (Abesson) at Folio XLI recto.
  2. Uriah or Urias, a prophet, was Tola (Thola) at Folio XXXVII verso.
  3. Baruch, the secretary or scribe of Jeremiah.
  4. Habakkuk (Abacuck), the 10th prophet, was Eli (Hely) at Folio XLI verso.
  5. Jeremiah (Hieremias) was Obadiah (Abdyas) at Folio XLIX verso, and Ahijah (Achias) the prophet, at Folio XLV recto.
  6. Huldah (Olda), the prophetess, was Juno at Folio XXXV recto, and Ceres at Folio XXXV recto.
  7. Daniel (mislabeled as ‘David') is portrayed by a woodcut here used for the first time. He is represented as a young man, with long flowing curls, and in medieval robe. He is apparently in the act of prophesying. As he stands waist deep in the cup of a flower, he is gesturing, as is the custom of most of the characters illustrated in the Chronicle.
  8. Ezekiel (Ezechiel), the prophet, also a new woodcut. The subject is an elderly man with long hair and flowing beard. He wears a cap and medieval cloak. He is gesturing, apparently to emphasize some prophecy.
  9. Murdoch (Mardocheus) is also represented by a new woodcut, and appears as a middle-aged medieval character, attired in cap and robe, standing in the cup of a flower and gesticulating.

(C) THE MEN IN THE FIERY FURNACE.

The Men in the Fiery Furnace--Mizahel, Hananiah (Ananias), and Azariah (Azarias)--are here depicted in the blazing oven or furnace, which among the Chaldaeans was a device used for capital punishment (Jer. 29:22; Dan. 3:19-26; Rev. 1:15; 9:2). Although the intended victims had attained to manhood before they were obliged to undergo this ordeal, they are here represented as three children, neatly clad as choir boys, no doubt to indicate that (according to the text of the Vulgate) they sang the praises of the Lord amidst the flames (see Text and Note, above).

FOLIO LVI recto

Rhea, who was also called Ilia, daughter of Numitor the king, was at this time still a virgin. After her father was deposed by her uncle Amulius, she was placed among the virgins of the Vesta, the goddess of the fire, in order to compel her to remain a perpetual virgin. But when she became of full age and was moved by unchaste desires, she submitted to the most unworthy embraces of an unknown man. By him she became pregnant, and bore the twins Romulus and Remus. Because of this she was buried alive at the command of Amulius, her uncle. Thereafter he ordered the twins to be thrown into the Tiber at Rome. But when the servants could not get to the banks of the river itself because of the abundance of overflowing water, they placed the twins on the shore; and so Romulus and Remus were not done away with as Amulius had ordered. When the water receded, a she-wolf heard the cries of the children; and she left her young and followed the crying of the children. And she mothered them. Faustulus, the king's shepherd, found the children beside a tree and carried them home. He brought them up among the shepherds, according to their coarse peasant life. Some say they were the children of the pagan god Mars because they were born in the forest of Mars, or were nourished by a she-wolf (who is under the protection of this same Mars). As they grew up among the shepherds, they grew in size and fighting strength and waywardness from day to day. And when they became of age they murdered their uncle the king, and reinstated Numitor, their ancestor, as king. But in the following year he was deposed. And so were extinguished the names of the Latin or Albanian kings, a line of twenty-one kings, who had reigned six hundred and twenty-three years.

Remus, son of the Vestal Virgin Rhea, in this year, together with his brother Romulus, began the building of a city, which is now Rome. And as they were twins and equal heirs, they agreed to determine by means of bird augury which one was to rule and to name the city after him, Remus (who was in possession of the Aventine hill) first saw six vultures; and thereafter Romulus (who possessed the Palatine hill) saw twelve vultures. This, Romulus interpreted to mean that as he saw the greater number of birds, he should be the ruler of the city, and that the city according to the omen of the bloodthirsty birds of prey, would be a fighting one. Now, it was reckoned that an embankment which was thrown up, should be sufficient to protect the city. Remus laughed at that, and ridiculed Romulus. For this he was slain (some say at the behest of his brother, others say at the request of Fabius, the captain of the horse of Romulus). And he was buried outside the city because he had overstepped the marks or limits of the future wall of that city. This was the first sacrifice, by means of which he sanctified the fortification of the new city by his blood.[The story of Romulus and Remus was touched upon in connection with the mention of their uncle Amulius at Folio LIII recto and the note there, which brought the narrative to the point of assassination of Amulius and the restoration of Numitor to the throne. But, as stated by the chronicler, Numitor was again deposed in the following year, and the twins were his successors in equal right. Romulus and Remus loved their old abode and therefore left Alba to found a city on the banks of the Tiber. But they could not agree where the city should be built and after whom it should be named. Romulus wished to build it on the Palatine, Remus on the Aventine. They agreed to decide the question by augury; and each took his station on the top of his chosen hill. The night passed, and at dawn Remus saw six vultures; but at sunrise, when these tidings were brought to Romulus, twelve vultures flew by him. Each claimed the augury in his own favor; but the shepherds decided for Romulus, who proceeded to mark out the pomoerium, or line for the wall of his city, and to raise the wall itself. Remus, who still resented the wrong he had suffered, leaped over the wall in scorn; whereupon he was slain by his brother.]

BEGINNING OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

Romulus, first king of the Romans, at the age of twenty-one years and in the three hundred and twenty-fourth year of David's kingdom (when Numitor was slain and the Latin kingdom became disrupted), together with his brother Remus and by the assistance of a number of shepherds, built a little village on unprotected ground; and he named it for himself. There (as Eusebius writes) he began to reign in the same year, and he reigned 38 years. Although Romulus was of doubtful origin, as Plutarch states, his natural manners and characteristics were not servile. He carried himself with royal dignity and courage, and gave promise of a ready and warlike disposition. He was a very eloquent speaker, and of civic renown; and therefore he attained high honors. After Rome was built he singled out those who had arrived at a sturdy age, and established military ranks for the practice of war. The rest of the inhabitants he called the people (populus). Therefore he created senators whom he called fathers (patres), his own progeny he called patricians. But as there was a dearth of inhabitants, he provided a forest in the vicinity, free to the general public; and to it came a great many people from many places; and thus was made up the Roman population. Therefore Romulus decreed that alleged games should be held: and many maidens living in the vicinity came to see the games, and were captured by the Romans and married. This was the cause of much war. The strength of the city being soon increased, this most wise king made the following arrangement in the state; that the young men, divided into tribes, should be ready, with horses and arms, for any sudden demands of war. When he had thus regulated matters, and was holding an assembly of the people at the lake of Caprea, near the city, he was suddenly snatched out of their sight.and once upon a time, outside the city, near a pool there, he was suddenly withdrawn from humankind.

This section is taken from Florus' Epitome de T. Livio Bellorum omnium annorum DCC Libri duo (1.1). Florus, a Roman historian living at the time of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, made a very abridged compilation of Roman history taken mainly from Livy. It was a beloved text in the Middle Ages, perhaps because of its ‘rhetorically enhanced' (even bombastic) shaping of Roman historical events.

Romulus found the people too few in numbers. The city had become filled with men, but they wanted women. Romulus therefore tried to form treaties with the neighboring tribes in order to obtain connubium, or the right of legal marriage with his citizens; but his offers were met with disdain, and he resolved to obtain by force what he could not gain by entreaty. Four months after the foundation of the city, he proclaimed that games were to be celebrated in honor of the god Consus, and invited his neighbors, the Latins and the Sabines, to the festival. Suspecting no treachery, they came in numbers, with their wives and children. But the Roman youths rushed upon their guests and carried off the virgins. The parents returned home and prepared for vengeance. Three of the Latin towns took up arms, but were successively defeated by the Romans. At last the Sabine king advanced with a powerful army and desperate battles were fought. At length when both parties were exhausted by the struggle, the Sabine women rushed in between them, and prayed their husbands and fathers to be reconciled. Their prayer was heard; the two people not only made peace, but agreed to form a single nation. Finally, Romulus ruled alone over both Romans and Sabines. He reigned 37 years, and was at length taken away from the world. One day as he was reviewing his people in the Campus Martius, near the Goat's Pool (Caprea), the sun was suddenly eclipsed, darkness overspread the earth, and a dreadful storm dispersed the people. When daylight returned, Romulus had disappeared, for his father Mars had carried him up to heaven in a fiery chariot.

As Romulus was regarded as the father of Rome, its most ancient political institutions and the organization of the people were ascribed to him. Thus he is said to have divided the people into three tribes which bore the names Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres. The Ramnes were supposed to have derived their name from Romulus, the Tities from Titus Tatius, the Sabine king, and the Luceres from Lucumo, an Etruscan chief who had assisted Romulus against the Sabines. Each tribe contained ten curiae, which received their names from the thirty Sabine women who had brought about the peace. Each curia contained ten gentes, and each gens 100 men. Thus the people, according to general belief were originally divided into 3 tribes, 30 curiae, and 300 gentes, which mustered 3000 men, who fought on foot, and were called a legion. Besides those there were 300 horsemen, called Celeres. To assist him in the government of the people Romulus is said to have selected a number of aged men in the state, who were called Patres or Senatores. The council itself, which was called the senatus, originally consisted of 100 members, but this was increased to 200 when the Sabines were incorporated into the state. In addition to the senate, there was another assembly, consisting of the members of the gentes, which bore the name of comitia, because they voted in it according to their division into curiae.

ILLUSTRATIONS
RHEAM REMUS AND ROMULUS

Here we have the beginning of a new genealogy:

  1. Rhea (also called Rhea Silvia, or Ilia), the virgin who bore Romulus and Remus. She is represented by a woodcut portraying her as a crowned queen with scepter in hand; but instead of an orb, she holds in the other hand a branch that proceeds to Remus and from there to Romulus. This woodcut is here used for the first time.
  2. Romulus is represented by appears as a king, with crown, orb and scepter. In the German edition of the Chronicle, Remus appears here, and the phrase that precedes Romulus' name in the Latin edition, Regnu(m) roma(n)oru(m) (‘Of the Roman Kings') does not appear in the German edition.
  3. Remus appears as a king, with crown, orb and scepter. In the German edition of the Chronicle, Romulus appears here.

FOLIO LVI verso

Numa Pompilius, second Roman king, succeeded Romulus in the 27th year of the kingdom of Hezekiah; and he reigned 41 years. Because of his piety he was elected king by the Sabine people. He taught spiritual exercises and the worship of the immortal gods, and instituted a priesthood of flamens, prophets, and others. He divided the year into twelve months, and ordered and prescribed the days of work and the holidays. All these things he ascribed to the goddess Egeria so that the rabble would more readily accept them and the uncivilized people brought to obedience. And so with justice and piety he ruled over a land that he had acquired by stealth and injustice. Later he died of a slight illness at the age of eighty years.[Numa Pompilius (715-672 BCE), second legendary king of Rome, was a Sabine, and his wife was the daughter of Titus Tatius, the Sabine colleague of Romulus. He was elected by the Roman people at the close of a year's interregnum, during which the sovereignty had been exercised by the members of the senate in rotation. Nearly all the early religious institutions of Rome were attributed to him. He set up the worship of Terminus (the god of landmarks), appointed the festival of Fides (‘Faith'), built the temple of Janus, reorganized the calendar and fixed days of work and holidays. He instituted the flamens or sacred priests of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus; the virgins of Vesta, to keep the sacred fire burning on the hearth of the city; the Salii, to guard the shield that fell from heaven; the pontifices and augurs, to arrange the rites and interpret the will of the gods. He also divided the craftsmen into nine guilds. He derived his inspirations from his wife, the nymph Egeria, whom he met by night in her sacred grove. After a long and peaceful reign, during which the gates of Janus were closed, Numa died and was succeeded by the warlike Tullus Hostilius. No single legislator can really be considered responsible for all the institutions ascribed to Numa. They are essentially Italian, and older than Rome itself. Even Roman tradition itself wavers; e.g., the fetiales are variously attributed to Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius.]

Tullus Hostilius, third Roman king, was elected by the Romans in the thirty-ninth year of the reign of Manassah, and he reigned 31 years. The sovereignty was voluntarily turned over to him in view of his virtue and ability, although he was of vulgar peasant origin. His cradle was (as Eutropius writes) a rustic hut[This clause is not found in the German edition of the . Also, Schedel is incorrect here, for it is not Eutropius who comments on the rustic hut as Tullus' cradle, but Valerius Maximus ( 3.4.1).], and he herded cattle in his youth but finally wore the purple and the crown jewels. He enlarged the city of Rome so as to comprehend the Caelionian hill (Mons Caelius). After a long period of peace, he warred against the Albans, defeated them and sent them to Rome, and destroyed their city, except the temples. When he had reached his greatest glory in war, he and his entire house were finally destroyed by a flash of lightning.[ Tullus Hostilius (672-640 BCE), third legendary king of Rome, conducted successful wars with Alba, Fidenae and Veii, which mirror the earlier conquests of Latin territory and the first extension of the Roman domain beyond the walls of Rome. During his reign the combat between the Horatii and Curiatii, the representatives of Rome and Alba, took place. He is said to have been struck dead by lightning as punishment of his pride. He is simply the duplicate of Romulus. Both were brought up among shepherds; carried on war against Fidenae and Veii; doubled the number of citizens; organized the army, and disappeared from the earth in a storm. As Romulus and Numa represent the Ramnes and Tities, so, in order to complete the list of the four traditional elements of the nation, Tullus was made the representative of the Luceres, and Ancus, the founder of the Plebs. The distinctive event of his reign is the destruction of Alba, which may be regarded as an historical event. But when and by whom it was destroyed is uncertain – probably by the Latins.]

Ancus (Anchus) Marcius, born of Numa's daughter, the fourth Roman king, received the Roman kingdom in the fourth year of the reign of Josiah (Josia), and reigned 25 years. Among his ancestors he was not the least in the arts and in renown for peace and war. He surrounded the battlements with a wall, and added the Aventine and the Janiculum hills to the city. He threw the first bridge over the Tiber, and built the city of Ostia (Hostia) by the sea, 16 miles from Rome. Finally he was seized by the plague and exchanged life for death.[Ancus Marcius (640-616 BCE.), was the fourth legendary king of Rome. Like Numa, his reputed grandfather, he was a friend of peace and religion, but was obliged to make war to defend his territories. He conquered the Latins, and some of them whom he settled on the Aventine formed the original Plebs. He fortified the Janiculum, threw a wooden bridge across the Tiber, founded the port of Ostia, established salt-works and built a prison.]

Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth Roman king, was elected in the twenty-seventh year of the reign of Josiah (Josia) and reigned 37 years. And although he was a native of the city of Corinth in Greece, nevertheless, by reason of his valor and distinction, he was elevated to the Roman throne. He revived Greek learning and Italian art, and enlarged the number of senators by three hundred. He was better qualified for war than for peace. By force of arms he subdued twelve peoples of Tuscany, and celebrated his triumph in a golden chariot drawn by four horses. Finally, after many strenuous deeds he was slain by the Sons of Ancus.[Tarquinus Priscus, Lucius, (616-578 BCE), fifth legendary king of Rome, is said to have been the son of a Greek refugee who moved from Tarquinii, in Etruria, to Rome. He was appointed guardian of the sons of Ancus Marcius, but supplanted them on their father's death. He laid out the Circus Maximus, instituted the great games, built the great sewers (cloacae), and began the construction of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. He successfully warred against the Sabines and subjugated Latium. He was the first to celebrate a roman triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, in a robe of purple and gold, and was born on a chariot drawn by four horses. He was finally assassinated by the instigation of the sons of Ancus Marcius.]

At this time the kings still used lances instead of a diadem, which the Greeks called scepters. From the beginning the ancients honored the lance as a symbol of the immortal gods; and on account of the memory of this religion, lances are added to the images of the gods.

Phalaris (Phaleris), tyrant and orator of Agrigentum, flourished at this time. To him came secretly from Athens an ingenious artisan. And as this artisan was familiar with the gruesomeness of this tyrant, he made for him, in order to please him, a brazen bull. In its side he made a door by which evil-doers were locked inside it; and they were punished by placing a fire under the bull. The cries of the victims were to imitate the bellowing of the bull. When the artisan asked compensation for his work, the king ordered him locked within the bull. Thus he became the first victim of his own invention. Ovid writes: There can be no more even justice than that one should suffer the same penalty, which by artifice he has prepared for others. And such was the answer of Phalaris to the Athenians who complained to the king of the handiwork of their own artisan.

Phalaris, tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily, c. 570-554 BCE, was entrusted with the building of the temple of Zeus Atabyrius in the citadel, and took advantage of his position to make himself despot. Under his rule Agrigentum seems to have attained considerable prosperity. He supplied the city with water, adorned it with fine buildings, and fortified it with walls. On the northern coast of the island the people of Himera elected him general with absolute power, in spite of the warnings of the poet Stesichorus. According to Suidas he succeeded in making himself master of the entire island. He was finally overthrown in a general uprising, headed by Telemachus, the ancestor of Theron (tyrant c. 488-472) and burned in his brazen bull.

Succeeding ages have held up Phalaris to infamy for his excessive cruelty. In his brazen bull, invented, it is said, by Perillus of Athens, the tyrant's victims were shut up, and a fire was kindled beneath, and they were roasted alive, while their shrieks represented the bellowing of the bull. Perillus himself is said to have been the first victim.

Later tradition, however, represents Phalaris as a naturally humane man and a patron of philosophy and literature. Plutarch, though he takes the unfavorable view, mentions that the Sicilians gave to the severity of Phalaris the name of justice and a hatred of crime.

This paragraph is switched in order with the one that follows it (on the Erythraean Sibyl) in the German edition of the Chronicle.

The Erythraean (Erithrea) Sibyl, the most celebrated of them all, was a native of Babylonia, and lived at this time. She was dressed in the garb of a monk, wore a black veil, and carried a naked sword in her hand. She was not very old but her countenance was moderately sorrowful. Under her feet was a golden circle set with stars in likeness of the heavens. She speaks thus: In the final age God will be humbled; the divine seed will become mortal; the Godhead will become obedient to mankind; the Lamb will lie in the hay and will be nourished by attendant virgins.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF THE ROMAN KINGS (Continued).

The Lineage of the Roman Kings is here continued from Folio LVI recto, where Rhea, Remus, and Romulus appeared.

(B) THE ERYTHRAEAN SIBYL.

The Erythraean Sibyl (Sibilla Erithea) is represented by a woodcut of special design. She wears a monkish robe and black veil; carries the naked sword in one hand and the golden ring studded with stars, in the other. She is a middle-aged woman and rather sad of countenance—all in accordance with the marks given her by the chronicler.

FOLIO LVII recto

Rome, a city celebrated throughout the world, mistress of all things in Italy, and lying beside the Tiber, was named after Romulus its builder. It was built by him in the eleventh year of Hezekiah (Ezechie), king of Judah, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad. Although many writers speak of the size of the city, Flavius Vopiscus (Vopistus),[Flavius Vopiscus, a native of Syracuse, and one of the six Scriptores Historiae Augustae, flourished about 300 CE. His name is prefixed to the biographies of 1. Aurelianus; 2. Tacitus; 3. Florins; 4. Proves; 5. The four tyrants, Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus; 6. Caius; 7. Numerianus; 8. Carinus; at this point he stops, declaring that Diocletian, and those who follow, demand a more elevated style of composition.] among others, states that the emperor Aurelius enlarged the city to a circumference of thirty thousand paces. However, the measurements of the ancients are not comparable with our own. The Tiber flows into the city from the north and out again on the southern aide in the direction of the city of Ostia, leaving the hills of Vaticanus and Janiculum beyond the river, on the right. On the left the municipal boundaries comprehend seven hills. Pliny states that the city had thirty open gates and seven which were closed.[The number of gates is uncertain, and the position of many of them is doubtful. Pliny, indeed, states that their number was 37; but it is almost certain that this number includes many mere openings made through the walls to connect different parts of the city with the suburbs. The walls and gates of the city are generally classified into three divisions: those originally erected by Romulus; secondly, the walls of Servius Tullius; and thirdly, those erected by Aurelian.] But as the city increased from time to time, the gates of the last enclosure lost their identity or form; and the city was later destroyed, we will not undertake to discover them all. The first gate was called Porta Flumentana; the second, Pinciana; the third, Salaria (Solaria); the fourth, Viminalis, now St. Agnes, or Nomentana (Numentana); the fifth, Esquilina (Exquilina), now St. Lawrence; the sixth, Naevia (Nenia); the seventh, Asinaria (Asmaria), now named St. John, but called Caelimontana (Celimontana) by the ancients; the eighth, now enclosed in an angle, is called the Porta Metrovia (Metrodori) and was known to the ancients as Cabiusam, and later as the Porta Latina. One called Appia, formerly Capena; the last, in the region of the Tiber, erstwhile Ostiensis and called St. Paul; for it leads to his church and toward Ostia. There is yet another in the region of the Tiber, called Carmentalis. Lastly, Triumphalis, or the Gate of Victory, the most celebrated of all, and which in our own time is the one through which triumphs and victory games proceed. There one may see the great buildings on the outer shores of the Tiber; also a bridge leading to the Hospital of the Holy Spirit; also the way which is called the field of victory, which, together with its appurtenances is called the Vatican, so named after the hill that lies by St. Peter's Church, and which is visited more zealously and is regarded as more holy than any other place because of the relics of St. Peter and because of its High Church and the Papal Palace founded by Pope Nicholas II. It has a large pleasure garden, enclosed by a wall. The Janiculum is a quarter beyond the Tiber. Pope Leo IV first fortified the Vatican with a wall, and after him it was called the Leonine City. Rome has seven hills, the Capitoline, Aventine, Palatine, Caelian, Esquiline, Viminal, and the Quirinal; and after these Rome was called the City of the Seven Hills. Capitoline means a chief, or head mount or hill; for when the foundations were dug for the Temple of Jove, a human skull was found there. Previously it was called the Tarpeian Rock, after Tarpeia, the vestal virgin.[Tarpeia was the daughter of Sp. Tarpeius, the governor of the Roman citadel on the Saturnian hill, afterwards called the Capitoline. She was tempted by the gold in the Sabine bracelets and collars to open a gate of the fortress to Tatius and his Sabines. As they entered, they threw upon her their shields, and thus crushed her to death. She was buried on the hill, and her memory was preserved by the name of the Tarpeian Rock which was given to a part of the Capitoline. A legend still exists at Rome that the fair Tarpeia ever sits in the heart of the hill, covered with gold and jewels and bound by a spell.] On this hill was the celebrated Temple of Jove, the great pagan god. The adornments of this entire hill even excelled the wonderful works of the Egyptians, and it was called the Golden Capitol, or abode of the gods. Beside it were two markets, one of oxen and the other of fish. Although this hill once had a remarkable number of small churches and temples, there is at present no church there except the Ara Caeli of the Franciscan Brothers. The Aventine Hill is so called after the people who came there, or after Aventinus Albanus, the king, who was buried there. On this hill many altars and temples were erected to gods and goddesses. Here also was a laurel wood, and a scattering of houses. At present the cloisters of St. Sabine and St. Boniface are located there. The rest of the hill is covered with buildings in a ruinous state, and with vineyards, except for the monastery of St. Alexius, and this appears to be very ancient. The Palatine Hill derived its name from Pallantinians, who came to Rome with Evander,[Evander was the son of Hermes by an Arcadian nymph, called Themis or Nicostrata, and in Roman traditions Carmenta or Tiburtis. About sixty years before the Trojan war, Evander is said to have led a Pelasgian colony from Pallantium in Arcadia into Italy and there to have built a town, Pallantium, on the Tiber, at the foot of the Palantine hill, which town was subsequently incorporated with Rome. Evander taught his neighbors milder laws, and arts of peace and social life, and especially the art of writing, with which he himself had been acquainted by Hercules, and music. He also introduced among them the worship of the Lycaean Pan, of Demeter, Poseidon, and Hercules. Virgil represents Evander as still alive at the time Aeneas arrived in Italy, and as forming an alliance with him against the Latins. Evander was worshipped at Pallantium in Arcadia, as a hero. At Rome he had an altar at the foot of the Aventine.] the king of Arcadia, and who (according to Cornelius Tacitus) gave Rome its beginning by building on the same hill. On this hill, kings and senators, and later the emperors, had their official seats and residences. Here also was the Temple of Victory.[Templum Victoriae (‘Temple of Victory'), on the summit of the Palatine, or the Clivus Victoriae above the Porta Romanula and the circus, in which the statue of the mother of the gods was at first preserved.] To it (as Pliny writes) was brought the great mother of the gods of Greece. There was also the Temple of Febris,[Febris, the goddess and averter of fever, had three sanctuaries at Rome, in which amulets were dedicated, to be worn by people during a fever.] and the Temple of the emperor Augustus, which was later destroyed by fire.[Templum Augusti (‘Temple of Augustus') was founded by Tiberius and completed by Caligula, on the slope of the Palatine in the direction of the Via Nova. It stood before the temple of Minerva from which it was probably separated by the Via Nova.] The emperor Caius Caligula (C. Callcula) by means of a bridge over the temple joined the Palatine and Capitoline hills. The emperor Augustus here erected the Temple of Apollinis,[Templum Apollinis (‘Temple of Apollo'), which was erected by Augustus, stood between the Circus Maximus and the Theater of Marcellus near the Porticus Octaviae, where the senate often assembled.] and added to it a structure with a Latin and Greek library. In the same region the ancients often held their councils. The same building was adorned with wonderful work. Although this greatly celebrated hill was once upon a time the site of magnificent and costly structures, as the ruins still testify, yet there is no building upon the hill now other than St. Nicholas Church built by Calixtus, the pope, but which is no longer entire. Now there was in this region of the Palatine (Pallacii), toward the north, looking in the direction of the triumphal arch of Constantine, the site of the statue of the goddess Minerva. And here also are remarkable buildings, in a ruinous state,

FOLIO LVII verso

with dual gates of marble. There also, enclosed by the surrounding wall, is the church of St. Andrew de Pallara. The remaining area is covered with vineyards and is surrounded by a high wall. The Caelian Hill is named for the Duke Caelius Iubonnius (Iubaenius), who came to the assistance of Romulus against Latium. This hill was added to the city when Tullus Hostilius destroyed the city of Alba (Longa); and thereafter he himself lived there, building a palace which he called Hostilia.[Alba Longa was the most ancient town in Latium. It is said to have been built by Ascanius. It was called Longa because it stretched in a long line down the Alban Mount toward the Alban Lake. It was destroyed by Tullus Hostillius, and never rebuilt. Its inhabitants were removed to Rome. At a later time the surrounding country, highly cultivated and covered with vineyards, was studded with the villas of the Roman aristocracy, each of which was called an Albanum, and so a new town grew up also called Albanum (Albano), ruins of which are extant.] On the same hill Vespasian built the temple of Claudius. In this same region were many houses of the gods, temples and altars; the great slaughter-house; the cave of the Cyclops, the houses of prostitution; the society of the five watchers or wardens; the tents of the pilgrims, and the cattle sheds. In the middle of its ridge are two aqueducts, one of which is very tall. Now, however, this hill is adorned with Christian churches. In the region lying against the Palatine hill is the monastery of St. Gregory, built there upon his father's land; and St. John's and St. Paul's church. And there is the hospital of Salvator, and the church of St. Mary in Dominica; also Stephen's church, which was later adorned by Pope Simplicius. To the left of the same hill is the church of the four crowns, and St. Erasmus monastery. The latest building on the hill is a pilgrim's refuge, called Laterenese (Lateranense). At the extreme end of the hill there is now the Lateran Church, so called because it was built on the soil of the most noble Lateran people. This worthy church contains the heads of the apostles and other holy relics. It is very tall, and renowned throughout the world. It was given to Pope Sylvester by the Emperor Constantine, and was called the Church of Constantine. This church was the first seat of the Roman bishops, and they had their residences there. Now, however, most of the palaces about the church are in ruins. Near this hill is the great gate of Naevia, and the half-destroyed theater. Some call this the castle of wonders. There also is the church of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem, built by Helena, mother of Constantine, on the site where the Temple of Venus and Cupid formerly stood. Beside it is a Carthusian monastery. On the hill called the Esquiline, which is the largest, is the church called St. Mary Maggiore. On this hill were many wonderful buildings; and firstly,

FOLIO LVIII recto

upward of the tower of the nobility, are the ruined buildings of the baths of the Emperor Constantine, and the great marble pillars of a half-naked age. Not far removed from it are marble horses with half-naked riders, wonderful works of art; also the vaulted baths of Diocletian—very wonderful and beautiful; and also many residences of celebrated persons. There too was a slaughterhouse, and St. Vitus Church. Adjoining this is the triumphal arch of Galicenus; and so there are many churches and innumerable other things. The hill, called Viminal, derived its name from Jove Vimineus, whose buildings are there. And although many houses were erected on this hill, a number are no longer there, except three of the most beautiful palaces in the whole city, namely those of M. Crassus, Q. Catullus, and C. Acquilius. The hill of Quirinal was named after the temple of Quirinus. Varro the teacher, called those elevations hills because they are small. Livy writes that Servius the king added the nearest two hills to the city in order to enlarge it; and in order to give this region prestige, he lived there himself. He surrounded the city with a wall and moat. Rome is closed on the east by the hill Tarquinus, where now stands the church of St. Mary of Popolo. A water, which is called virgin, flows through the recesses of the Quirinal hill, and now by its own force flows from the outer waters to the city of Rome. In the neighborhood of this hill is the Campus Martius, lying between the city and the Tiber.[Campus Martius, the "Plain of Mars," was in its widest significance, the open plain at Rome, outside the city walls, lying between the Tiber and hills Capitolinus, Quirinal, and Pincius; but more commonly it signified the northwest portion of the plain lying in the bend of the Tiber, which nearly surrounds it on three sides. The Campus Martius, it is said, originally belonged to the Tarquins and became the property of the state. It was consecrated to Mars on the expulsion of the kings. Here Roman youths performed their gymnastic and warlike exercises, and here the comitia of the centuries was held. At a later time it was surrounded by porticoes, temples, and other public buildings. It was enclosed within the city walls by Aurelian.] Some wonderful buildings were located there; but of these only the ruins are to be seen. There also is the Church of St. Mary in Ecuria; and the Temple of Isis (Isidis).[Isis, though an Egyptian divinity, was extensively worshipped in Greece. Her worship was introduced into Rome in the time of Sulla; and although the Senate made many attempts to suppress her worship, and ordered her temples destroyed, yet the new religious rites took deep root at Rome and became very popular. In 43 BCE the triumvirs courted the popular favor by building a new temple to Isis and Serapes. Augustus forbade any temple to be erected to Isis in the city; but his prohibition was later disregarded; and under the early Roman emperors the worship of Isis and Serapes became firmly established. The most important temple to Isis at Rome stood in the Campus Martius, whence she was called Isis Campensia. The priests and servants of the goddess wore linen garments, from which she herself is called linigera (‘linen-wearing'). Those initiated into her mysteries wore masks which represented the heads of dogs in the public processions. In works of art Isis appears in figure and countenance like Hera. She wears a long tunic and her upper garment is fastened on her breast by a knot. Her head is crowned with a lotus flower and her right hand holds the sistrum.] Here is also a memorable monument, where the elections of Roman senators took place. In Rome there were also twelve caves, wonderful structures, and aqueducts.[The word aqueduct is a term specially applied to the magnificent structures by means of which Rome and other cities of the Roman Empire were supplied with water. Aqueduct may be described in general terms as a channel, constructed as nearly as possible with a regular declivity from the source whence the water was derived to the place where delivered, carried through hills by means of tunnels and over valleys upon a substruction of solid masonry or arches. According to Strabo this device was neglected by the Greeks, and first brought into use by the Romans. The city of Rome by this means received an abundance of pure water from the hills which surround the Campagna. The Romans at first had recourse to the Tiber, to springs and to wells sunk in the city, and it was not until BCE 313 that the first aqueduct was constructed. Their number gradually increased to 14 in the sixth century of the Christian era.] And so one sees and reads about many triumphal arches through which the Roman emperors were escorted after their victories over the enemy. Some of these have been destroyed, some buried in ruin, and others replaced by new buildings; and thus the old has been removed from the sight of man. And so are seen the sights of different buildings and famous ruins. Therefore with these we leave the description of Rome.[This sentence and the one that precedes it are not in the German edition of the .]

Rome, it delights me to gaze upon your ruins. From its fall ancient glory is made clear. But your people today have baked hard marble dug up from its ancient walls into the pliancy of lime. If this impious people should live three hundred more years, there will be no sign left of its nobility.

This paragraph, which is an epigram (known as Carmina 1.51 De Roma) composed by Aeneas Silvius (1405-1464, and later Pope Pius II, r. 1458-64) is not in the German edition of the Chronicle. In verse it appears thus:

Gibbon cites this epigram as a footnote in his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, in support of the following comment (Chapter LXXI, section III): "A fragment, a ruin, howsoever mangled or profaned, may be viewed with pleasure and regret; but the greater part of the marble was deprived of substance, as well as of place and proportion; it was burnt to lime for the purpose of cement. Since the arrival of Poggius, the temple of Concord, and many capital structures, had vanished from his eyes; and an epigram of the same age expresses a just and pious fear, that the continuance of this practice would finally annihilate all the monuments of antiquity."

FOLIO LVII verso and LVIII recto
ILLUSTRATION
CITY OF ROME

The City of Rome is represented by a special woodcut (9" in height) extending across the verso and recto of Folios LVII and LVIII. From the standpoint of direction and the location of the various places of interest, this pictorial map involves considerable guesswork. We cannot get our bearings by assuming any particular compass-point. The upper part of the woodcut is certainly not north; nor will it submit to the test of being any one of the other three cardinal points. Both Republican and Imperial Rome were situated to the east of the Tiber, which although irregular in its course, has a general direction from north to south. But let us begin in the lower right-hand corner.

  1. Porta de Populo, a gate in the formidable wall at the lower end of the woodcut, is probably the old Portia Flaminia, by which the city was entered from the extreme north by the Flaminian Way.
  2. The Church of Santa Maria del Populo, to the left of this gate in the woodcut, is actually located beside the Porta Flaminia, and no doubt the gate has taken its name from the old church.
  3. Porta Pinciana, like the Porta Flaminia, also pierces the old Aurelian Wall and also gives access to the city from the north, but at a more easterly point. It was located on a hill of the same name, and such a hill is indicated in miniature, back of the gate, in the woodcut. It appears in the lower extremity of the illustration and to the left of the gate by which we decided to enter. Still further on to the left is another gate; but it remains unnamed.
  4. Porta Portula (Portese?), another gate, enters the wall at the upper center of the illustration. This I have not been able to identify with any of the gates listed by Smith.
  5. Castle St. Angelo (Castellum S. Angeli), the circular structure to the right, just across the Tiber (Tiberius Fluvius), is one of the massive remains of Imperial Rome, and none other than the Mausoleum of Hadrian, by which name it may be identified on the maps of the ancient city. In actuality it stands to the north of a bend in the Tiber where that river veers to the east for a short distance. It is located on the site where once were the gardens of Domitia, overlooking the undulating plains of the Campagna in its rear. The structure is surmounted by a bronze figure of the Archangel Michael, poised as if he had just alighted with outspread wings and flowing mantle, and had paused there in the act of sheathing his sword. The woodcut suggests this figure, but it has given the Archangel a more militant attitude. His wings are outspread, but his sword is in action as thought about to strike.

    Beneath this forbidding edifice flow the troubled waters of the Tiber into which it has cast its wavering reflection for over eighteen centuries. The structure leading to it across the river is the ancient Aelian Bridge, which has also changed its name and is now the Ponte St. Angelo.

    The Mausoleum was built by Hadrian in the latter part of the second century. It was constructed of brisk work and square blocks of peperino-stone laid with such care and exactness that lightning, war and earthquake have failed to shake its perfect solidity. Inside and out it was faced with courses of Parian marble. The basement was a square of about 340 feet each way and about 75 feet in height. This is not indicated in the woodcut. Above this rose a circular tower of some 235 feet in diameter and 140 feet high, divided into two or three stories and ornamented with columns. Above the circular tower there was originally a dome or curvilinear roof, which must have risen to a height of some 300 feet. Apparently the roof was originally crowned by a colossal group representing Hadrian in a chariot drawn by four horses. Rich friezes girded the building around. On each of the four sides of the basement was a massive door of gilt bronze, and at each of these doors were four horses. Between the doors were large tablets to be inscribed with the names and titles of the emperors who were to be buried within it. The walls were of immense thickness and of solid workmanship. In the center were two chambers in the shape of a Greek cross, one above the other, and here the ashes of the emperors were deposited.

    The magnificent Aelian Bridge, resting on massive arches, formed the avenue by which the Mausoleum was approached by the funeral processions that bore the ashes of the dead emperors to their final resting place. But after Severus no emperor was buried in this Mausoleum, his successors being interred in the tombs of their families.

    For centuries we have no glimpse of the Mausoleum in history, and as the curtain lifts, it is no longer a tomb but a fortress. We know that by the 6th century it had become part of the city's fortification, and was joined to its wall. As such it was assaulted and defended for centuries, and so we may readily understand how its character changed from Mausoleum to Castle.

    In 846 the Saracens invaded Italy, and Leo IV, a Roman by birth, undertook the fortification of Rome, and enclosed it with a wall that portion of it surrounding the Vatican, which has ever since been called after him the Leonine City. The wall commenced at the Castle St. Angelo, enclosed St. Peters, and extended into the river below the gate of Sancto Spirito (‘Holy Spirit'). The chronicler makes a brief reference to these facts in the text.

    How the Mausoleum received the name St. Angelo is another story. In the year 590 Gregory the Great was elected Pope. Rome was then at its lowest ebb of suffering and disgrace at the hands of the Goths under Totila. Its population had shrunk and it was no longer the seat of empire. Earthquakes and floods had added to the work of destruction. And now came famine and pestilence in the wake. Vainly the people implored he mercy of Heaven. It was in the midst of these horrors and calamities that, as Gregory was passing the Mausoleum at the head of a penitential procession, he looked up and beheld hovering over it the figure of the archangel Michael, who paused in the act of sheathing his flaming sword. This vision he interpreted as a token from heaven that the pestilence should cease. And so the plague diminished, and finally ceased altogether; and in celebration of that a chapel was later erected on the top of the Mausoleum by Boniface the Ninth, which was dedicated to St. Michael, and received the name of St. Angelo. It is from this course of events that the structure itself became henceforth known as the Castle of St. Angelo.

    Just how the Castle looked in the days when the Chronicle was written may be seen from a curious and interesting painting by Vittore Carpaccio, in the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice. It represents the pope as coming forth with his train of cardinals from the Castle to receive Saint Ursula and her virgins, accompanied by the son of the King of England, who was betrothed to her. The span of Carpaccio's life was from 1465 to 1522, his artistic career covering the range from 1490 to 1519. In this picture is given a careful representation, by way of background, of the Castle St. Angelo as it was at this period. Above the circle of the ancient tomb rises a high machicolated square tower occupying almost its entire diameter, and again above this is a second and smaller tower, also machicolated, on the top of which is the figure of the winged angel, the whole surrounded by massive walls, with round towers at each corner. And so it appears in this woodcut.

    Just how Hadrian, his horses and chariot, left their dizzy height does not seem to be recorded. It would seem that after the vision of Gregory a great marble angel was actually placed there instead; for it is related that on October 29, 1497, four years after the Chronicle was published, a flash of lightning struck one of the magazines of the Castle, instantly exploding it, shattering to fragments the upper part of the fortress, blowing into the air the great marble angel on the top, and flinging pieces of it a considerable distance. Sixty persons were wounded by this explosion, but no one was killed. Under the pontificate of Clement II some improvements were made in the Castle. To replace the angel that had been thus blown to pieces another statue of marble was made by Raphael, representing the same subject. This was placed on the summit of the square tower. But as already stated, the present incumbent of the "high place" is of bronze, the work of the Flemish sculptor Verschaffelt. (It was set up in 1752 in the place of the marble angel of the 16th century.)

    The terrible history of human baseness, tyranny, hypocrisy, arrogance and misery which this once ancient tomb, originally intended as a final resting place, witnessed after it became a fortress, it is not possible to relate in this brief note. History will ever record the tragic story of Beatrice Cenci so closely connected by tradition with the Castle St. Angelo.

  6. The Antonine Column (Columna Antoniana). Let us return via the Ponte St. Angelo to this side of the Tiber, and proceed to the left. Here we find a huge column, inscribed by the woodcutter as parenthetically noted above. Although such columns were used chiefly to support buildings, either within or without, single columns were also erected in Rome commemorate persons or events. More often they were a monument to the dead. They varied in size even as monuments do in our day. They were surmounted with a statue of the deceased, and the pedestal was equipped with a door which led to a spiral staircase ascending to the summit. Light was admitted through various apertures in the column. Frequently a spiral bas-relief runs about the pillar pictorially recording the victories and other events in the life of the deceased.

    This particular column was erected to the memory of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, in the Campus Martius, and is still in existence. It is located to the east of the Tiber and almost due east of the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and not to the west as would appear by the woodcut. It will be found noted on any map of Imperial Rome. A similar column and in the same vicinity was erected to Antoninus Plus after his death. There is an interesting relationship between the three men under discussion. Hadrian, weary with the affairs of state, formally adopted Antoninus and passed the empire on to him upon condition that Antoninus would in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and name him as his successor. And in that order these men followed one another as heads of the Roman state.

  7. The Colosseum (Coloseus), or Flavian amphitheater, appears at the extreme left of the woodcut, although in fact located a considerable distance to the east, and not to the west, of the Tiber. It was begun by Vespasian, on the site of part of Nero's famous Golden House, and inaugurated by Titus in 80 CE. It consisted originally of three arcaded stories of stone and an upper gallery, originally of wood, which was rebuilt of stone in the present form some time in the third century. The Colosseum probably seated between 40,000 and 50,000 people. It is elliptical in plan with its long axis 615 feet, and its short axis 510 feet. Its arena is 281 feet long and 177 feet wide. Its total height to the top of the third century stone screen wall is about 160 feet.
  8. The Papal Palace (Palatium Pape), appears in the far distance on a high elevation, and in its immediate vicinity St. Peter's is indicated.
  9. In the left foreground, beside the Antonine Column, appears the church of Santa Maria Rotunda (Maria Rotu(n)da), originally the Roman Pantheon begun by Agrippa in 27 BCE, probably as a rectangular building of the ordinary temple type. It was completely rebuilt by Hadrian, in its present circular form (110-125), the columns of the present front porch being probably those of the earlier building. Under Septimus Severus repairs and alterations were made; it is likely that at this time the rectangular coffers were cut on the inside face of the dome. The Roman Pantheon is remarkable, not only for its size, the dome being 144 feet in diameter, and for its elaborate brick construction, but also for its perfect preservation and the fact that for almost 2,000 years it has served continuously as a place of worship, having been dedicated in 609 CE as the church of Santa Maria Rotunda; and so it is designated on the woodcut, but no description of it is given in the text.

    The Pantheon was originally erected as a temple to ‘all gods' (the meaning of the Greek word ‘pantheon'), but its present form is almost certainly due to Hadrian. The porch has no very close relation to the rotunda, the entablature stopping short. Its high gable and large pediment are in strong contrast to the flattened Byzantine dome. The porch has sixteen great Corinthian columns. As has been observed, from the strictly aesthetic point of view the porch might have been dispensed with altogether. The dome, paneled in a receding perspective, soars upward to the saucer of light that is the sky, and a single shaft of light completes the artistic unity of the interior composition. The dome was likened by the Romans themselves to the vault of heaven. Niches in the interior contained great statues of the gods, who have been replaced by the tombs of the Renaissance, including the Tomb of Raphael, and by decorations which signal the conversion of the place into "Santa Maria Rotunda."

  10. Proceeding further to the left we note Castor and Pollux, leading their horses over a hill in the direction of the Coliseum. Castor and Pollux, according to Greek and Roman mythology, were the twin sons of Leda, who conceived them by Jupiter in the form of a swan. They were also known as the Dioscuri (Greek for "offspring of Zeus"), for such they were. Of the Temple of Castor and Pollux there remain but three beautiful Corinthian columns, with a piece of the entablature. The twin gods were adopted by the Romans in gratitude for their assistance at the battle of Lake Regillus, fought against Tarquin and the Latins in 496 BCE. Hardly any event in early Roman history has been more disguised by poetical embellishment and fiction, and it is impossible to decide what amount of historical character may be attached to it; but there is no reason to doubt the existence of the lake that was assigned as the scene of the combat. It is expressly described by Livy as situated in the territory of Tusculum. The twins brought the news of the victory to Rome, and watered their horses at the Fons Juturna. The demolition of the church of S.M. Liberatrice, in 1900, brought to light the original spring between the Temple of Vesta (the virgins being the custodians of water as well as fire) and the Temple of Castor and Pollux. In it was found a marble altar, with reliefs on the four sides of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), Jupiter, Leda and the Swan, and a goddess, perhaps Vesta, and the fragments of two life-size marble horses of the best Greek workmanship.
  11. In the central background is indicated the Church of St. Peter. The Emperor Constantine I gave freedom to the Church in 313, and according to tradition, he began the construction of a splendid basilica on the Vatican hill over St. Peter's tomb. This was not completed until 349, in the reign of Constantius. Nothing unfortunately remains of Constantine's basilica, or of the splendid monuments with which it was adorned in the course of nearly twelve centuries, with the exception of a few remains preserved in the crypts of the present basilica. The church had the form of a structure that the Greek name (‘basilica') implies. It had five naves, and its walls were adorned with painting and mosaic, that were much admired by pilgrims. Its five doors opened on a great square atrium called Paradisus, which was surrounded by a colonnade and in which there gradually accumulated the tombs of all the popes, emperors, kings, and princes who expressed a wish to be buried near St. Peter's tomb.

    In the course of time this venerable edifice became so damaged that Pope Nicholas V determined on its reconstruction. The structure leaned so much to one side that it was deemed best to demolish it altogether, and to build a new one on the same site. On April 11, 1506 Pope Julius II laid the first stone of the new basilica; and it was not until 1603 that this was completed, according to the original plan in the form of a Greek cross. Just how the church looked in 1493 we do not know, but its appearance as vouched for by the present woodcut is confirmed by Breydenbach (Journey to the Holy Land, 1483-4). This view is almost identical with that of Breydenbach. It may be that in common with the earliest authentic view of Rome (that in P. Bergomensis, Suppl. Chronicarum, Venice, 1490), both examples were adapted from a woodcut, drawing, or painting earlier than 1490, not now in existence. Reconstructions of the Church of St. Peter, as it appeared in the Middle Ages, have been attempted, and good examples will be found in Die Stadt Rom zu Ende der Renaissance, by Ludwig von Pastor (Herder & Company, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1925). The illustration at pages 14-15, a reconstruction by Brewer and Crostarosa, shows a striking resemblance to the façade of St. Peter's in the woodcut before us.

  12. Almost in the center of the woodcut, slightly to the right, on the banks of the Tiber, appears the Hospital di Santo Spirito, so named in the Breydenbach woodcut of the city of Rome, but left unnamed here. Its colonnade very much resembles that of St. Peter's. It is a memento of Anglo-Saxon piety. Anglo-Saxons, converted by Gregory the Great, were among the earliest and most devout of pilgrims. Among these were the Saxon king Ceadwald (689). He was followed by Conrad of Mercia, and Offa, who cut off and consecrated their long hair at the tomb of St. Peter. Ina, King of Wessex, came in 717, and endowed there the Schola Anglorum, a hostel for the shelter, and school for the education, of his countrymen. The whole district between the Castle Angelo and St. Peter's was under the control of the Anglo-Saxon colony, and obtained the name of Burgus Saxonum, whence the word Borgo. In 847 occurred the great fire in the Borgo, when the portico of St. Peter's and the Saxon buildings were destroyed. This event was depicted by Raphael in the fresco of the Sala dell Incendio in the Vatican.
  13. In the upper right hand corner of the panorama of Rome, just within the walls, and on a high eminence, is the Belvedere, the name applied to the northern galleries of the Vatican Palace, which appears to the left. Why this was called the Belvedere is clear from the Latin derivation of the word (bellus = ‘beautiful'; videre = ‘to see').
FOLIO LVIII verso

Genoa (Genua), mistress and queen of the Ligurians, and also called Janua, is a very renowned city in Italy, situated on the shores of the Ligurian Gulf.[Gulf of Genoa. Liguria is an ancient district in Italy between the Po and the Gulf; now Genoa and Porto Maurizio provinces. The Ligurians served as mercenaries in the Carthaginian armies, and later became engaged in war with the Romans; but it was many years after the second Punic War before they were finally defeated.] It was built by Genuo, son of King Saturn, and was named after him. Paulus Perusinus says that the city derived its name from Genuinus, the associate of Phetontis. Others write that it was built by Janus, the Italian king, and was enlarged after (the fall of) Troy, and that the image of Janus was there first reverenced. However, some state that no mention of the city occurs before the time of the African War.[Probably the Punic Wars.] Livy says that the rule of Lucretius was postponed until he had rebuilt the city of Genoa, which Mago, the Poeni,[Synonymous with Carthaginian; root of the word Punic.] had destroyed. Thereafter the Romans availed themselves of the friendship of the Ligurians and Genoese, who aided them with men and material useful in their wars. From this it appears that Genoa was well favored by its natural position and its wealth in shipping. Charlemagne and his son Pepin, a king of Italy, and their Frankish successors, ruled this and other Italian cities with great righteousness and goodness, appointing dukes (called counts) to administer their affairs. Genoa was also a market for this entire region; and it prospered so tremendously that by reason of its attainment of great power and strength in ships, and its tall buildings and various adornments, it now excels all other Italian maritime cities except Venice. Genoa became so proficient in naval warfare that for many years it ruled the seas and protected them against murderous pirates. But after the time of Charlemagne the city suffered under such gross tyranny that it was obliged to invoke foreign masters; while on account of internal dissension it lost its maritime power. Both East and West were so astounded by its frequent transformations, that Genoa remained helpless and without counsel or advice; and the power which she had exercised far and wide became exhausted. It lost the city of Pera,[A suburb of Constantinople, north of the Golden Horn; what used to be known after the conquest of the city by the Ottoman Turks as the Christian part of the city.] near Constantinople; also Mytiline;[The name given to the ancient island of Lesbos by Greek writers, from its chief city of that name. It is the largest and most important island in the Aegean Sea along the coast of Asia Minor. The ancient capital of Mytilene is in ruins, and near the old site sprang up the modern chief city of Kastro or Castro.] Famagusta, capital of the island of Cyprus; the island of Chios, and other Greek islands and places that she had captured from the Turks and other peoples, or had compelled to pay tribute. But this city is blessed by the ashes of the forerunner of the Lord, and with the precious smaragdine Sacro Catino, a bowl or basin from which (as they say) the Lord Jesus Christ and his disciples partook of the Paschal Lamb at the Last Supper.

Genoa (Italian Genova) was from earliest times the chief maritime city of Liguria, situated on the Gulf of Genoa, known as the Ligurian Sea, but in ancient times called Sinus Ligusticus. Its situation, rising above the sea in a wide semicircle, and its numerous palaces have earned it the name of La Superba. The old town is a network of narrow and steep streets, lined with many-storied buildings. At a very early period Genoa was the chief city on the Ligurian coast, and the principal emporium of trade in this region of the Mediterranean, an advantage which it naturally owed to the excellence of its port, combined with the facility of communication with the interior through the valley of the Portiere. Its name is not mentioned until the second Punic War, but it then appears at once as a place of considerable importance. Hence, when the consul P. Scipio abandoned the pursuit of Hannibal up the Rhone, he at once returned with his fleet to Genoa, with the view of proceeding from thence to oppose the Carthaginian general in the valley of the Po. At a later period of the war, when Mago (son of Hamilcar Barca, and youngest brother of Hannibal) sought to renew the contest in Liguria and Cisalpine Gaul, it was at Genoa that he landed, making himself master of that city in the first instance. After holding the town for two years he destroyed it and quit the country, and on this account we find the Roman praetor Sp. Lucretius charged with the duty of rebuilding it. From this time Genoa is rarely mentioned, and its name only occurs incidentally during the wars of the Romans with the Ligurians and Spaniards. It afterward became a Roman municipum, and Strabo speaks of it as a flourishing town.

No ancient authority supports the orthography of Janua, or Genua, which appears to have come into vogue in the Middle Ages for the purpose of supporting the fabulous tradition that ascribed the foundation of the city to Janus. This form of the name is first found in Liutprand, a Lombard writer of the tenth century. It is believed by some to have derived its name from the fact that the shape of the coast here resembles that of a knee (genu).

The history of the city during the Dark Ages is but the repetition of the general history of the Italian communes. The patriotic spirit and naval prowess of the Genoese, developed in their defensive wars against the Saracens, led to the foundation of a popular constitution and to the growth of a powerful marine. From the necessity of joining an alliance against the common Saracen foe. Genoa united with Pisa early in the eleventh century in expelling the Moslems from the island of Sardinia. But this island soon furnished occasions of jealousy to the conquering allies, and there commenced between the two republics the long naval wars that terminated fatally for Pisa in the battle of Meloria, in 1284. From this disaster Pisa never recovered, and Genoa now obtained the supremacy over the western islands, Corsica, and nominally over Sardinia also. At a still earlier period Genoa had participated in the Crusades, and secured to herself great trade advantages with the Levant. The seaports wrested at the same period from the Saracens, along the Spanish and Barbary coasts, became important Genoese colonies, while in the Levant, on the shores of the Black Sea, and along the banks of the Euphrates were erected Genoese fortresses of great strength. She also possessed settlements at Constantinople and in the Crimea, in Syria and Cyprus, at Tunis and Majorca. Her commercial and naval successes during the Middle Ages are the more remarkable, because unlike her rival, Venice, she suffered unceasingly from internal discord – the Genoese commons and nobles fighting against each other, rival factions among the nobles striving to grasp the supreme power of the state, nobles and commons alike invoking the arbitration and rule of some foreign prince as the sole means of obtaining a temporary truce. And so Genoa was soon drawn into the vortex of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions; but its recognition of foreign authority – German, Neapolitan, and Milanese – gave way to greater independence in 1339, when the government assumed a permanent form with the appointment of the first doge, an office held at Genoa for life, in the person of Simone Boccanegra. Alternate victories and defeats of the Genoese and Venetians were at length terminated by a decisive victory gained by the Venetians in 1380.

The internal history of the city was no less checkered than the external. The admiral of Emperor Charles V., Andrea Doria, at length restored peace by the establishment of a new oligarchic constitution in 1528. But the power of Genoa was on the wane. The Turks conquered its eastern possessions one after another. In 1684 Genoa was taken by the French. In 1805 it was formally annexed to the empire of France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia. Its later history is beyond the scope of our subject.

Although the city of Genoa possesses a number of celebrated ecclesiastical edifices such as the cathedral of San Lorenzo, dating back to the tenth century, and the venerable church of San Matteo, to which Oberto in 1266 brought the bell from Canea, and in which the seal and great standard of Pisa were placed after the battle of Meloria, the chronicler does not mention either one of these buildings, nor any other of the structures in existence during his time. He does state that the city is blessed with "the ashes of the forerunner of the Lord, and with the precious smaragdine Sacro Catino, a bowl or basin from which (as they say) the Lord Jesus Christ and his disciples partook of the Paschal Lamb at the Last Supper." The first reference is to John the Baptist, in whose chapel, erected in 1451-96, is a stone chest of the thirteenth century containing relics of John the Baptist, brought from Palestine during the Crusades. In the sacristy is the Cathedral Treasury, containing the Sacro Catino, the vessel out of which Jesus and his disciples are said to have partaken of the Paschal Lamb, and in which Joseph of Arimathea is said to have caught some drops of the blood of the crucified Jesus. It is said to have been captured by the Genoese at Caesarea in 1101, and was supposed to have been made of a large emerald (smaragd). For centuries the Genoese pretended to believe that it was cut of a single emerald. It is an octagonal basin of dark green Venetian glass, very transparent, and about which a collection of mysterious tales have gathered. Not only is it said to have been hollowed out of an emerald of the purest water, but it was held to have formed part of the treasure given by Solomon to the Queen of Sheba. Some said also that it was the dish of the Holy Grail, and it was guarded with the utmost care by twelve clavigeri, each of whom had to be a knight, and was bound to watch over the catino for a month in each year. Napoleon I came to Genoa and carried the catino off to Paris. In the course of the journey it was broken, and the fragments came back – no longer emerald, but glass – to lie decked with fine goldsmith's work in San Lorenzo. William of Tyre, who was contemporary with the taking of Caesarea, remarks that the catino was just a piece of glass.

It is disappointing also that the chronicler makes no reference to the Palazzo Ducale, the grand old residence of the doges, originally a building of the thirteenth century, to which the tower on the left belonged.

ILLUSTRATION
CITY OF GENOA

Genoa is represented by a special woodcut. The city is depicted as situated on the Gulf of Genoa, or old Ligurian Sea. True to topographical conditions, the artist has left only a small space of level ground along the shore, from which the city has been obliged to climb the lower hills of the Ligurian Alps. The original nucleus of the town is that portion which lies to the east of the port in the neighborhood of the old pier (Molo Vecchio). In addition to the fortifications, the main architectural features of the city are its medieval palaces and churches. To indicate the maritime nature of the town, a sailing vessel with a full complement of oarsmen is entering or leaving the harbor. A number of wharves projecting into the harbor are another characteristic. The flag of Genoa floats over several structures.

FOLIO LIX recto

Thales (Tales), the Asiatic philosopher and first among the Seven Sages of Greece, flourished in Athens at this time. The Seven Sages were named after him.

The Seven Wise Men of Greece, or the Seven Sages, as they are also called, were the authors of the celebrated mottoes inscribed in later days in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi: "Know yourself." (Solon of Athens); "Consider the end." (Chilon of Lacedaemon) "Know your opportunity." (Pittacus of Mitylene) "Most men are bad." (Bias of Priene) "Nothing is impossible to industry." (Periander of Corinth) "Avoid excesses." (Cleobulus of Lindus) "Certainty is the precursor of ruin." (Thales of Miletus).

The origin of the title "Seven Wise Men" was this: Some fishermen of Miletus sold a draught of fish to some bystanders before the net was drawn in. When the draught came in, there was also in the net a golden tripod. The fishermen claimed they had sold only the fish, while the buyer insisted he had bought the whole draught. To settle the dispute they referred the matter to the Oracle of Delphi. Being ordered to adjudge the tripod to the wisest man in Greece, they offered it to their fellow citizen Thales; but he modestly replied that there was a wiser man than he, and sent it to Bias. He also declined, and sent the tripod to another; and thus it passed through seven hands, and these seven were afterward called the "Seven Wise Men of Greece." It was finally placed in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. These seven men met together but twice—once at Delphi, and again at Corinth.

Thales was the first among the philosophers to practice astrology and to predict an eclipse of the sun. He acquired a knowledge of geometry from the Egyptians. He was also an excellent counselor in matters pertaining to civic customs. He had (as they say) no wife, and when asked why he did not take one, he replied that it was because of his love of children. He contended that water is the origin of all things, and stated that the world was associated with and born of the devil. It is said that he also invented the year, and divided it into 365 days. He wrote on the subject of astronomy, and his writings are comprehended in 200 verses. When a golden table (tripod) was accidentally found, and there was a misunderstanding as to whom it belonged, Apollo answered that it should be awarded to him who excelled all others in wisdom. So it was offered to Thales, but he gave it to Bias and Bias Pitachus. At last the table came to Solon, but he turned it over to Apollo, as a token of most renowned wisdom. Thales was poor and he devoted himself to the acquisition of wisdom. Item: By means of astronomy he was able to predict fruitfulness in future years. One night when he was led out of his house by an old woman to study the stars he fell into a hole. And the old woman said to him, If you cannot see what lies at your feet, how can you expect to recognize the things that are in the heavens? He died at 78 years of age.[Thales of Miletus was born about 636 BCE, and according to the weight of authority he died about 546 at the age of 90; however, both dates are uncertain. Some say he was of Phoenician extraction, and this is probably the reason why the chronicler calls him an Asiatic philosopher. It is more probable, however, that he was born in Miletus. As a Greek natural philosopher his fame among the ancients was remarkable. He is said to have predicted the eclipse of the sun which occurred in the reign of the Lydian king Alyattes; to have diverted the course of the Halys, or Red River, the greatest stream of Asia Minor in the time of Croesus; and later, in order to unite the Ionians when threatened by the Persians, to have instituted a federal council in Teos, as the most central of the twelve cities. The application of wise man was conferred on him, not only for his political sagacity, but also for his scientific eminence. He became famous by his prediction of the eclipse that did actually take place during a battle between the Medes and the Lydians, and being total, caused a cessation of hostilities and led to a lasting peace between the contending nations. Thales was one of the founders of philosophy and mathematics in Greece. He maintained that water is the origin of all things.]

Solon, the philosopher, second among the Seven Wise Men, flourished at Athens, and to the Athenians he gave wholesome laws, which the Romans later adopted. These laws were of considerable merit, and his wisdom relieved the people of subservience and oppression. After a change of fortune Solon fled to Egypt. In his later years he opposed the tyrant Pisistratus, who sought to oppress the Athenians. When asked in what he placed his trust in so boldly resisting the tyrant, Solon replied that he was relying on his old age. He stated that tyrants compared the good and virtuous with counters, which at one time were of consequence and at another time of none. Asked by Croesus whom he considered happiest, Solon replied, Those who are unknown and whose fame or credit is hidden. But Croesus greatly bedecked himself and sat with pride upon his throne; and he asked Solon whether he had ever seen such a wonderful and well endowed throne. And Solon replied that he had seen cocks, pheasants and peacocks who by nature were endowed with a thousand fold superior colors and plumage. When Solon wept over his dead son, a man told him not to weep, reminding him that this was of no avail. But Solon replied, Therefore I weep all the more for I realize that my loss is irreparable. When asked whether he wished his relatives to mourn his death, he said, I have labored with much zeal so that I will not die unlamented by my friends. He also stated that no one should say that he suffered greater sorrows than others. He formulated other laws: He who does not support his needy parents is not worthy of good repute. The children of those who have departed should, for the common good, be reared and educated at public charge. A guardian shall not live with the mother of the ward, nor should one act as guardian to whom the estate of the minor might descend upon the latter's death. The ring engraver should not retain the inscriptions on rings he sells. He who deprives a one-eyed person of sight shall suffer the loss of both his own eyes. Drunken princes are to be put to death. Responses of Solon to certain questions are these: What is a word? A word is the reflection of the deed; therefore the word is strengthened by silence, and silence by time. What is a strong king? A power. What is the law? A spiderweb in which the weak are entangled, but through which the mighty pass, breaking the web. Solon died at the age of eighty years in the time of King Hezekiah (Sedechie).

Substantial and important texts dealing with Solon are the first book of Herodotus' Histories, Aristotle's Athenian Constitution (Athenaion Politeia) and Plutarch's Life of Solon. From Plutarch we learn that Solon was born about 640 BCE and that he was the son of Execestides, a man of but moderate wealth and political influence, though he belonged to one of the highest families in Athens. Solon came into prominence in the contest between Athens and Megara for the possession of the island of Salamis. Through his strategy and encouragement of his fellow citizens, the island was recovered from the Megarians.

Solon's attention was turned to the distracted state of his country, due to party disputes, aggravated by the misery of the poor. The lower classes were in a state of mutiny, and it had become impossible to enforce the laws. All turned to Solon to alleviate the prevailing miseries. He was chosen Archon, with unlimited power. He addressed himself to the relief of the distressed, which he accomplished by his celebrated disburdening ordinance, by which the burdens of debtors were lightened with as little infringement as possible on the right of their wealthy creditors. He abolished the law giving the creditor the power to enslave an insolvent debtor. He lowered the rate of interest, although about this there is a dispute. He depreciated the coinage. Although at first nothing more was contemplated in the investment of Solon with dictatorial powers than the relief of the existing distress, his success procured for him such confidence and popularity that he was charged with the task of entirely remodeling the constitution. By this the right of citizens to the honors and offices of the state was regulated, not by nobility of birth, but by their wealth, and for this purpose the citizens were divided into four classes. He created an assembly of four Hundred, to which each class sent one hundred representatives. There were no doubt public assemblies of some kind before his time, though probably possessed of but little power. Solon undoubtedly greatly enlarged the functions of the assembly. He gave it the right of electing the archons and other magistrates whom he made directly accountable to the assembly when their year of office was expired. Every member of any of the four classes had a vote in the assembly, and all votes seem to have had the same weight.

Solon was also the author of a great variety of special laws. If a father did not teach his son some trade or profession, the son was not liable to maintain his father in old age. Idleness was punishable. The exportation of all produce except olive oil was prohibited. Solon was the first who gave those who died childless the power of disposing of their property by will. He enacted laws relating to marriage, especially with regard to heiresses. Frantic and excessive manifestations of grief at funerals were prohibited. The law that the thief should restore twice the value of the thing stolen seems to have originated with him. The laws were inscribed on wooden rollers and triangular tablets, and were set up at first in the Acropolis and afterwards in the Prytaneium. This act in itself was revolutionary, for it encouraged literacy and took the law out of the hands of so-called experts (and their ‘flexible' memories) and made it common knowledge for all the members of the society.

Solon also rectified the calendar, introducing a division of time agreeing more accurately with the course of the moon. He is said to have been the first to introduce among the Greeks months of 29 and 30 days alternately.

From the government and the people he exacted an oath that they would observe his laws without alteration for a certain period (20 years according to Herodotus, 100 years according to others). He was aware that his laws were not perfect and was greatly annoyed by those who came to him with all kinds of complaints. To escape them he absented himself from Athens for ten years. He visited Egypt and conversed with learned Egyptian priests. From there he went on to Cyprus where he was received with great honor. Then, according to Herodotus, he made his way to the court of Croesus in Lydia. The interviews between Solon and Croesus spoken of by Herodotus (and later adapted by Plutarch in his biography of Solon) are undoubtedly fictitious, but very interesting nevertheless both in themselves and in the fact that they lay the foundation for Aristotle's celebrated definition of happiness (the Nicomachean Ethics are, among many other things, an extended meditation on the ideas espoused by Solon in Herodotus' History). During Solon's absence dissensions at home were renewed. Matters were approaching a crisis when he returned to Athens. Pisistratus, a distant relative of Solon, was able to overthrow the state and have himself made sole authority in Athens. Yet he paid considerable court to Solon and on various occasions solicited his advice, which Solon did not withhold. More importantly, he kept all of Solon's laws and constitutional reforms, thus laying the foundation for the world's first democracy some two generations later (in 510-508 BCE). We do not know how long Solon survived the overthrow of the constitution.

Chilon, the third sage, flourished at Athens in the time of Zedekiah. Because of his deep wisdom he was called the laconic speaker. He was delegated to Corinth to bring about an alliance and understanding; but when he there saw the dukes and elders of the people playing dice, he returned home without transacting the business, stating that he did not care to besmirch the honor and glory of the Spartans with such folly. He did not want it to be said that he had made an alliance with men who play games of chance. When asked to define luck, he answered, It is an unknowing physician. This man Chilon taught the taming of the tongue, particularly in trade. Not to speak ill of one's neighbor, for he might hear of it and be saddened thereby. Item: Threaten no one; for that is womanish. It is preferable to go to a friend in trouble than to one who is fortunate. Be humble in festivities and speak not ill of the dead. Honor old age. Know yourself. Control your temper. Do not crave the impossible. Do not laugh at the unfortunate. A lord should be gentle so that his subordinates will honor him more than fear him. One should prefer to sustain a loss rather than a gain through evil; for the loss brings sorrow but once; but an evil gain is a sorrow forever. He too was famous in the time of King Hezekiah. He lived, moreover, 56 years.[Chilon of Lacedaemon (Sparta), son of Damagetus, flourished at the beginning of the sixth century. In 560 BCE (or 556) he acted as ephor, one of the highest magistrates of Sparta, an office which he is said to have founded himself. It is uncertain when the office was created and what was its original character. We may regard it as an immemorial Dorian institution, or accept the tradition that it was founded during the first Messenian War which necessitated a prolonged absence from Sparta on the part of both kings. In historical times the ephors were five in number, the first of them giving his name to the year, like the eponymous archon at Athens. The ephors were elected annually by the people, and had an official residence in the Agora. Every full citizen was eligible. According to Chilon, the great virtue of man is prudence, or well-grounded judgment as to future events. It is said that he died of joy when his son gained the prize for boxing at the Olympic games.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
SOLON

Solon is represented here by a woodcut used for the first time. He is clothed in a sort of Oriental fez and a robe of many folds. He has a decidedly aquiline profile, and is diligently engaged in the study of a book.

In the Latin edition of the Chronicle the woodcut representing Solon is used in the German edition for Thales.

FOLIO LIX verso

Pittacus (Pitacus) of Asia was the fourth of the Seven Sages. He was not only brilliant in learning but performed valorous deeds in the war between the Athenians and Mytilenaeans. He led the hosts of the latter. He fought a personal encounter with Phrynon (Firmone), leader of the Athenians. He concealed a net under his shield; with it he entangled Phrynon, slew him, and thus freed his country. The Mytilenaeans conferred the sovereignty on him, and he ruled over them for ten years, bringing the city into good order. At the end of that time he abdicated; and he lived another ten years. Although he might have become wealthy, he scorned all riches. When he saw an abundance of wine growing on the island of Mytilene, he made a public law against drunkenness, doubling the punishment for crime when committed by a drunkard; for he said that wine was good and evil—evil through excess, good by nature. He stated that reciprocal righteousness is the greatest virtue. The earth is a faithful thing, the sea a treacherous one. He lived seventy years, having flourished in the time of Joachim, king of Judah.[Pittacus (Pitacus) was a native of Mytilene, in Lesbos, and was born about 652 BCE. He was highly renowned as a warrior, statesman, philosopher, and poet. He is first mentioned as an opponent of the tyrants of Mytilene. With the brothers of Alcaeus he overthrew and killed the tyrant Melanchrus in 612. In 606 he commanded the Mytilenaeans in their war with the Athenians for the possession of Sigeum, on the coast of Troad, and signalized himself by killing in single combat Phrynon, the Athenian commander. He entangled his adversary in a net, and then dispatched him with a trident and dagger, in the same fashion in which the gladiators, called retiarii, long afterwards fought at Rome. The war was terminated by the mediation of Periander who assigned the disputed territory to the Athenians; but internal troubles continued and Pittacus was chosen absolute ruler. He held the office for ten years, resigning after having restored order. He died in 569 at an advanced age.]

Bias of Asia was the fifth among the Seven Sages. War arose between the Prienesians and the Messenians, in which the warriors of the former carried away many of the Messenian virgins. Bias sympathized with them and cared for them as he would for his own daughter. He furnished them new apparel, gave each a present, and returned them to their parents under dependable escort. And thus he showed kindness to the enemy. When at another time Alyattes (Aliatus) besieged Priene in the hope of starving it out, Bias concealed the city's want and shortage of food by causing two well fed mules to be led out of the city so that they might, as if inadvertently, be captured by the enemy. When Alyattes saw the mules he concluded the city was abundantly supplied with necessities, sustenance and food. So he invited Bias to come to him in order to negotiate a peace. But Bias would not go to him, but asked him to send messengers into the city. He caused a heap of sand to be thrown up, and this he covered with grain. He called the pile to the attention of the messengers, who reported to Alyattes that great quantities of grain were still at hand in the city; and he, so believing, made peace and departed. And so, by the wisdom of Bias, the city was relieved. At another time, after a change of fortune, the enemy invaded the country. Those who felt so disposed fled, carrying their valuables with them. When Bias was asked why he was not taking his possessions, he replied, I carry all my wealth with me—for he carried it in his heart—not such wealth as is visible to the eye, but as is looked up in the mind. He said the best thing in life is a disposition which is inherently conscious of righteousness. And so a single thing may be dear to one. Bias flourished in the time of Zedekiah, the king, and he wrote many useful things. After his death, the people of Priene erected a temple to him.[Bias of Priene was one of the Seven Sages of Greece. He flourished about 550 BCE. Priene was one of the twelve Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor, and stood in the northwest corner of Caria, at the southern foot of Mt. Mycale, and on the north side of the Sinus Latinicus. Its foundation was mythically ascribed to Neleid Aepytus, in conjunction with Cadmeans. It was originally located on the seashore, but a natural change in the coast left it some distance inland. It was of much religious importance in connection with the Panionian festival on Mt. Mycale, at which the people of Priene took precedence because they were supposed to be descendants of those of Helice in mainland Greece.]

Cleobulus (Cleobolus), philosopher from Lindos, sixth of the Seven Sages, flourished in the time of Zedekiah the king of Judah, Cleobuline (Cleobola) his daughter, was a poetess of hidden questions, called riddles. And among others this was one of the riddles. There was a father who had twelve sons and to each of these was born thirty sons of unlike appearance. Some of these were white of countenance, and some were black; and although they are immortal, they are nevertheless destroyed and grow fewer. This is the year, father of the twelve months, etc. These are his teachings: Do well by a friend in order that he may become friendlier. Labor to make a friend of your enemies; for we should guard ourselves against the envy of a friend more than against the wiles of an enemy. The latter is open, while the former is a hidden evil; for the deceit which we do not expect is the more powerful. The more you are tempted to take a wife outside your own class, the less should you be inclined to do so; for if you take one of a higher class, you will have her family members as your master. Do not laugh at the unfortunate, for they will hate you for it. Do not be haughty in your good fortune, nor cast yourself into poverty; but submit bravely to the changes of fortune. He wrote three thousand riddles in verse form. And he died when he had completed seventy years of his life.[Cleobulus (Cleobolus) of Lindus in Rhodes, was a son of Evagorus. He lived about 580 BCE. He wrote lyric poems, as well as riddles, in verse. He is said to have been the author of the riddle concerning the year, but which is generally attributed to his daughter. He was greatly distinguished for strength and beauty of person. His daughter was renowned for her skill in riddles, of which she composed a number in hexameter verse.]

Periander, the Corinthian philosopher, and seventh of the above mentioned sages, flourished in the days of Zedekiah king of Judah. He embodied many useful teachings in two thousand verses. His best known teachings are these: Those who wish to become tyrants[Tyrant (tyrannos), according to the original meaning of the term in ancient Greece, signified that one who exercised absolute power without legal warrant, whether ruling well or ill—a dictator, but not necessarily one who ruled cruelly or oppressively. ] must equip themselves with good will and not with weapons. Fortunate and unfortunate friends should be treated with equality. What you promise should be performed. Periander, moreover, was famous in the time of Hezekiah, king of Judah. Periander died at the age of eighty years.[Periander was a son of Cypselus, whom he succeeded as tyrant of Corinth 625 BCE, and reigned for 40 years. His rule was mild and beneficent at first, but later became oppressive. It is said that this change was due to the advice of Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus, whom Periander consulted on the best mode of maintaining his power, and who is said to have taken the messenger through a cornfield, cutting off as he went, the tallest ears, and then to have dismissed him without committing himself to a verbal answer. His action, however, was correctly interpreted by Periander, who proceeded to rid himself of the most powerful nobles in the state. He made his authority respected at home and abroad. Like many of the Greek tyrants, he was a patron of literature and philosophy, and was generally reckoned one of the Seven Sages, although by some he was excluded in favor of Myson of Chenae in Laconia. Periander's life was marred by misfortune and cruelty. He married Melissa, daughter of Procles, tyrant of Epidaurus. She bore him two sons, Cypselus and Lycophron, and he passionately loved her; but he is said to have killed her by a blow during her pregnancy, having been roused to a fit of anger by false accusation against her. Her death embittered the remainder of his days, partly through remorse, and partly through the alienation of his younger son Lycophron, inexorably exasperated by his mother's fate. The young man's anger had been aroused chiefly by Procles, and in revenge Periander attacked Epidaurus, and having reduced it, took his father-in-law prisoner. He sent Lycophron to Corcyra; but when he was himself advanced in years, he summoned Lycophron back to Corinth as his successor, seeing that his elder son was unfit. But Lycophron refused to return to Corinth as long as his father was there. Periander offered to withdraw to Corcyra if Lycophron would come home and take over the government. To this he assented; but the Corcyraeans, not wishing to have Periander among them, put Lycophron to death. Shortly thereafter Periander died of despondency at the age of eighty.]

FOLIO LX recto

Anacharsis (Anatharsis), a philosopher, was highly esteemed as a brave and stern man in military affairs and experience. But in order to enhance his knowledge of Greek learning and customs he traveled to Athens and went to the house of Solon the Wise. He caused it to be announced that he had come to see him and to become his friend. Solon answered that in one's own country friends were to be made at home. But Anacharsis replied, I am now in (my) country, and for that reason I am obligated to make friends. Surprised at his ready reply, Solon took him into his house and made of him a great friend and lover of wisdom. These are this statements: Being asked how one might become averse to wine, he answered, He who observes the vile conduct of drunkards will never become a lover of wine. He stated that mariners were removed from death only by the breadth of four fingers, for the hull of a ship is no thicker. Being asked what ships are the safest, he answered, those which peacefully rest on the land. Asked what was both good and evil in man, he answered, his tongue. He stated that a court is an exceptional place where persons deceive and over-reach one another. It is better to have but one friend who is worthy than to have a number of unworthy ones. Later on he returned to his home in Scythia, and undertook to educate his countrymen in the customs and usages of the Greeks in order to elevate his country. On this account and through envy his brother mortally wounded him during a chase. While dying he said, Through wisdom I was preserved in Greece, but through envy I pass away in my native land.[Anacharsis (c. 600 BCE), a Scythian philosopher, was the son of a chief of a nomadic tribe of the Euxine shores and a Greek woman. He went to Athens in search of knowledge, and made the acquaintance of Solon. It is said that he was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, and by his talent and acute observations he excited general admiration. The fame of his wisdom was such that he was reckoned by some among the seven sages. Several years later he returned home, filled with the desire of teaching his countrymen the laws and the religion of the Greeks. According to Herodotus he was killed by his brother.]

Epimenides was a philosopher of Crete. While still young, his father sent him out to herd sheep. He climbed into a cave, and fell asleep and slept for 75 years. When he awoke, thinking he had slept for but a short while, he searched for his sheep. Not finding them, he went into the fields, but found everything changed and another in possession. In fear he returned to the people and went into his own house, telling who he was, until he saw his younger brother who was now old; and from him he now learned the whole truth about what had transpired. But as the Greeks regarded him as a man most loved by the gods, he was honorably received. By means of sacrifices he relieved the Athenians of a plague that had seized them. He also stated that money is a torment to the miser, a blessing to the humble, and death-blow to the treacherous. He lived 177 years, and wrote books of 5,000 verses on the creation and divine origin, and nine books of 1500 verses on the diverse nature of things. He also founded a temple to the gods at Athens, and flourished in the time of the very wise Solon.

Epimenides was a celebrated poet and prophet of Crete, whose history is to a great extent mythical. He was reckoned among the Curetes, and is said to have been the son of a nymph. He was a native of Phaestus in Crete, and appears to have spent the greatest part of his life at Cnossus, whence he is sometimes called a Cnossian. There is a legend that when a boy, he was sent out by his father in search of a sheep, and that seeking shelter from the heat of the midday sun, he went into a cave and there fell into a deep sleep which lasted 57 years. On waking and returning home, he found to his great amazement that his younger brother had in the meantime grown an old man. He is further said to have attained the age of 154, 157, or even of 229 years. His visit to Athens, however, is an historical fact and determines his date. The Athenians were visited by a plague in consequence of the sacrilege committed by Cylon, and they consulted the Delphic oracle about the means of their delivery. The god commanded them to get their city purified, and the Athenians invited Epimenides to come and undertake the purification. And so he came, about 596 BCE, and performed the task by mysterious rites and sacrifices, in consequence of which the plague ceased.

Epimenides was reckoned by some among the seven wise Men of Greece; but all that tradition has handed down about him suggests a very different character from that of the seven; he must rather be ranked in the class of priestly bards and sages who are generally comprised under the name of the Orphici. Many works, both in prose and verse, were attributed to him by the ancients, and Paul has preserved (Titus, 1.12) a celebrated verse of his against the Cretans.

The last sentence of this paragraph in the German edition of the Chronicle substitutes "the very wise Solon" with "Solomon the Wise."

Simonides the poet, while sailing over the sea, reached the shore and found there an uncorrupted dead body. While burying it, the dead man warned him not to put to sea on the following day; and he heeded the warning. The rest who took passage were drowned by the waves and the turbulence of the sea. These are said to have been his teachings: Silence is safer than speech; for we have seen many come to grief by talking, but none by silence. Hope in the future is a cure for ills. Conscience does not distress the innocent in adversity; for it is a comfort to man to know that he has not deserved to suffer. An innocent man may be deserted by good fortune, but never by hope. Simonides was renowned in the days of Manasseh, the king of Judah.

Simonides of Ceos (c. 556-467 BCE), one of the most celebrated lyric poets of Greece, was born at Julis, in the island of Ceos, as we learn from one of his own epigrams. He lived to the age of 89 years, was a master of elegiac verse and of epigrams, and the rival of Pindar in the dithyramb and the epinician ode. It appears that his family held some hereditary office in connection with the worship of Dionysus, and that the poet himself, when a boy, officiated in the service of the god at whose festivals he afterward gained many victories. He appears also to have been brought up to music and poetry as a profession.

From his native island Simonides moved to Athens, probably on the invitation of Hipparchus, the tyrant, at whose court he spent the best years of his life, probably from 528 to 514. He had completed his 80th year when his long poetic career at Athens was crowned by the victory that he gained with the dithyrambic chorus (477), being the fifty-sixth prize that he had carried off. It must have been shortly after this that he was invited to Syracuse by Hiero, whose court he lived till his death in 467. He was not only renowned for his poetic skills, but also for his political and moral wisdom; and he appears to have been especially anxious to emulate the fame of the Seven Wise Men, both for their wisdom itself and for their brief form of expressing it. Some ancient writers even reckoned him in the number of those sages. The leading principle of his philosophy appears to have been the calm enjoyment of the pleasures of the present life, both intellectual and material, the making as light as possible of its cares, patience in bearing its evils, and moderation in the standard by which human character should be judged. He made literature a profession and did not hesitate to exact compensation for his labors.

Tobit (Tobias), the Jew, a very holy prophet, was of the tribe and city of Naphtali. He was of a good disposition and distinguished for his spiritual grace. At this time he was carried into captivity by Shalmaneser the Assyrian king; but he was treated with kindness and persevered in divine service to the Lord. While at Nineveh he started to reflect on the commandments of the fathers, and visited the sick, gave alms to the poor, and comforted the distressed. He was seized with blindness, deprived of all his possessions, and became the poorest of mortals. But the Lord recognized his patience, and soon dispatched to him the angel Raphael, who restored his sight and his possessions tenfold. At the age of 102 years he prophesied the fall of Nineveh and the restoration of Jerusalem and the temple of the Lord, and gave up his ghost to the Lord. He was buried at Nineveh by his son Tobit (Tobias) and his grandsons.[Tobit (Tobias): This is a slight amplification and repetition of the same subject as given at Folio LIII verso. See also the Note there.]

FOLIO LX verso

Amon (in the Year of the World 4551)[This parenthetical phrase marking the year is not in the German edition of the .] did evil before the Lord, and was slain by his servants. He died in his own house, where he was murdered. And they buried him with his father.[Amon, fourteenth king of Judah, was the son and successor of Manasseh. He was 22 years old when he began to reign and he reigned two years in Jerusalem. Zephaniah gives a vivid picture of the degradation of the kingdom under this wicked king. He was murdered by his servants and succeeded by his son Josiah.]

Josiah (Iosias) (in the Year of the World 4558)[This parenthetical phrase marking the year is not in the German edition of the .], king of Judah, received the kingdom when he was eight years of age. He ruled very well, pursuing the idolaters, urging the priests to erect the temple, prevailing upon the people to observe the law, to fear God, and to celebrate in a commendable manner the Feast of the Passover. Finally, contrary to the will of the Lord, he went forth to give battle to the king of Egypt. In this battle he was seriously wounded and was taken back to Jerusalem, where he died. Upon his death Jeremiah wrote a song of lamentation; for Josiah was highly renowned for the glory and honor which he brought to the people of Judah, but which died with him. Josiah from childhood had sought the Lord, and persisted in his pursuit to the end. With devotion and zeal he walked in the laws of the Lord to such an extent that (as one may say) he had no equal among the kings of Judah.[Josiah (Josias) the son and successor of Amon, king of Judah, began to reign when he was only eight years of age and reigned thirty-one years (641-610 BCE). He was remarkable for his integrity and piety. He gradually abolished the idolatrous customs of his predecessors, and in the eighteenth year of his reign began a thorough repair of the temple. In the progress of this work Hilkiah the high priest found a "book of the law of the Lord given by Moses." What book it is uncertain—probably Deuteronomy. Josiah seems to have been ignorant of its existence; but when it was read to him by one of his officers he was overwhelmed with grief to find how far they and their fathers had departed from the right way. He, however, humbled himself before God, and sent to inquire of the Lord through Huldah, the prophetess. In Jehovah's name she assured him that evil was determined of the Lord, but that he should not see it. (II Chr. 34:23-28) He then assembled the people and published the Law in their hearing, and all united with the king in a solemn vow of obedience. Then he destroyed every vestige of idolatry. When Pharaoh-necho went up from Egypt to Carchemish, Josiah opposed him, and mistrusting Nacho's message from God, gave the Egyptian battle at Megiddo; but he was mortally wounded and brought to Jerusalem, where he died at the age of thirty-nine and was buried in one of his father's sepulchers. His history is narrated in II Kings 22:23; II Chr. 34:35, and probably Jer.1-12.]

Jehoahaz (Joathas) (in the Year of the World 4589)[This parenthetical phrase marking the year is not in the German edition of the .] was wicked before the Lord, for which reason God surrendered him into the hands of Pharaohnecho, the king, who took him into captivity in Egypt, and turned the kingdom over to his elder brother, Eliakim, and changed his name to Jehoiakim.[Jehoahaz was a son and the successor of Josiah, king of Judah. Though he was the fourth son, yet the people chose him king. He was an evildoer, and was referred to as a young lion by Ezekiel (19:3). He reigned only three months. It has been conjectured that his irregular election offended Pharaoh-necho, who got Jehoahaz into his power at Riblah, in Syria, whence he sent him a prisoner loaded with chains into Egypt. There he died, and his brother Jehoiakim became king in his stead.]

Zeleucus (Zaleucus), a very righteous man, made many laws, and among others he ordained that he who commits the sin of adultery should be deprived of the sight of both his eyes. His son committed adultery, and he ordered both his eyes to be torn out. But the entire city pleaded for the son. And when he was finally moved to mercy by the persistent pleas of the people, yet, in order that his law might be complied with, he first caused one of his own eyes to be put out, and then one of his son's; and thus he showed a wonderful sense of moderation and not unpraiseworthy equality, as a merciful father and just lawgiver. Therefore, learn, my fellow Christians, by this with what zeal you should observe the commandments of thy God. This pagan preferred to be punished himself rather than to have his son's offense against the laws pass unpunished.[Zaleucus, of Locri Epizephyril in Magna Graecia, flourished about 660 BCE. He was a Greek lawgiver, and is said to have been the author of the first written code of laws among the Greeks. The story had some familiar features. The Locrians were distressed at their own lawlessness, and commissioned Zaleucus, a slave, to draw up a code, and he did so under divine inspiration. The code was a severe one of the Draconic type, which remained unchanged for centuries. The story ends with the episode of the lawgiver committing suicide on discovering that he had inadvertently broken one of his own laws.]

Jehoiakim (Ieconias), also known as Eliakim (Eliachim), was also a son of Josiah, and was installed by Pharaoh as king, and was ordered to pay a tribute of one hundred pounds of silver. But he was wicked before the Lord, and therefore Nebuchadnezzar arose against him, and Jehoiakim became his servant for three years. But as he thereafter opposed Nebuchadnezzar, the latter again proceeded against him; and he slew him at Jerusalem and ordered his corpse to be thrown outside the wall.[Jehoiakim, second son of Josiah, and brother and successor of Jehoahaz as king of Judah, was at first called Eliakim. He was put on the throne by the king of Egypt, who at the same time changed his name to Jehoiakim. For the first four years he was subject to the king of Egypt, and paid him heavy tribute. Then for another three years he became tributary to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. But he rebelled, and was taken prisoner by him and ingloriously slain and buried in 599 BCE.]

Jehoiachin (Joachim), also known as Jehoiakim (Jeconias) was a son of Jehoiakim (Ieconias); and he was wicked before the Lord. In consequence he soon ceased to reign. He was taken to Babylonia in fetters, and imprisoned among the Chaldaeans for thirty-seven years. His (Nebuchadnezzar's) son released him from captivity after the death of his father. [Jehoiachin (Jeconias or Jeconiah), was the son and successor of Jehoiakim as king of Judah. He reigned but three months, and was then carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar to avenge the alliance of his father with Egypt against Babylon. With him went all his family, the best of the people, and the sacred and royal treasures. He was imprisoned for thirty-six years, until finally released and favored by Evil-Meredoch, son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. He was also called Coniah and Jeconiah (I Chr. 3:16; Jer. 27:20; 37:1).]

Zedekiah (Sedechias) in the Year of the World 4600[The phrase "in the Year of the World 4600" is not in the German edition of the .] was the third son of Josiah and the last king of Judah and Jerusalem. He was evil and would not listen to the prophet Jeremiah. Therefore he and all of Judah were taken away to Babylon. His eyes were dug out, and his son was slain. Jeremiah and Ezekiel had predicted that he would be carried to the Babylonian king in fetters. And after he was made prisoner, the Chaldaeans strangled all the people. Those who escaped the sword were led away to serve the Chaldaeans.[Zedekiah, nineteenth and last king of Judah, was the third son of Josiah, full brother of Jehoahaz, and uncle to Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, his predecessor (II Kings 24:17, 19; I Chr. 3:15). When Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem, he carried Jehoiachin to Babylon, with his wives, children, officers, and the best artificers in Judea, and put in his place his uncle Mattaniah, whose name he changed to Zedekiah, pledging him by an oath of fidelity. Zedekiah began to reign at twenty-one years of age, and he reigned for eleven years. The Bible depicts him as doing evil in the sight of God, committing the same crimes as Jehoiakim (II Kgs. 24:18-20; II Chr. 36:11-13). In the ninth year of his reign he revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, trusting to the support of the king of Egypt, which proved ineffectual , and weakly despising the faithful remonstrance of Jeremiah (Jer. 37:2, 5, 7-10). Nebuchadnezzar marched into Judea and took all the fortified places, and in the eleventh year of Zedekiah's reign, being the 9th day of the fourth month (July), Jerusalem was taken (588 BCE). The king and his people tried to escape by night, but the Chaldean troops overtook them in the plains of Jericho. Zedekiah was carried to Nebuchadnezzar, then at Riblah, in Syria, who reproached him for his perfidy, caused his children to be slain before his face, and his own eyes to be put out. Loaded with chains he was then sent to Babylon and imprisoned, probably at hard labor.]

Thales (Tales) the Milesian, one of the Seven Sages, is considered famous. After the theologians and the poets, they were called ‘Wise’, that is, ‘Sages’. This Thales was the first who was able to predict an eclipse of the sun and moon (as Augustine says). The preceding folios make clear the accomplishments and words of these men.[This paragraph and the two lines of verse that follow the list of the names of the Seven Sages are not in the German edition of the .]

    Seven Sages
  • Thales
  • Solon
  • Chilon
  • Periander
  • Cleobulus
  • Bias
  • Pittacus
He sings the Greek names of the Seven Sages.
And he honors those men famous in all parts of the world.
[ These two lines of verse (from a longer poem) are by Guarino Veronese (1374-1460), an Italian humanist and Classical scholar, one of the pioneers of Greek studies in Renaissance Western Europe and foremost teacher of humanistic scholars. Following studies in Italy and the establishment of his first school in Verona in the 1390s, Guarino studied at Constantinople (1403–08), where he was a pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras. Returning to Italy with a valuable collection of Greek manuscripts, he taught Greek at Florence (1410) and Venice (1414) and compiled (1418), the first Renaissance Latin grammar. It appeared in numerous editions and was used well into the 17th century. After two terms as master of rhetoric in Verona, Guarino became tutor to Leonello, son of Nicolò d'Este, lord of Ferrara, in 1430. Guarino prepared new editions of various Latin authors and translated works of Strabo and Plutarch. His linguistic talents were employed by Greek and Latin churchmen at the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438–45). With his colleague Gasparino da Barzizza and former pupil Vittorino da Feltre, Guarino helped set the pattern for studies in humanism.]
ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Continued)

The Lineage of Christ is here resumed from Folio LV recto (which there ended with Manasseh), as follows:

  1. Amon, son and successor of Manasseh
  2. Josiah (Josias), son and successor of Amon.
  3. Jehoahaz (Joathas), son and successor of Josiah.
  4. Jehoiakim (Jeconias), second son of Josiah, and brother and successor of Jehoahaz. His name was originally Eliakim, and he is here called "Jeconias or Eliakim."
  5. Jehoiachin (Joachim), son and successor of Jehoiakim. He is here called "Joachim or Jeconias."
  6. Zedekiah (Sedechias), nineteenth and last king of Judah, third son of Josiah.

(B) ZELEUCUS

Zeleucus (Zaleucus), the Greek lawgiver.

(C) COMPOSITE OF THE SEVEN SAGES OF GREECE

"The Seven Sages, named Tales (Thales), Solon, Chilon, Periander, Cleobolus (Cleobulus), Bias and Pitacus (Pittacus)" are here honored with a composite woodcut—a sort of class-picture.

FOLIO LXI recto

Marseilles (Massilia), the city beyond the mountains of Gaul (Gallia), was built in the first year of the reign of Zedekiah by the Phocaeans who were driven out from elsewhere and came here. In the time of Tarquin the king, there came in ships from Asia into the Tiber young men called Phocaeans, who made friends with the Romans, and then migrated into the land of Gaul, and amidst the Ligurians, the barbarous people of Gaul, built Marseilles. And by force of arms and war against the Gauls (or those whom they formerly overcame), the Phocaeans accomplished great things. The soil not being fertile, these Phocaeans sustained themselves more often on the water than on land by fishing and frequently by piracy, which was an honorable calling at that time. And so they entered the waters of the Rhone in Gaul and sailed to the hinterland beyond the sea, toward the west. And when they saw how pleasant this region was, they returned home and spread the news, and so caused many people to sail there. Furius and Peranus were leaders of this voyage. Marseilles was built on a promontory at the mouth of the Rhone, and in former times was highly regarded and of considerable size. It had a beautiful harbor and a well fortified castle. here also was built the very beautiful temple to Apollo of Delphi. But the Ligurians were envious of the city attacked it. Yet it constantly grew by conquests and through the defeat of its enemies and many new habitations were added. From them the Gauls learned the manner of refined living, husbandry, and the preservation of cities by walls. They abandoned their coarseness, and lived not by force of arms, but according to law. They established vineyards and planted oil trees, and became as renowned as if Gaul were changed into Greece, and not Greece into Gaul. To this city many noble Romans were sent to be educated. And although the city from time to time was invaded by many lords and tyrants, it never accepted a foreign law, nor suffered a single fall, except at the hands of the Catalauni (Cathelanis).[Catalauni, or Catelauni, were a people in Gaul in the modern Champagne. Their capital was Durocatelauni, or Catelauni (Chalona sur Marne), in the neighborhood of which Attila was defeated by Aetus and Theodoric 451 CE.] To this city Lazarus, whom the Lord awakened from the dead, was sent from among the apostles as a bishop, and his relics have there been held in great reverence to this time. It is said that Mary Magdalene, a sister of Lazarus, was buried there. And there venerated men like Salvianus[Salvianus, an accomplished ecclesiastical writer of the fifth century, was born in the vicinity of Trevas, and passed the latter part of his life as a presbyter of the church at Marseilles.] and Museus, the priests, taught divine matters. Genadius, also a priest, taught Greek and Latin, and like Jerome, wrote a book about illustrious men. There also lived Corvinus the orator, Victorinus the rhetorician, and many others.

Marseilles is the French name for what was originally the Greek colony of Massalia (Latin Massilia). This colony was founded as early as the year 600 BCE by the mariners of Phocaea. In 542 BCE the fall of the Phocaean cities before the Persians probably sent new settlers to the Ligurian coast and cut off Massalia from close connection with the mother country. Isolated amid alien population, the Massalians made their way by prudence and by vigilant administration of their oligarchic government, and their colonies spread east and west, carrying with them the worship of Artemis. The great rival of Massalian trade was Carthage, and in the Punic Wars the city took the side of Rome, and was rewarded by Roman assistance in the subjugation of the native tribes of Liguria. In the war between Caesar and Pompey Massilia took Pompey's side, and in 49 BCE offered a vain resistance to Caesar's lieutenant Trebonius. In memory of its ancient services the city was left as a civitas libera (‘free state') but her power was broken and most of her dependencies taken from her. From this time Massilia has little place in Roman history. It became for a time an important school of letters and medicine, but its commercial and intellectual importance declined. It appears to have been Christianized before the end of the third century, and at the beginning of the fourth century was the scene of the martyrdom of St. Victor.

After the ravages of successive invaders, Marseilles was repopulated in the tenth century under the protection of its viscounts. The town gradually bought up their rights, and at the beginning of the thirteenth century became a republic. In 1245 and 1256 Charles of Anjou, count of Provence, whose predecessors had left the citizens a large measure of independence, established his authority above that of the republic. In 1423 Alphonso V of Aragon sacked the town. King Rene, who had made it his winter residence, however, caused trade, arts and manufacturers again to flourish. On the embodiment of Provence in the kingdom of France in 1481, Marseilles preserved a separate administration directed by royal officials.

ILLUSTRATION
MASSILIA OR MARSEILLES

The city is represented by the same woodcut that did service for Trier at Folio XXIII recto; and for Padua at Folio XLIV verso.

FOLIO LXI verso

Pherecydes (Pherecides) was at this time a celebrated master. He was a native of Syros (Syrus) and a disciple of Pittacus (Pitacus), the natural philosopher. He was a man of exceptional understanding and the first among the Greeks to write of nature and the gods. Also (as Cicero states in the book Tusculum Disputations)[Cicero's () was a series of discussions on important points of practical philosophy, supposed to have been held in the Tusculanum of Cicero. It was written in 45 BCE.] he was the first to recognize the immortality of the soul. He predicted many wonderful things, as Laertius[Laertius, of whose life we have no particulars, probably lived in the second century after Christ. He wrote the in ten books. The work is of great value, as the author made use of a large number of writers on the history of philosophy, whose works are now lost.] states. Pliny says he was the first to reduce long dissertations to neat short ones. He was a master of Pythagoras, and wrote many letters to Thales the natural philosopher, receiving many from him in return.

Pherecydes of Syros, one of the Cyclades, was a son of Babys. The name of his birthplace, coupled with the traditions respecting the Eastern origin of his philosophical opinions, led many writers to state that he was born in Syria or Assyria. According to the concurrent testimony of antiquity, Pherecydes was the teacher of Pythagoras, although it is claimed by some that he received no instruction in philosophy from any master, but obtained his knowledge from the secret books of the Phoenicians. He was a rival of Thales, and like Thales and Pythagoras, was a disciple of the Egyptians and Chaldaeans. According to a favorite tradition in antiquity, Pherecydes died of the lousy disease, or Morbus Pediculosus; though others say that he threw himself from a rock at Delphi.

Pherecydes was, properly speaking, not a philosopher. He lived at a time when men began to speculate on cosmogony and the nature of the gods, but had hardly yet commenced the study of true philosophy. Hence he is referred to by Aristotle as partly a mythological writer, and Plutarch and others give him the title of ‘theologos'. The most important subject he taught was the immortality of the soul. He maintained that there were three principia (Zeus or Aether, Chthona or Chaos, and Cronos or Time), and four elements (fire, earth, air and water), from which is formed everything that exists.

Pythagoras (Pytagoras), in these times and throughout the world, was the most celebrated natural philosopher. He was a Samian by birth, exceptionally well proportioned in body, and learned in the arts of music, weights and measures. He first taught the Greeks geometry. He was also versed in mathematics; nor did he neglect medicine. He believed in the transmigration of the soul. And although he had no equal in his time, he was ashamed to be called a wise man; but he called himself a philosopher, that is, a lover of wisdom. Although a Greek, he gave laws to the Italians. He made the regulation that those attending his school should not enter upon philosophical disputations for a period of five years. His books, it is said, were burned by the Athenians. Laertius thought much of his teachings, of which we here note this: In all respects we should sever illness from the body, ignorance from the soul, unchastity from the loins, civic disturbances from the home, and excess from all things.

Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher, a native of Samos, and flourished about 532 BCE. He is said to have been a pupil of Pherecydes. He left in Ionia the reputation of a learned and universally informed man. "Of all men," says Heracleitus, "Pythagoras, the son of Mnesarchus, was the most assiduous enquirer." The extensive travels attributed to Pythagoras are not doubt mostly apocryphal, but there is no intrinsic improbability in the statement of Isocrates that he visited Egypt and other Mediterranean countries. According to tradition he was driven from Samos by the tyranny of Polycrates, and migrated to Croton. There he became the center of a widespread organization, which was originally a religious brotherhood for the moral reformation of society, rather than a philosophical school. The Pythagorean brotherhood had much in common with the Orphic communities which sought by rites and abstinences to purify the believer's soul and enable it to escape from the "wheel of birth." The society became entangled in politics, resulting in its dismemberment and suppression. The first reaction against the Pythagoreans, led by Cylon, seems to have taken place in the lifetime of Pythagoras, resulting in his retirement to Metapontium, where he remained until his death. The order appears to have continued powerful in Magna Graecia till the middle of the fifth century, when it was violently stamped out. Those who survived took refuge at Thebes and other places. One of the foremost doctrines of Pythagoras is the theory of the immortality and transmigration of the soul, a teaching connected with the primitive belief in the kinship of men and beasts. The Pythagorean rule of abstinence from flesh is thus, in its origin, a taboo resting on the blood-brotherhood of men and beasts. The scientific doctrines of this school have no apparent connection with its religious mysticism. Their discourses and speculations all connect themselves with the idea of numbers, and the school holds an important place in the history of mathematical and astronomical science. Pythagoras made geometry part of a liberal education, considering its principles and theorems from an immaterial and intellectual standpoint. His greatest discovery was perhaps that of the dependence of the musical intervals on certain arithmetical rations of lengths of strings at the same tension. He was the first to hold the earth and universe to be spherical. He realized that the sun, moon and planets have a motion of their own. It is improbable that he himself was responsible for the astronomical system bearing his name, which deposed the earth from its place in the center, and made it a planet like the rest. For him the earth was still apparently at the center and the later Pythagorean system is attributed alternatively to Philolaus and Hicetas. The system is this: The universe is spherical and finite in size. Outside it is infinite void, which enables the universe to breathe, as it were. At the center is the simple fire, called the Heart of the Universe (among other names), wherein is situated the governing principle, the force which directs the movement and activity of the universe. In the universe there revolved about the central fire these bodies: Nearest to the central fire is the "counter-earth" which always accompanies the earth; next in order, reckoning outwards, is the earth, then the moon, then the sun, then the five planets, and lastly the sphere of fixed stars. The counter-earth, revolving in a smaller orbit than the earth, is not seen by us because the hemisphere in which we live is always turned away from the counter-earth. The analogy of the moon, which always turns the same side to us, may have suggested this. This part of the theory involves the assumption that the earth rotates about its own axis in the same time as it takes to complete its orbit round the central fire; and, as the latter revolution was held to produce day and night, it is a fair inference that the earth was thought to revolve around the central fire in a day and night, or in twenty-four hours.

The system amounts to a first step toward the Copernican hypothesis, and Copernicus himself referred to it as such. The curious thing is the introduction of the counter-earth, the object of which, according to Aristotle, was to bring the number of revolving "bodies" up to ten, the perfect number according to the Pythagoreans. But elsewhere he hints at the truer explanation, when he says that eclipses of the moon were considered due sometimes to the interposition of the earth, sometimes to the interposition of the counter-earth, whence it would appear that the counter-earth was invented in order to explain the frequency of lunar eclipses as compared with solar ones.

Sappho (Sapho) Crexea[The meaning of the name given to Sappho of ‘Crexea' is unknown. Perhaps it is a corruption of Eresos, a town on Lesbos that some believe was the birthplace of Sappho.], a poetess of divine understanding, flourished at this time. She invented the plectrum with which stringed instruments are played. She was married to a very rich man and bore him a son named Dydan. She had several women students—Anactoria of Miletus (Anagora Millesia), Gongyla of Colophon (Congilla Colophonia), etc., to whom she taught a number of lyric pieces. She wrote in these lyric forms: epigram, elegy, iambic, and monody. She was also a very noble poet.[Sappho, one of the leaders of the Aeolian school of lyric poetry, was a native of Mytilene, or as some say, of Eressos, in Lesbos. She flourished during the reign of the Lydian king, Alyattes (c. 628-570). Easily the most famous of female poets of the ancient world (Plato called her the ‘Tenth Muse'), she was a celebrated and controversial figure in Greece and Rome (issues of sexual identity surrounded her, and Roman poets in particular found her fascinating for a variety of reasons). By the end of the nineteenth century she had become a patron saint of women writers in general, and of lesbian writers in particular. Her life and surviving poems (especially fragments 1 and 31—the latter perhaps the most famous and influential love lyric of all time in the Western world) continue to inspire men and women up to the present. Strangely, the Chronicle contains two entries devoted to her: the one here and the other, rather different, at Folio LXXI recto.]

Ezekiel (Ezechiel) the prophet, holy man and priest of the Lord, was taken prisoner with Jehoiachin (Joachim) the king, and carried off to Babylonia. To the people of Judea he predicted woe and bondage. These predictions he sent from Babylonia to King Zedekiah at Jerusalem; but the king would not believe them. At the age of thirty years, being the fifth year of his imprisonment, he wrote his book of prophecies. To Dan and Gad, as well as others, he predicted that they would not return to Jerusalem. He was murdered at Babylon and buried in the grave of Shem, son of Noah.[Ezekiel, one of the major prophets, son of Buzi the priest, was born and spent his earlier years in Judea. He was carefully educated but carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar with Jehoiachin, the king of Judea, eleven years before the destruction of Jerusalem, and was placed with a Jewish community in Chaldaea. He prophesied for over twenty-two years, was held in great esteem, and frequently consulted by the elders. Tradition states that he was murdered, and his supposed tomb is shown near Baghdad. Ezekiel was a stern Jewish patriot devoted to the rites and ceremonies of his religion.]

Daniel, a man of zeal, high priest and prophet, born of the tribe of Judah, was taken prisoner by Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Chaldaeans and, with Jehoiachin (Joachim), carried to Babylon, and nourished by his captor. At Jerusalem, in the ninth year of Zedekiah, when this young Daniel saved the innocent Susanna from death, he was inspired by the Holy Ghost and interpreted the first dream of the king of Chaldaea. For this the king appointed him collector. After Nebuchadnezzar died, and Daniel interpreted the handwriting on the wall for his son Belshazzar (Balthasar)[Belshazzar, the last king of the Chaldees at Babylon, reigned in conjunction with his father Nabonnedus at the time when the city was besieged by Cyrus in 558 BCE. Nabonnedus was closely shut up in Borsippa, a neighboring city, while in Babylon itself, Belshazzar made an impious feast, at which he and his courtiers drank out of the sacred vessels which had been carried away from the temple at Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, his grandfather. He was terrified by the apparition of the hand that wrote on the wall; and in the same night was slain, and the city taken by the Medes and Persians under Darius.] and predicted the course of his life, he was carried about in the city with great honor. Prompted by envy, Darius, son of Astyages, cast him into the lions' den; but he was released to enjoy even greater honors. He wrote his book of prophecies, divided into ten parts, according to the ten visions which he saw—three under Nebuchadnezzar, three under his son Belshazzar, and the seventh and eighth under Darius, and the last two in the reign of Cyrus. He was buried in the city of Ebethenis in the country of Persia (Media).

Daniel, one of the four major prophets, was of noble, perhaps royal descent, and probably born at Jerusalem. In his youth he was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, together with three other Hebrew youths of rank, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah in 604 BCE. He was there instructed in the language and arts of the Chaldaeans, and with his three companions, trained for the royal service in the palace. They refused to eat of the king's meat and to drink his wine, but chose "pulse and water." After three years training Daniel interpreted a dream for the king, and in reward was made ruler of the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men. In this capacity he won great fame. He also prophesied for the king and his successor.

Under Darius the Mede, Daniel was made the first of the "three presidents" of the empire. His enemies influenced Darius to forbid all prayer save unto the king for thirty days. But Daniel did not stop praying, and so was cast into a den of lions for punishment. But the Lord delivered him, and he was kept in his office. In the reign of Cyrus he likewise prospered, but seems to have left Babylon. When and where he died is uncertain. He is to be compared with Joseph at the court of Pharaoh. Both were involuntary exiles, and both statesmen. Both maintained their religion and personal character in the face of idolatry and corruption; both rose by their wisdom and integrity from slavery to the highest dignity in a pagan empire.

ILLUSTRATIONS
PHERECYDES, PYTHAGORAS, SAPPHO, EZEKIEL AND DANIEL

In the order named, these appear in vertical order on the left of the page:

  1. Pherecydes (Pherecides), the philosopher of Syros.
  2. Pythagoras (Pytagoras), a philosopher of Samos.
  3. Sappho (Sapho), the poetess.
  4. Ezekiel (Ezechiel), one of the major prophets.
  5. Daniel, the major prophet.

FOLIO LXII recto

Bologna (Bononia), an ancient city of the Romans, was at first called Felsina, a name given it by the Etruscans; but thereafter, the Boii, a people of Gaul, called it Bononia. It was the first city of the Etruscans beyond the Apennines. Later it became the capital city of the Boii, after whom it was called Bononia. Livy states that the Romans secured possession of the city, taking it from the Boii, this being the territory that formerly belonged to the Etruscans. After the latter were driven out, the Romans sent 3,000 men there, and with their help the population was increased and the city expanded to such an extent that by the time of Augustus and under other emperors it became one of the three richest cities of Italy on the upper sea. Suetonius states that Octavian granted the Bolognans a charter incorporating their territory into that of Italy out of consideration for the tact that they were at one time of the Antonian family. Suetonius also writes that the emperor Nero favored the Bolognans against the Romans. In the Year of Salvation 840, in the time of Pope Sergius (formerly called the Pig's Snout), when Emperor Lothair (Lotharius) sent his son Louis (Ludivicum) with a large force against Rome, the Bolognans opposed him and inflicted much mischief and damage, compelling Louis to retreat with his forces. And he overstepped the bounds of reason in wreaking vengeance upon the Bolognans, devastating their lands and slaying innocent people he found on the streets of the city and in the villages; and he besieged and leveled the cities that he conquered. Thereafter, in the Year of the Lord 1271, Bologna was so mighty that it barred the Venetians from free use of the Adriatic, and conducted a three years' war. After the conflict ceased, internal strife arose among the Bolognans, resulting in the devastation of the city, and making it necessary to bring it under the control of the Roman Church. The city was enclosed within its present walls by the Romans; and it increased in riches; and as it brings forth an abundance of grain, wine, and other necessities of life, the city is called the Fat Bologna.[La Grassa in Italian.] From the time of Theodosius to the present its celebrated University has maintained its great renown; for it is called the Mother of the Arts; and here are taught the laws, canon and civil, the liberal arts, and sacred literature. Here also flourished many holy and highly learned men, in particular the holy Petronius, the bishop, who wrote the lives of the ancient fathers. Guido, the archdeacon, John Andreas and John Calderinus, celebrated jurists who left many commendable writings.

Bologna, anciently Bononia, was an important town of Gallia Cispadana, in Italy. According to classical writers it was of Etruscan origin. It is situated at the foot of the northern spur of the Apennines, in the very center of Italy, on a rich and fertile plain. Nature has lavished her gifts in this region; the soil is rich and fertile; corn, wine, oil, hemp, and other products of the earth justify one of Bologna's titles of La Grassa, and from an agricultural standpoint she ranks high among Italian states. A more dignified surname, La Dotta (‘learned'), comes to her through the famous University; while another, that of La Gentile, is due to the ready courtesy she extends to foreigners.

The first name borne by the city was that of Felsina, from Felsino, King of Tuscany, who according to Girardacci (Della Historia di Bologna), reigned from 897 to 865 BCE. Another legend ascribes the name to Felsina, daughter of one Fero, who with his daughter and his wife Aposa have come to this spot with the intention of building a house here. One day, overcome by toil and heat, he fainted, but was revived by his daughter, who restored him with some water from a neighboring stream, and prayed that as a reward for her labors, the place might be called after her. This the father did.

King Felsino was followed by his son Bono, who loved the town so dearly that he altered its name to Bononia, after himself, a name by which it was known for years, and from which with slight modifications it has become the Bologna of today.

Bologna was made the metropolis of twelve other cities, and remained under the rule of the Truscans till the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, fifth king of Rome (580 BCE), when the Celtic Gauls under Belloveso crossed the Alps, drove the Etruscans from before them, and spread victoriously over the rich lands lying between the Apennines and the Adriatic. They retained Bologna as their capital.

Bologna, "with the region of Felsina," was assigned to the Boii, a strong and numerous tribe of the Gauls, who confirmed the choice of Bologna as the capital. Their possession was hotly contested by the Romans, and the Romans finally triumphed. It became a Roman colony in 189 BCE. Three thousand colonists with Latin rights were established there, and the city attained military and commercial importance. But its name does not again occur in history until the period of the Civil Wars. It was here that Octavian, at the head of his army, met the combined forces of Antonius and Lepidus, and arranged the terms of the Second Triumvirate. The city appears to have been under the special patronage of the Antonian family, and the Triumvir in consequence settled there many of his friends and dependents. Pliny and Tacitus speak of it as an important and flourishing place under the Roman Empire, and it seems to have retained its prosperity thereafter.

Fire was one of the hindrances that often held up building operations in Bologna, houses being entirely of wood and the roofs all of the thatch. The first fire recorded was 50 CE, and it destroyed almost the entire town. Nero, then a youth and high in favor with the emperor, was moved at the sight of the ruin and distress, and pleaded that help be sent from Rome. Funds were appropriated, the city was restored and rebuilt, and eventually Nero himself rebuilt the baths, and at his death bequeathed a sum to endow them.

Bononia was able to resist Alaric in 410 CE, and afterward belonged to the Greek exarchate of Ravenna.

The Roman city, orientated on the points of the compass, with the streets at right angles, can be readily distinguished from the outer city, fortified in 1206. The streets leading to the gates of the latter radiate from the outskirts, and not from the center, of the former.

The famous university of Bologna was founded in the 11th century. The students numbered between 3,000 and 5,000 in the 12th to the 15th century, and in 1262, it is said, nearly ten thousand. Among its professors were Giovanni d'Andrea and Giovanni Andrea Calderini, an eminent lawyer. Among its students were both Dante and Petrarch. Among the illustrious natives of Bologna's later days is Luigi Galvani (after whom galvanism was named). The last and perhaps the greatest name on this list is that of Giosue Carducci, the great poet of United Italy, who died at Bologna in 1907, respected, mourned and beloved by the whole population.

FOLIO LXII verso

Merodach was the first king of Babylonia. He fled from the principality of Assyria. He and the king of Media were not obedient to Esarhaddon (Assaradon)[Esarhaddon (Assaradon), son and successor of Sennacherib (II Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38) reigned over Assyria from 682-669 BCE. He completely rebuilt Babylon, which Sennacherib had destroyed, and was a great restorer of temples. He was also a great conqueror, making three expeditions into Egypt, and finally conquered the whole North, garrisoning the chief cities and appointing vassal kings. He subdued all Syria, and received tribute from Manasseh. He ruled over Babylonia as well as Assyria, which explains the statement of II Chronicles 33:1 that Manasseh was carried captive there.] in anything. Therefore the empire of the Assyrians declined, while the kings of Babylonia began to wax mighty. He also sent Hezekiah (Ezechie) many presents.[Cf. Isaiah 39:1: "At that time Merodach-baladan, the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a present to Hezekiah; for he had heard that he had been sick, and was recovered." Thus Babylonia sought a friendly alliance with Hezekiah, king of Judah. And Hezekiah was so pleased that he showed the visiting Babylonians all his treasures. And he told Isaiah what had happened. Then Isaiah prophesied that the day would come when all that his fathers had laid up, would be carried off to Babylon, and also his sons, who would become eunuchs in the palace of the Babylonian king.]

The game of chess[The origin of chess is involved in considerable mystery. The general opinion is that India is its birthplace; that it is an offspring of a game called Chaturanga, which is mentioned in Oriental literature as in use over 2000 years before Christ. From India the game spread into Persia, and thence into Arabia, and ultimately the Arabs took it to Spain and the rest of Western Europe. The game was probably invented to illustrate the art of war. According to Arab legend it was devised for the instruction of a young despot by his father, a learned Brahman, to teach him that a king, notwithstanding his power, was dependent for safety on his subjects. The Greek historians credit the game to Palamedes, who they claim devised it to overcome the tedium of the siege of Troy during the Trojan war.] was devised by Xerxes (Xerses), the pagan philosopher, for the beguilement of Evilmerodach, the tyrant, who generally slew his teachers and masters, and who by the fascination of this game was drawn away from his tyranny.[Evil-merodach (Evilmerodach) was the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon (II Kings 25:27). Soon after his accession to the throne he released Jehoiachin, king of Judah, from prison, treating him with great regard throughout life (Jer. 52:31:34). He began to reign in 561 BCE, but two years later fell a victim to a conspiracy formed among his own kindred by his brother-in-law, Neriglissar (probably the Nergal-sharezer of Jer. 39:3, 13), who succeeded him.]

Nebuchadnezzar (Nabuchodonosor) was a very successful warrior, for he was scourge of God to punish the sins of the people. He conquered the Assyrian Empire that was destroyed by the Medes, and there he was himself a king. Also for seven months thereafter he lived among the wild animals. After seven years of penitence and the prayers of Daniel, he was converted into his former state. He carried on many wars with those on the border, particularly with the Egyptians whom he defeated to the limits of the land of Judea. He brought Syria under his power. He murdered Jehoiakim (Joachim), and carried his successors together with the temple treasures to Babylonia. Of Zedekiah (Sedechias), an uncle of Jehoiachin, he made a king of Babylonia. At the age of forty he was buried at Babylonia, leaving his kingdom to his son as his heir.[ Nebuchadnezzar, son and successor of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Babylonia monarchy, was the most illustrious of these kings, and one of the greatest rulers of history (II Kings 24:1; Daniel 1-4). He seems to have been of Chaldaean origin, and married Amuhia, daughter of the Median king. We know most of him through the book of Daniel. He was entrusted by his father with the important task of repelling Pharaoh-necho, and defeated him at Carchemish on the Euphrates, bringing under subjection all the territory which Necho had occupied, including Syria and Palestine, overrunning these countries, taking Jerusalem, and carrying off a portion of the inhabitants, including Daniel and his companions. As soon as his father died he hastened back to Babylon and placed himself upon the throne, giving his generals instructions to bring the Jewish, Phoenician, Syrian and Egyptian captives to Babylon. While he was carrying on wars in other parts of Asia, Jehoiakim rebelled, and was punished by the irruption of Chaldaeans, Syrians, Moabites and Ammonites, incited, perhaps, by Nebuchadnezzar who, as soon as possible, sent his troops against Jerusalem and took Jehoiakim prisoner. During the reign of his son and successor Jehoiachin, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Palestine for the third time and took Jerusalem, putting Mattaniah, the uncle of Jehoiachin on the throne, changing his name to Zedekiah. After ten years he, too, rebelled, and was punished by Nebuchadnezzar, who reduced Jerusalem to famine, took it, and slew the two sons of Zedekiah, putting out the eyes of the father and taking him captive to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar was a cruel and mighty monarch. He gave much attention to the architectural adornment of Babylon, and built the Hanging Gardens on a large artificial mound made to look like a hill. This great work, called by the ancients one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was executed to please his wife, whose home had been in a hilly country. It is said that nine-tenths of the bricks found among the ruins of the ancient capital are inscribed with his name.]

Byzantium (Bisantium), thus called by the Greeks, is a city by the sea in Thrace, and was built by the Lacedaemonians, who consulted Apollo, the pagan god, as to its location. He answered that they were to build it "opposite the blind," stating that Megara, near Chalcedon, was built by the blind. For, although they sailed to Thrace and saw the region where Byzantium was built, as Strabo states,[] they passed up this rich country and selected a poorer one. But according to Justinus and Eusebius the city was begun in the Year before the Coming of Christ 663, near the region of the Chalcedonians, in Greece, close by the fertile and fortified city of Pausanias, king of Sparta. Although small, it was enlarged by Constantine the Great, and called Constantinople. We will say more in praise of it in his time.

Megara was situated about a mile from the sea opposite the island of Salamis, and is celebrated in the history of philosophy as the seat of the Megarian School, which was founded by Euclid, a native of the city, and a disciple of Socrates. Chalcedon is a Greek city on the coast of the Propontis at the entrance of the Bosphorus, nearly opposite Byzantium. It was founded by a colony from Megara in 685 BCE. Byzantium, a Greek city on the Bosphorus, occupied the most easterly of the seven hills of modern Constantinople. It was founded by Megarians and Argives under Byzas about 657 BCE. It was destroyed in the reign of Darius Hystaspes, but recolonized by the Spartan Pausanias in 479 BCE. Its situation was beautiful and secure. It controlled the Euxine grain trade. The depth of its harbors rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden, while the fisheries were so lucrative that the curved inlet near which it stood became known as the Golden Horn. The population was partly Lacedaemonian and partly Athenian. It was thus a subject of dispute between these States and was alternately in the possession of each, till it fell into the hands of the Macedonians. About seven years after its second colonization, the Athenian Cimon wrested it from the Lacedaemonians; but in 440 BCE it returned to its former allegiance. Alcibiades, after a severe blockade (408 BCE) gained possession of the city through the treachery of the Athenian party. In 405 BCE it was retaken by Lysander and placed under a Spartan governor. It was under the Lacedaemonians when the Ten Thousand, exasperated by the conduct of the governor, made themselves masters of the city, and would have pillaged it but for the eloquence of Zenophon. In 390 BCE Thrasybulus expelled the Lacedaemonian oligarchy, and restored democracy and the Athenian influence.

Byzantium joined with the islands of Rhodes, Chios, Cos, and Mausolus, king of Caria, in throwing off the yoke of Athens, but sought Athenian assistance when Philip of Macedon advanced against it. The Athenians suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the Macedonian admiral, but in the following year gained a decisive victory and compelled Philip to raise the siege. The deliverance of the besieged from a surprise, by means of a flash of lightning that revealed the advancing Macedonian army, has rendered this siege memorable. As a memorial of the miraculous interference, the Byzantines erected an altar to Torch-bearing Hecate, and stamped a crescent on their coins, a device which is retained by the Turks to this day.

During the reign of Alexander, Byzantium was compelled to acknowledge the Macedonian supremacy, after the decline of which it regained its independence, but suffered from the incursion of the Scythians. The losses that they sustained by land roused the Byzantines to indemnify themselves from the vessels that crowded the harbor, and the merchantmen that cleared the straits; but this provoked war with neighboring powers.

During the first years of its alliance with Rome, Byzantium held the rank of a free confederate city; but it was later subjected to the imperial jurisdiction and gradually stripped of its privileges. It was besieged and taken (196 CE) by Severus, who destroyed it, demolished the famous wall, and put the principal inhabitants to the sword. Relenting, Severus later rebuilt a large portion of the town, naming it Augusta and Antonina. It had scarcely begun to recover its former position when, through the capricious resentment of Gallienus, the inhabitants were once more put to the sword and the town was pillaged. From this disaster the inhabitants recovered so far as to be able to check an invasion of the Goths in the reign of Claudius II, and the fortifications were strengthened during the civil wars which followed the abdication of Diocletian. Diocletian had resolved to transfer his capital to Nicomedia; but Constantine, struck with the advantages which the situation of Byzantium presented, resolved to build a new city there on the site of the old and transfer the seat of government to it (330 CE).

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) THE BABYLONIAN KINGS

Here begins the Line of Babylonian Kings:

  1. Merodach, alleged first king of Babylonia.
  2. Nebuchadnezzar (Nabuchodonosor).

(B) XERXES THE PHILOSOPHER

Xerxes (Xerses), the philosopher, in cap and gown, with his chessmen and chessboard, as evidence of his invention.

(C) CITY OF BYZANTIUM

Byzantium (Bisantium), the city. This folio repeats the one used for Memphis/Cairo at Folio XXII recto.

FOLIO LXIII recto

Nebuchadnezzar(Nabuchodonosor) made Mattaniah (Mathanias), the uncle of Jeconiah (Joachim), king at Jerusalem, and by oath bound him to pay an annual tribute; and he changed his name to Zedekiah (Sedechias). He (Zedekiah) began to reign at the age of twenty-one years, and he reigned 11 years at Jerusalem. Thereafter he did evil in the sight of the Lord. He was arrogant and decided to make an alliance with the king of Egypt; nor did he keep his oath. The false prophets deceived him, saying, The Babylonians would certainly be driven out by the Egyptians. Jeremiah advised him to place his faith in God and not in humanity. In the ninth year of his reign, on the advice of the Egyptians, he decided not to pay the promised tribute, but to liberate himself and to ignore his oath, in consequence Nebuchadnezzar besieged him with a great number of people, and by starvation sought to compel him to pay the tribute. The city was opened at midnight, and Zedekiah and his relatives escaped, and went on their way to the wilderness. The mercenaries pursued him and captured him in the evening. And they brought him before the king at Riblah (Reblata). And the king punished him for his ingratitude, for although he had invested him with the kingdom, he had become perfidious; and he caused his eyes to be put out, and had him sent to Babylon in chains. He also contrived to have him, together with Jehozadek (Josedech)[Jehozadak, son of Seraiah, was a high priest under Zedekiah. He succeeded his father who was slain at Riblah, but was immediately carried captive and died in exile.] and all his relatives, put to death. And he carried away from Jerusalem to Babylon a great number of people as prisoners. He caused the city and the temple to be destroyed and burned.[The text of the closely follows the 24th and 25th chapters of II Kings, covering the rebellions of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, and the siege and destruction of Jerusalem.] He also conquered the empire of Assyria, which the Medes had destroyed. And so Babylonia became the sovereign of all these empires, and the kingdom of the Hebrews passed out as that of the Chaldees sprang up. Chaldaea, the kingdom in Asia, adjoined Arabia, a poor flat country, lacking water. In it (Chaldaea) was Babylon the capital city; and in the time of Zedekiah, after Astyages the eighth and last king of Media had reigned 38 years, the empire of the Medes declined.

Destruction of Jerusalem

Jerusalem, the noblest and oldest city, was destroyed a number of times: Firstly by the King of Babylon when Nebuchadnezzar, King of Chaldaea in the time of Zedekiah, invaded the land of Judah with a great and powerful army, and afflicted the cities and besieged Jerusalem. Thereafter he marched against Pharaoh the King of Egypt; and when he had forced him to flight he sent Nebuzar-adan (Nabuzardo)[Nebuzar-adan, chief of the executioners under Nebuchadnezzar, and his agent in the sacking and destruction of Jerusalem (II Kings 25:8-21).], one of the generals of his army, to besiege Jerusalem. He was encamped there for eight months when they surrendered themselves and their city to the Chaldaeans. They slew the king, leveled the towers and walls, burned the Temple, and seized the temple treasures. The Temple remained desolate for seventy years. The captivity did not end until the time of Cyrus. The Temple was not rebuilt until the time of Darius, the King of Persia and Media. Jerusalem was destroyed a second time by Asobeus, King of Egypt. What the land of Judea suffered at the hands of the Medes, Egyptians, and Macedonians, I will not here relate. The city was destroyed a third time by that most cruel tyrant, Antiochus Epiphanes, who took the city through the treachery of Menelaus, and through merciless men plundered the Holy City; gave the Jews pork to eat, forced them to forego their own laws, and to worship the Olympian Jove. On the fourth occasion it was destroyed by Pompey, who conquered the entire land of Judea, making it and Jerusalem tributary. Strabo relates that Pompey on a certain sabbath of the Jews, when they withheld themselves from all labor, filled up the moats, set up the ladders, and conquered the city. For a fifth time the cities of Judea, and particularly Jerusalem, were attacked, and this time by Gabinius, Scaurus, and Varus; and Herod the Great[Herod the Great, King of the Jews, was the second son of Antipater. Caesar appointed his father procurator of Judea in 47 BCE. Herod, thought only twenty-five, obtained the government of Galilee. In 40 he went to Rome and obtained from Anthony and Octavian a decree of the Senate constituting him king of Judea. He possessed a jealous temper and ungovernable passions. His government, though cruel and tyrannical, was vigorous, and he was feared and respected by his subjects and neighbors. He loved to display his power and magnificence by costly and splendid public works. In the last year of his reign Jesus of Nazareth was born. He died in the 37th year of his reign, at the age of seventy.] and Sosius[Sosius was one of Anthony's principal lieutenants in the East. In 37 BCE he advanced against Jerusalem along with Herod, became the master of the city and placed Herod on the throne.] conquered it, and possessed it as a march. On the sixth occasion it was taken by Vespasian[Vespasian (T. Flavius Sabinus), Roman emperor from 70-79 CE, was the son of a man of modest means, in the country of the Sabines. His mother Vespasia Pola was the daughter of a praefectus castrorum, and the sister of a Roman senator. She was left a widow with two sons, Flabius Sabinus and Vespasian. Vespasian served as a tribinus militum in Thrace, and was quaestor in Crete and Cyrene. He married and had two sons, both of whom succeeded him. In the reign of Claudius he was sent into Germany as legatus legionis; and in 43 he held the same command in Britain, and reduced the Isle of Wight. He was consul in 51, and proconsul of Africa under Nero. He had a great military reputation and was liked by his soldiers. In the year 66 he conducted the war against the Jews, and with that war raised his reputation. He was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria in 69, and soon after all through the East. He came to Rome in 70, leaving his son Titus to continue the war against the Jews. Titus took Jerusalem after a siege of five months. The cause of Vespasian's return to Rome was the war that broke out between Otho and Vitellus. Vespasian on his return labored to restore order in the city and the empire. The simplicity and frugality of his mode of life was in striking contrast with the profusion and luxury of his predecessors, and his example is said to have done more to reform the morals of Rome than all the laws that had ever been enacted. He lived like a private person, was affable and easily approached. He ridiculed all attempts to give him a distinguished genealogy. He knew the bad character of his son Domitian, but kept him under proper restraint. In 71, Titus returned to Rome, and father and son triumphed together for their conquest of the Jews. In the summer of 79, Vespasian, whose health was failing, spent some time in his parental home in the mountains of Sabini. Drinking cold water to excess he injured his stomach, which was already disordered; but he still attended to business. When he felt death approaching, he said that an emperor should die standing, and so he died at the age of 69 on June 24, 79.] on the eighth day of the month of September, in the second year of his reign, through his son Titus, who razed it to the ground and destroyed the temple. They leveled the walls and filled the moats. This conquest the Romans considered a feat of great importance, and Titus, leader of the hosts, and afterwards governor of the realm, when he passed over the walls was himself surprised, and

ILLUSTRATION
THE CAPTURE OF ZEDEKIAH

SIZE 8¾" X 5½"

This woodcut portrays one of the incidents in the fall of Jerusalem as recorded in the accompanying text, based on the 24th and 25th chapters of II Kings.

We are in the plains of Jericho in the eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah, whose army has been defeated and dispersed by the besiegers. From the right the Babylonian hosts—a horse and armed cap-a-pie in stout European armor of the Middle Ages, and equipped with implements of war of the same period—proudly enter the picture. At their head is a distinguished personage in Oriental turban, apparently intended for Nebuchadnezzar, although this potentate was at Riblah at this time and not on the plans of Jericho. Proceeding before them in simple raiment but wearing his crown, is Zedekiah. His hands are bound behind his back by a cord, and he is being urged along by a rather aggressive looking infantryman who has strapped to his back a peculiar shield in the shape of a human face. Strangely enough, his trusty sword is in its scabbard at his side, while he urges on Zedekiah and the multitude with a stick.

Zedekiah is proceeding forward as best he can, with a peculiar dance step. He is already blindfolded, no doubt the artist's way of indicating that his eyes have already been put out, although this did not occur until he was brought before the great Babylonian king at Riblah. Crowded about the unfortunate king of Judah are his people, men, women and children, all in distress and fear. One of their numbers, in a cloak or mantle, stands immediately before the blinded king, making a gesture as if speaking to him. Who this may be, or what he may be saying, we do not know.

The background represents a desolate undulating plain.

FOLIO LXIII verso

acknowledged the result rather as a divine favor than the work of human strength. In the destruction of the city, murder, hunger and mortal suffering occurred, and if you would know the details, you should read Josephus[Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian, was born in Jerusalem in 37 CE. On his mother's side he was descended from the Amonaean princess, while from his father, Matthias, he inherited the priestly office. He enjoyed an excellent education, and at the age of 26 he went to Rome to plead the cause of some Jewish priests whom Felix, the procurator of Judea, had sent there as prisoners. He not only effected the release of his friends, but received great presents from the empress Poppea. On his return to Jerusalem he found his countrymen about to revolt from Rome, from which he used his best endeavors to dissuade them; but failing, he professed to enter into the popular designs. He was chosen one of the generals of the Jews, and was sent to manage affairs in Galilee. When Vespasian and his army entered Galilee, he threw himself into Iotapata, which he defended for 47 days. When the place was taken, his life was spared by Vespasian through the intercession of Titus. Josephus thereupon assumed the character of a prophet, and predicted that the empire should one day be his and his son's. Vespasian treated him with respect, but did not release him from captivity till he was proclaimed emperor three years later (70 CE). Josephus was present with Titus at the siege of Jerusalem, and afterwards accompanied him to Rome. He received the freedom of the city of Vespasian, who assigned him as a residence a house formerly occupied by himself, and treated him honorably to the end of his reign. The same favor was extended him by Titus, and by Domitian as well. He assumed the name of Flavius, as a descendant of the Flavian family. His time at Rome seems to have been chiefly employed in the composition of his works, among which is his , in seven books, published about 75 CE. He first wrote in Hebrew, then translated it into Greek. It commences with the capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes in 170 BCE, runs rapidly over the events before Josephus' own time, and gives a detailed account of the fatal war with Rome. He also wrote another book, , in twenty books, completed about 93 CE. It gives an account of Jewish history from the creation of the world to 66 CE, the twelfth year of Nero. He also wrote his own life in one volume, and other works.] who wrote, not according to hearsay, but recorded actual facts to which he and others were witnesses. When Titus, together with his father Vespasian, entered the city, he caused Simon, who was the cause of the destruction, to be dragged through the streets with ropes in his triumphal train, and his body bruised; and thereafter he slew him. Vespasian built a temple of peace, and caused to be deposited in it the holy treasures of the Jews, such as the tablets of the laws, and other things. The city was at that time the abode of thieves and murderers; and so it continued until the time of Hadrian. For fifty years it remained desolate. Thereafter Hadrian, the emperor, rebuilt it and restored its walls; and he called it Aelia Capitolina (Helyam), after himself. As St. Jerome wrote to Paulinus, the worship of Jove was practiced from the time of Hadrian to that of Constantine, for 180 years; and on the Mount of the Cross a column was erected to Venus, the pagan goddess, and worshipped by the pagans. Thereby they meant to dishonor the Holy City, and to uproot belief in our origin and in the Cross. At various times our own princes have held the city. Charlemagne captured it with great labor, but lost it again. Godfrey (Gothefridus) recaptured it; and so that it might be retained in possession, Emperor Conrad and King Louis (Ludovicus) of France marched into Asia. But as our princes afterward became indifferent, neither Jerusalem nor Antioch remained in our power. O how lamentable and shameful it is that the Saracens, enemies of the Cross, should hold the Temple of Solomon in which the Lord often preached; Bethlehem, in which He was born; Calvary, where He was crucified, and the grave in which He slept! Although the Christians did not choose to think of this, they should never forget it. Look at the city of the Living God; the office of our redemption; the city which God glorified with miracles and sanctified with his blood; and in which the bloom of our origin first appeared—all now in the power of the hordes of Mohammed and subject to a sinful people.[ Jerusalem or Hierosolyma, called El-Kuds, that is, the Holy City by the Arabs. At the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan, under Joshua, Jerusalem, then called Jebus, was the chief city of the Jebusites, a Canaanite tribe, who were not entirely driven out till 1050 BCE, when David took the city and made it the capital of the kingdom of Israel. It was also made the permanent center of the Jewish religion by the erection of the Temple of Solomon. After the division of the kingdom, under Rehoboam, it remained the capital of the kingdom of Judah, until it was entirely destroyed, and its inhabitants were carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in 588 BCE. In 536, the Jewish exiles, having been permitted by Cyrus to return, began to rebuild the city and temple; and the work was completed in about 24 years. In 332 Jerusalem quietly submitted to Alexander. During the wars that followed his death, the city was taken by Ptolemy, son of Lagus, (320) and remained subject to the Greek kings of Egypt, till the conquest of Palestine by Antiochus III the Great, king of Syria (198). Up to this time the Jews had been allowed the free enjoyment of their religion and their own internal government, and Antiochus confirmed them in these privileges; but the altered government of his son Antiochus IV Epiphanes provoked a rebellion, which was at first put down when Antiochus took Jerusalem and polluted the temple (170); but the religious persecution which ensued drove the people to despair, and led to a new revolt under the Maccabees, by whom Jerusalem was retaken, and the temple purified (163). In 133 Jerusalem was retaken by Antiochus VII. Sidetes, and its fortifications dismantled, but its government was left in the hands of the Maccabee John Hyrcanus, who took advantage of the death of Antiochus in Parthia (128) to recover his full power. His son Aristobulus assumed the title of king of Judaea, and Jerusalem continued to be the capital of the kingdom until 63, when it was taken by Pompey, and the temple was again profaned. In 70 CE, the rebellion of the Jews against the Romans was put down, and Jerusalem was taken by Titus after a siege of several months, during which the inhabitants endured the utmost horrors. The survivors were all put to the sword or sold as slaves, and the city and temple were utterly razed to the ground. In consequence of a new revolt of the Jews, Hadrian resolved to destroy every vestige of their national and religious peculiarities; and, as one means to the end, he established a new Roman colony on the ground where Jerusalem had stood, by the name of Aelia Capitolina, and built a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the side of the temple of Jehovah in 135. The establishment of Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire restored to Jerusalem its sacred character, and led to the erection of several churches; but the various changes which have taken place in it since its conquest by the Arabs under Omar in 638, have left very few vestiges even of the Roman city. Jerusalem fell to Saladin in 1187. For a brief interval from 1229 to 1244 the German Christians held the city by treaty; but in the latter year the Kharezmian Massacre swallowed up the last relics of Christian occupation. In 1517, it was conquered by Sultan Selim I, and thereafter it was a Turkish city until the modern period, where it went from British to Jewish control after World War II.]

FOLIO LXIII verso and LXIIII recto
ILLUSTRATION
DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM

Size 10" X 20½"

This large and unusual woodcut (Destruccio Iherosolime), together with the accompanying text, concludes the fourth age of the world. It covers the greater part of Folio LXIII verso and LXIIII recto and consists of two blocks. As one casually glances at this panorama of the Holy City one does not realize that a catastrophe is at hand. The city is pictured in a very hilly terrain and is itself located on a rather rotund elevation. It is surrounded by a wall that does not appear to have been seriously damaged, except in the lower right hand corner of the woodcut. Only two entrance gates are shown—Porta Aurea and Porta Gregis—neither of which have been destroyed; in fact, the outskirts of the city and the surrounding wall give no evidence of a siege, being entirely deserted.

We should feel grateful, in view of past performances on the part of the woodcutters, that this has not been depicted as a medieval European city; for with its abundance of muezzin towers and mosques, occasionally surmounted by a crescent, its squat and square abodes and dearth of vegetation, we are truly reminded of a Middle Eastern city.

Let us enter at the Porta Gregis. Immediately on our right, is the house of St. Anne (Dom(us) S. Ane), and diagonally across the street the domicile of Pilate (Dom(us) Pilatum). We proceed northward, and where the highway broadens into a plaza we see the house of Herod (Dom(us) Herod), also on our right. So far all have been squat, square structures with flat roofs. But as we go on we come to an elaborate building resembling a mosque. It has a large open forecourt and is flanked by a minaret on one side, a nondescript tower on the other. It is the uppermost structure in the picture, and bears the inscription "Calvarie."

Had we veered to the left from the plaza before the House of Herod, we should have passed a structure on our right inscribed with the words "Dom(us) Divitis" (?)—and changing our course to the north, we would have entered the "Porta vet(us)" leading into a sepulcher or tomb resembling an ink bottle in form, and whose inscription is doubtful. From the rear of this tomb a rather steep road leads upward and apparently down behind the city. As we ascend we meet two armed warriors on horseback, and another on foot. They have apparently been up to mischief for on either side of the road two huge square towers have been broken off at their bases, and toppled over in opposite directions. Just before we caught up with the first of these horsemen, we passed (on our left) the "Atria Soldanis,"—probably the atrium or forecourt to the Sultan's Palace.

Had we here turned westward (instead of proceeding to the north), and made our way down the hill to the left, we should have encountered the House of Caiaphas, the Temple of Mary (Teplu(m) Marie), another house of Anne, or the house of another Anne, as the case may be (Dom(us) Ane), and another structure of doubtful inscription.

So far our journey has been rather uneventful except for some of the disturbed masonry. But suddenly it becomes apparent that the grotesque structure, center left, entitled, "Teplu(m) Salomo(n)is," or "Temple of Solomon" is ablaze. In the left forecourt are two Turks engaged in friendly conversation, and in the forecourt to the right three or four persons promenade about as though they neither saw the flames, felt the heat, nor smelled the smoke of the conflagration that is engulfing the Temple.

To the extreme right of the panorama the way leads to Bethlehem, the direction being inscribed on a gabled house nestling between three towers. At the left of the city a road leads to an unnamed castle.

Mr. Bullen, in his observations on the Chronicle, remarks that the interest of this woodcut lies solely in its anachronisms, and to be sure there are such to the most superficial student of the architecture of the various periods and countries. Note for instance the Gothic spires that have been affixed to the lower stories of the two minarets on the left. But the greatest anachronism occurs at the extreme left, on the Mount of Satan (Muasatana), an elongated sugar-loaf affair, upon the summit of which appear two sketchy figures—one in a long robe and halo, the other in the nude and horned, the horns resembling the antennae of an insect.
We are at once reminded Luke 4:5-9:

And the devil taking him up into a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. And the devil said to him, All this power will I give you, and the glory of them; for that is delivered to me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. If you therefore will worship me, all will be yours. And Jesus answered and said to him, Get behind me, Satan: for it is written, You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve. And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here,….
(See also Matthew 4:1-11)

It is apparent from the text of Luke, as well as that of Matthew, that these gospels narrate that Satan twice tempted Jesus by this means, once taking him on a high mountain to show him the kingdom of the world, and again bringing him to Jerusalem and setting him on a pinnacle of the temple. The eminence upon which the figures stand is a pinnacle, but not the pinnacle of a temple, while on the other hand the ascending roadway, and the doors opening into the pinnacle contradict the theory of its being a natural formation. The fact remains, however, that we are at Jerusalem and that Satan is showing the Jesus the city. It is uncertain whether at this particular time Satan is offering Jesus "all the kingdoms of the world" if Jesus will worship him, or whether he is tempting him to cast himself down from the pinnacle in order to prove that he will be saved by God.

According to the chronicler, Jerusalem was destroyed five times. And, according to other writers, many more. Which of these destructions the artist had in mind is uncertain but the nearest one to the time of Jesus is that which occurred in 70 CE, when the city was besieged by Titus and was totally razed to the ground.