Aligned 
First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
THE THIRD AGE OF THE WORLD
FOLIO XXI verso

The Third Age begins with the birth of Abraham and continues up to David—according to the Hebrews 292 years, but according to the seventy interpreters 940 years. Here begins the history of our patriarchs, who worshipped the true God. Abraham, the father of many people, born of Terah in Ur of the Chaldees, was a wise man and a godly one, and the best informed in human affairs. He was the first to proclaim God as the Creator of all things, and compelled him to wander forth from Chaldea. He was led forth by his father from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran. And there he lived. And the Lord commanded Abraham, saying, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, and come into a land that I will show thee.[Genesis 12:1]

When Abraham returned from the slaughter of the five kings of Assyria, who had made Lot a prisoner, Melchizedek, king of Salem and the highest priest of God, came to meet him; and he offered bread and wine. And to him Abraham gave tithes of all the booty he had taken. And Melchizedek blessed Abraham for having subjugated his enemies. The Hebrews say that this Melchizedek was Shem, the first son of Noah, and who lived to Abraham’s time.

This mysterious stranger here suddenly emerges from the dim past, without ancestors and without descendants, "having neither beginning of days nor end of life." (Hebrews 7:3). His name and title are significant, "first being by interpretation, king of righteousness, and after that also king of Salem, which is king of peace." (Hebrews 7:2). From the earliest times there have been strange speculations as to this mysterious man. Some, like the chronicler, have identified him with Shem, supposing that survivor of the flood to have lived to Abraham’s time. But if so, why should his name have been changed to Melchizedek, and how could it be said of Shem, with Genesis 11:10-27 before us, that he was without pedigree? Perhaps the better view is to regard him as an exceptional instance in that early time of venerable Hamite, or perhaps, like Abraham, a Shemite, who had kept pure from the prevailing idolatry of the world, and was a worshipper of the true God.

Melchizedek has been held a suitable type of Christ as High Priest because (1) he was a king-priest, (2) his name means righteousness and he was king of Salem, which means "peace," (3) his birth and death remain unrecorded, and (4) he was not made a High-Priest by human appointment.

After this the Lord appeared to Abraham and foretold to him the birth of a son whom he would multiply to the number of stars in the heavens.

The beautiful Sarah was long barren, but when she attained the age of ninety she bore Isaac. Keturah, Abraham’s second wife, bore six sons, endowed with wisdom and industry. Abraham married her after Sarah’s death. The names of the sons are Zamram (Zimran), Jectan (Jokshan), Medan, Madian (Median), Jesboth (Ishbak), and Shuah (Sue). Hagar, the concubine of Abraham, was an Egyptian and Sarah’s handmaid; and by her Ishmael was born to Abraham. From Ishmael descended the Ishmaelites, later called the Hagarites, and finally called the Saracens. He and his mother were cast out of his father’s house, for

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) Abraham and Melchizedek

Abraham (in a woodcut 5" x 8-3/8") is returning with his forces from the slaughter of the five kings. Melchizedek comes forth from his royal city to meet him, grateful for ridding the land of its invaders and oppressors. He is bringing forth bread and wine, general terms for food and refreshments, in token of his gratitude and of his appreciation of the services of the noble Hebrew. Abraham has stepped forward and already has the bread in hand. He is about to receive the wine. The abode of Melchizedek is represented as the typical medieval fortified city, and the king himself is coming forth in regal robes and wearing a crown. Although Abraham is not in fighting armor, his men, who stand back to the left, are accoutered head to foot in medieval helmets and armor, bearing shields, swords, lances and banners. They look upon the occasion with pride and watchful eyes.

(B) Lineage of Christ

The genealogies of the Third Age of the World begin with Abraham, third son of Terah, whom we left at Folio XXI recto. There and on the opposite page his descendants through his other two sons, Haran and Nahor, were portrayed. The branch representing Abraham was cut immediately below Terah’s portrait; and now that branch is presented.

Abraham himself is portrayed on Folio XXII recto by a panel 9-3/4" x 2-1/4", and from him to the opposite page proceed the branches of his family tree. And here we find the beautiful Sarah (Saray), Abraham’s first wife, but she is still barren, and Isaac will not appear until we reach Folio XXVI recto. At the opposite extreme of the main trunk appears Hagar (Agar), the handmaid of Sarah, and whom Abraham probably brought back with him after his sojourn in Egypt. From her proceeds Ishmael (Ismahel), ancestor of the Arabs, who is portrayed in a dual portrait with his wife. Much importance seems to have been attached to certain numbers in the ancient days, such as 3, 5, 7, 12, 40, etc. The number 12 was not uncommon in the development of tribal descents. According to Genesis 25:12-15, twelve little Arabs were born to Ishmael and his wife: Nebajoth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadar, Tema, Jetur, Naphish and Kedemah. Of these, only two examples are given in this genealogy, namely, Nebajoth (Nabaioth) and Kedar (Cedar).

Between the branches running to Sarah and Hagar appears a third one representing the issue of Abraham by Keturah (Cethura), whom he took to wife after the expulsion of Hagar and the death of Sarah. Of this marriage six children were born, all of whom are here portrayed: Zimran (Zamram); Jokshan (Jectan); Medan; Median (Madian); Ishbak (Yesboth), and Shuah (Sue).

Occasionally one encounters difficulty in identifying the names on these portraits. There are three general comparisons that may be made, involving the Chronicle itself, the King James Version of the Bible, and the Douay Version of the Vulgate. The Chronicle, written when it was, is Catholic in tendency and lore, and the inscriptions are often from the Vulgate. For purposes of investigation and identification, the course should be from Chronicle to Vulgate, and from Vulgate to King James Version. Of course the text of the Chronicle itself is also helpful in deciphering woodcut inscriptions that are often almost illegible.

This illustration, which comprehends fourteen portraits, is made up of three woodcuts: (1) the large portrait of Abraham, (2) a small woodblock of connecting branches, and (3) a woodcut measuring 7-1/8" x 8-13/16", containing Abraham’s issue through three channels, with the limitations already mentioned. The full length portrait of Abraham in oriental headdress and flowing robes is very striking and venerable. There is nothing distinctive about the minor portraits. However, one cannot help but marvel at the ingenuity and invention of the artists in cultivating, shaping and guiding these genealogical vines so as to comfortably accommodate the membral status of every family or tribe within the confines of the text page.

We are also struck by the manner in which these artists have solved the problem of presenting these portraits as individual parts of the family tree. All are bust pictures, produced by the interesting contrivance of placing each subject within the calyx of a flower in full bloom. And what a variety of flowers! In these floral pulpits stand the heirs, like so many preachers. In most cases this impression is accentuated because the incumbent is gesturing as if addressing a congregation.

FOLIO XXII recto

he incited Isaac to idolatry and to worshipping idols that he had made. Sarah saw this and said, Cast out this handmaid and her son. After Ishmael was born and attained his twelfth year, his father had him circumcised, and Sarah loved him as her own son. But when Isaac was born she ceased to love Ishmael, and caused Abraham to send him to another country. And when Ishmael became of age, his mother provided him an Egyptian wife, by whom he had sons who inhabited the entire earth from the Euphrates to the Red Sea.

Now Sarah, Abraham’s wife, bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar. And Sarah said unto Abraham, Behold now, Jehovah hath restrained me from bearing; go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall obtain children by her . . . And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived . . . And Hagar bore Abraham a son. And Abraham was fourscore and six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael

(Genesis 16:1-15).
And Ishmael, his son, was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. And the self same day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son

(Genesis 17:23-26).
And Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age, etc. And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bore him, Isaac . . . And Abraham made a great feast on the day Isaac was weaned. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, whom she had born unto Abraham, mocking. Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this handmaid and her son; for the son of this handmaid shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac . . . And Abraham rose early in the morning and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and gave her the child, and sent her away; and she departed, and wandered into the wilderness of Beersheba . . . And God was with the lad, and he grew; and he dwelt in the wilderness, etc. And his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt

(Genesis 21:1-21).
And Abraham took another wife, and her name was Keturah. And she bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Median, Ishbak, and Shuah. . .

(Genesis 25:1-8).
Now these were the generations of Ishmael by their names according to their generations: Nebaioth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah; and these are their names by their villages, and by their encampments: twelve princes to their nations

(Genesis 25: 12-16).

The Chronicle and the text of Genesis do not agree as to the reason why Sarah wished Hagar and Ishmael expelled from the home: (1) The Chronicle states that it was because Ishmael encouraged Isaac to idolatry, and to the worship of idols he had made. (2) The Douay Version of the Bible says that she saw "the son of Hagar the Egyptian ‘playing’ with Isaac her son" (Genesis 21:9), while (3) the King James Version says that she saw Ishmael ‘mocking,’ an expression which commentators have interpreted to imply carnal or lascivious indulgence on Ishmael’s part. However, the real reason is given in the tenth verse: "Cast out this bondmaid and her son; for the son of the bondmaid shall not be heir with my son Isaac."

Because they would not worship fire in Ur of the Chaldees, Abraham and his brother Haran were thrown into the flames. Haran was suffocated, but Abraham was liberated by God, who wished him to bring up Haran’s son Lot, as his own.[According to Genesis 11:28 Haran died before his father Tereh, in the land of his nativity, the Ur of the Chaldees, but the manner of his death is not given. Abraham and his father Tereh lived at Ur before they were called to the land of Canaan. A number of places have been suggested as the site of this old city, such as Orfah, or Urfa, in northern Mesopotamia, some twenty miles north of Haran; Warka, in southeastern Mesopotamia, 120 miles southeast of Babylon; and Mugheir, a ruined site about six miles west of the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris. And it was a Jewish tradition that the descendants of Terah were driven out of Chaldea because they refused to follow the prevalent idolatry. They left the ways of their ancestors and worshipped the God they knew. So the Chaldeans cast them out from the face of their gods, and they fled to Haran, where they sojourned until they received the call to depart for the land of Canaan.] And Abraham took to wife Haran’s daughter, Sarah. Thereafter Abraham, together with his father Terah, and his brother Nahor, and the kindred of his brother Haran, wandered from Chaldea to Haran, in Mesopotamia. When his father Tereh died, Abraham, at the age of seventy-five years, in obedience to the command of the Lord, migrated with Lot, Sarah, and all his kindred, and all his good to the land of Canaan; and he lived in Shechem. There the Lord appeared to him and said, To your seed will I give this land. Thereafter Abraham came to the five cities where the Dead Sea now is; and there he also wandered; and he lived in Damascus. But as there was famine in the land, Abraham went down into Egypt, and back from there to the valley of Mare, near Hebron. The Lord appeared to Abraham in his sleep and told him that his seed would be sojourners in Egypt 430 years; that the fourth generation would return with him to the land of Canaan, and that kings would come out of him.[] In accordance with the Lord’s command Abraham circumcised himself, his son Ishmael, and all his house and kindred. [Genesis 17:23-27]

Memphis, now called Cairo or Alkeyro (Alcairo), the royal city in Egypt, was built by Ogelous,[Probably refers to Aegialeus. ] the king of Egypt, and was named Memphis after his daughter. It is 150 times one eighth of a mile in circumference,[That is, 150 furlongs. A furlong is a measure of length derived from a furrow in an ordinary filed; theoretically the side of a square containing ten acres; one eighth of a mile. A furlong is now legally one eight of a statute mile; that is, 40 rods, or 220 yards (201.16 meters). A square furlong is 10 acres. The area of Memphis, according to Diodorus occupied a circuit of 150 stadia, or at least 15 miles. This included much open ground laid out in gardens and courts for the barracks of the garrison in the quarter called the "White Castle," and which was successively occupied, under the Pharaohs, by the native militia.] and is the most celebrated city in Egypt. It is located in the most convenient part of the region where the river Nile divides into many branches, in the form of the letter d,[The reference is to delta, the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, which is a triangle and which corresponds to the English and German letter d. For that reason a delta is a triangular alluvial deposit at or near the mouth of a river.] and almost surrounds the city, giving access to shipping. But navigation farther up is prevented by the overflow of water that has deposited large mounds of earth to the south. In other regions it has created large seas that make the city secure and inaccessible. For this reason later kings established their residence there; and they called the city Babylon in Egypt, or Cairo. Osiris was worshipped at Memphis.[Osiris was the greatest Egyptian divinity, and the husband of Isis. Osiris is described by Plutarch, in his treatise , as a son of Rhea and Helois. His Egyptian name is said to have been Hysiris, which is interpreted to mean "son of Isis," though some have said that it meant "many-eyed;" And according to Heliodorus, Osiris was the god of the Nile, as Isis was the goddess of the earth. As he taught the people the use of the plow, so she invented the cultivation of wheat and barley that were carried about in the processions at her festival. She was the goddess of the earth, which the Egyptians called their mother. Being married to Osiris, Isis is the land fertilized by the Nile.] When Osiris inherited the kingdom of Arginorum (Argos) from his forefather, Phoroneus,

Phoroneus, son of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia or Archia, was a brother of Aegialeus and the ruler of Argos. He was married to the nymph Laodice, by whom he became the father of Niobe, Apis and Car. According to other writers his sons were Pelasgus, Iasus, and Agenor, who, after their father’s death, divided the kingdom of Argos among themselves. Phoroneus is said to have been the first to offer sacrifices to Hera at Argos, and to have united the people who until then had lived in scattered habitations, into a city which was called after him. The patronymic Phoronides is sometimes used for Argives in general, and especially to designate Amphiaraus and Adrastus.

Apis, the son of Phoroneus and Laodice was also a king of Argos, and from him Peloponnesus was called Apia. He ruled tyrannically and was killed by Thelxion and Telchis.

he sailed over to Egypt in order to enhance his glory. He conquered it; and he married Isis. After he taught the barbarous people many useful things, they honored him as a god; and they changed his name and called him a bull.

ILLUSTRATION

7" x 6-9/16"

There are two woodcuts at Folio XXII recto—one of Abraham, already described, and the other of "Memphis or Cairo," our present subject. Here we have another general landscape doing special service, as occurred in the previous cases of Themiscyra (Folio XIX verso) and Nineveh (Folio XX recto). There is nothing ‘eastern’ about this scene, and certainly nothing Egyptian. The artist has selected his favorite promontory as a civic site. The town is securely girded about, with the usual battlements, turrets, towers and gates. To the left is a stream, which we must assume to be the Nile. On its bank grows an iris, or other member of the lily family; but we see no reeds or rushes in which a little Moses might be concealed.

Within the walls the usual gothic church is prominently silhouetted against the sky.

FOLIO XXII verso

And from this arose the custom that when a beautiful bull unexpectedly appears to them, they detain him and for a time they worship him.[The reference is to Apis, the Bull of Memphis, worshipped with the greatest reverence as a god among the Egyptians. They believed him to be the offspring of a young cow impregnated by a ray from heaven. There were certain signs by which he was recognized to be a god. It was necessary that he be quite black, have a white square mark on his forehead, on his back a figure similar to that of an eagle, have two kinds of hair in his tail, and on his tongue a knot resembling an insect called cantharus. When all these signs were discovered, the animal was consecrated with great pomp, and was conveyed to Memphis, where he had a special residence, containing extensive walks and courts for his amusement. His birthday was celebrated every year and was his most solemn festival. It was a day of rejoicing for all Egypt. The god was allowed to live only a certain number of years, probably twenty-five. If it had not died before the expiration of that time, it was killed and buried in a sacred well, the location of which was unknown except to the initiated. But if the bull died a natural death, there was a public and solemn burial; and as his birth filled all Egypt with joy and festivities, so his death threw the whole country into grief and mourning. The worship of Apis was originally nothing but the simple worship of the bull, but in course of time he, like other animals, was regarded as a symbol, and Apis is hence identified with Osiris or the sun.] The Nile, one of the largest rivers in the world, flows by the city of Memphis. Every year, when the sun is in the Crab, it overflows the entire land of Egypt. Memphis now belongs to the Saracens.[After the foundation of Alexandria, Memphis sank into a provincial city. But the Saracen invaders in the seventh century confirmed the wisdom of Menes’ choice, for they built both Old and New Cairo in the neighborhood of Memphis, only changing the site from the western to the eastern bank of the Nile, because their natural alliances, unlike those of the Pharaohs, were with the Arabians and the Syrian Khalifates.] It is a fine, well populated city, and possessed of rich estates. There, in a large castle, lives the all-powerful Sultan. The city is divided into two parts, called New Babylon and Alcairo. Here once lived Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. To this country came the glory deserving Virgin Mary, with the child Jesus and Joseph. And here are the foremost balsam gardens. To this place many men of learning have journeyed, as Pythagorus and Plato, &c. Here is to be found the wisdom of the Babylonians. In this country many columns have been erected to the memory of the dead, and other monuments to matters worthy of remembrance, concerning which many from far and wide have written.

Memphis was the first capital of the entire kingdom of Egypt, after the Deltic monarchy at Heliopolis was united to the Thebaid capital at This or Abydos. It stood on the western bank of the Nile 15 miles south of Cercasorus. Its foundation belongs to the earliest age of Egyptian history. It is ascribed to Menes, the first mortal king; (2) to Uchoreus, a monarch of a later dynasty; and (3) to Apis or Epaphus. The latter two are doubtful. The motives that induced the founder to select the site of Memphis as his capital are obvious. Not far removed from the bifurcation of the Nile at Cercasorus, it commanded the south entrance to the Delta, while it was nearer to the Thebaid than any of the Deltaic provincial cities of importance, Heliopolis, Bubastis and Sais. He placed it on the western bank because he had little to apprehend from the tribes of the Libyan desert; whereas the eastern frontier of Egypt was always exposed to attack from Arabia, Assyria, and Persia, and it was not beyond the reach of the Scythians. It was important, therefore, to make the Nile a barrier of the city. This was accomplished by placing Memphis to the west of it. However, before Mendes could lay the foundations of his capital, an artificial area had to be provided for them. The Nile, at that remote period, seems to have had a double bifurcation; one at the head of the Delta, the other above the side of Memphis, and parallel with the Arsinote Nome. Of the branches of its southern fork, the western and the wider of the two ran at the foot of the Libyan hills; the eastern and lower was the present main stream. Between them the plain, though resting on a limestone base, was covered with marshes, caused by their periodical overflow. This plain Menes chose for the site of Memphis. He began by constructing an embankment about 100 stadia south of its site, that diverted the main body of the water into the eastern arm; and the marshes he drained off into two principal lakes, one to the north, the other to the west of Memphis, which thus, on every side but the south, was defended by water.

Athotis, styled a son of Menes, is said to have built the palace, and thus stamped the new city as a royal residence. In the reign of Kaiechos, second dynasty, the worship of Apis was established at Memphis.

In Abraham’s ninety-ninth year the Lord appeared unto him and assured him that a son would be born unto him by his wife Sarah. And he called him Isaac. When Isaac was twenty-five years of age, the Lord in order to test Abraham’s obedience, commanded him to sacrifice his son. Abraham hastened to fulfill the command. And as he approached the altar and was about to slaughter his son, God recognized the man’s obedience, and called out, Abraham! Lay not thy hand upon the lad; for now I know that thou fearest the Lord. And soon thereafter the Lord unexpectedly brought forth a ram. And as Abraham was obedient to God, the sweet promised of Christ came unto him. And God said to him, In your name will be blessed all the people, for you were obedient to my voice. [This is a rather severe abridgement of the biblical narrative (Genesis 22:1-19), which should be read to fully appreciate the illustration.]

Zoroaster the wise, was (as Isidorus states) a king of Bactria, form whom king Ninus slew in battle, and who ordered his books to be burned. Of him Solinus thus writes: Although the first sound given off by newly born children is that of crying, and their sense of joy is postponed for forty-two days, yet we know of one, called Zoroaster, who laughed on the day he was born. He was the first wise man or magician (Magi); and he studied the stars, and made twenty times one hundred thousand verses. This same accomplishment Democritus[Democritus, a celebrated Greek philosopher, was born about 460 BCE. He spent a large inheritance on travels that he undertook to satisfy his unusual thirst for knowledge. He journeyed over a large part of Asia, and spent some time in Egypt. His diligence was incredible, and he lived exclusively for his studies. He died in poverty in the year 361, but highly esteemed by his fellow-citizens. He lost his eyesight probably through severe application to his studies, but this did not disturb the cheerful disposition of his mind, which prompted him to look, in all circumstances, at the cheerful side; and for this reason later writers took to mean that he always laughed at the follies of men. His knowledge was very extensive, his style lively. He and Leucippus, another philosopher, were the founders of the theory of atoms. In order to explain the creation of all things, Democritus maintained that in infinite space there are an infinite number of atoms or elementary particles, homogeneous in quality, but heterogeneous in form; that these items combine, and that all things arise from the infinite variety of form, order and position of these atoms in forming combinations. The cause of these combinations he calls ‘chance.’ He does not use the word in its ordinary sense, but to signify the necessary succession of cause and effect. In his ethical philosophy he considers the acquisition of peace of mind as the end and ultimate object of our actions.] long thereafter enlarged upon. Zoroaster flourished in the time of Terah, father of Abraham.

Zoroaster, or Zoroastres, the Zarathustra of the Zend-Avesta, and the Zendusht of the Persians, was the founder of the ancient Magian or Persian religion. The religion of Zoroaster, held by the modern Parsees, was known to antiquity as the religion of the Magi. The religion was probably of Bactrian origin. The statement that he laughed on the day he was born is from Pliny (Natural History, VII, 15).

The accompanying illustration of a king with crown, orb and scepter, has no particular application to Zoroaster, except as indicated by the inscription.

ILLUSTRATION
Abraham About To Sacrifice His Son Isaac

5" x 8-7/8"

The Lord is testing Abraham’s obedience by ordering him to sacrifice his son as a burnt offering upon one of the mountains. Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took with him two of his young men, and his son Isaac, and prepared the wood for the burnt offering. And he went up to the place of which God had told him. As he saw the place, afar off, he told his young men to stay with the ass, while he and hi son would ascend the mountain and worship.

The artist has made the best of the space allowed him within the confines of the woodcut. He has portrayed several successive actions in this single illustration. The picture falls into two divisions, separated by a narrow trail leading to the place of sacrifice. To the right the stern old patriarch dashes into the picture, a pot of fire in his hand, and the sacrificial sword under his arm. He is rushing his son, upon whose shoulders he has placed the wood of the burnt offering. The little lad is stooping forward under his burden. He certainly does not appear the twenty-five years which the Chronicler has placed to his credit. In vain he looks about him for the lamb that is necessary to the offering; but his father assures him that the good God will provide a sacrifice. And so they went together, and with them we cross the trail to the other side of the picture, where the diligent father has already built an altar and has laid the wood in order. And now to the sacrifice!

Little Isaac is kneeling on a low dais supported by squat little legs or columns, He is not lying on the altar, nor is he bound as the Bible describes. His hands are outstretched, and his father, who stands behind him, holds him by the hair with his left hand, while with a huge broadsword (not a sacrificial knife), held aloft in his right hand, he is about to deal the fatal blow. The angel of the Lord swoops down upon the scene and suspends the action, uttering the injunction of the Lord that the lad is not to be harmed; for the test is complete. And, according to Genesis, "Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns." The ram of Genesis had conveniently ensnared itself for the sacrifice; but not so the ram of the woodcutter! It is doubtful whether Abraham sees it behind him, free and vigorously rampant, and apparently about to buck the old patriarch from the rear, as if to second the efforts of the angel in checking the bloody work. It is a relief to know that soon the heavy broadsword will find its way back to the scabbard, which lies beside the executioner, and that the blazing caldron in the foreground will shortly be extinguished.

The kaleidoscopic character of this illustration portraying a number of successive actions at the same time was common to this as well as far earlier periods and repeats itself in our own day in the moving picture film. On one hand the victim is being driven to the block; on the other the fatal drama is being enacted.

Another thing that strikes us in these woodcuts is the lack of proportion in the figures, the head being too large for the body, giving a rather juvenile appearance to the characters, in spite of their somber and aged visages. This proportion is a characteristic of children and hence this impression arises naturally.

According to Josephus, Isaac was twenty-four at this time, but there is no indication of his age in Genesis.

FOLIO XXIII recto

Trier (Treves) is an old city. It came into being 1947 B.C., in Abraham’s time. It was founded by Trebeta Ninus, the king’s brother, who was driven out of Assyria by Semiramis, the queen, and settled in the neighborhood of Germania, the land of the Germans. For when Ninus the Great died, Semiramis fostered a suspicion against his brother, and she became his enemy. [Semiramis and Ninus were the founders of the Assyrian empire of Ninus or Nineveh. Ninus was a great warrior who built Nineveh about 2182 BCE and subdued the greater part of Asia. Semiramis was the daughter of the fish-goddess Derceto of Ascalon in Syria by a Syrian youth; but being ashamed of her weakness, she made away with the youth and exposed her infant daughter. But the child was miraculously preserved by doves, who fed her till she was discovered by the shepherds of the neighborhood. She was brought up by the chief shepherd of the royal herds, whose name was Simmas, and from whom she derived her name of Semiramis. Her beauty attracted one of the king’s generals, who married her. He subsequently sent for his wife to join him where the Assyrians were engaged in the siege of Bactra, which they had long endeavored in vain to take. Upon her arrival in camp she planned an attack upon the citadel of the town, mounted the walls with a few brave followers, and obtained possession of the place. Ninus was so charmed with her beauty and bravery that he resolved to make her his wife; whereupon her unfortunate husband put an end to his life. By Ninus, Semiramis had had a son Ninyas, and on the death of Ninus she succeeded him on the throne. Her fame overshadowed that of her husband, and later ages loved to tell of her marvelous deeds and heroic achievements. She built numerous cities and erected many wonderful buildings. Besides conquering many nations of Asia, she subdued Egypt and a great part of Ethiopia, but was unsuccessful in an attack upon India. After a reign of 42 years she resigned the sovereignty to her son Ninyas, and disappeared from the earth, taking her flight to heaven in the form of a dove. Probably Semiramis was originally a Syrian goddess, perhaps the same who was worshipped at Ascalon as Astarte, or Aphrodite, to whom the dove was sacred. Hence the stories of her voluptuousness, which were current even in the time of Augustus.]

After the entire country beyond the Rhine had been subjugated by Emperor Julius, he appointed a proconsul and a collector of taxes or tribute, who remained there during the Roman rule. The city of Trier was always wealthy and rich in its possessions, and a venerable and honored principality among the five Belgian cities. Its archbishop holds high rank among the seven electors of the Roman Empire. There are many proofs of its antiquity, among them a Latin inscription discovered in our time, which mentions the above named Trebeta and Semiramis. There also may be seen a place of wonderful construction, resembling Babylonian masonry, made of baked tiles so strong that even now it is invulnerable to the enemy, and cannot be broken by any kind of implement. The citizens of the city are universally respected for their manners, elegance, and laws by the merchants who constantly come there to trade and to establish commercial relations. In consequence of the proximity of Trier to Germany, the people speak the German language, and in taste, conduct, and seriousness in war there is but little difference between them. Among the Gauls they are considered exceptionally powerful, and are esteemed for their cavalry and infantry. Here also may be seen a gate made of incredibly large stones, fastened together with iron; also the body of St. Simeon, and that of the worthy Bishop Popionus, in the church he founded. This city first received the gospel of Christ from Bishop Valerius, St. Peter’s disciple, and it was later enlightened by St. Paulinus, the holy man, also a bishop there, who was afterward exiled by Emperor Constantius for his Christian faith; and he suffered in exile to the time of his death, finally receiving the crown of martyrdom in Frisia. There also flourished Bishop Maximus, by whom Pope Anastasius was honorably received when pursued by the Emperor Constantius. Here also flourished Bishop Nicenus, a man of perfect holiness, and many others &c.

Trier or Treves (respectively the German and French names) is a cathedral city on the Moselle River in western Prussia. It was originally a Roman colony, named Augusta Treviorum after the emperor Augustus. It became an imperial free city in the sixteenth century. The ancient city stood on the right bank of the river, and, under the later empire, was one of the most flourishing Roman cities north of the Alps. It was the capital of Belgica Prima. The Belgae were one of three great people into which Caesar divided the population of Gaul. They were bounded on the north by the Rhine, on the west by the Ocean, on the south by the Sequana (Seine) and Matrone (Marne) and on the east by the territory of the Treveri. They were of German origin, and had settled in this country, expelling or reducing to subjection its former inhabitants. They were subdued by Caesar after courageous resistance.

After the division of the Roman world into four districts by Diocletian (292 CE) Trier became the residence of the Caesar who had the government of Britain, Gaul, and Spain. Here dwelt Constantine Chlorus and his son Constantine the Great, as well as several subsequent emperors. The modern city still contains many interesting remains. The most important of these is the Porta Nigra, or Black Gate, a large and massive building in an excellent state of preservation. There are also extensive remains of Roman baths, of the amphitheatre, and of the palace of Constantine. The piers of the bridge over Moselle are likewise Roman. The Treveri were a powerful people in Gallia Belgica.

ILLUSTRATION
The City of Treves

7-9/16" x 8-7/8"

This landscape, entitled "Trier," appears here for the first time; but it will do service for other cities and towns in the future. It is located on a sea or a river, which we may assume to be the Moselle. Although it has all the earmarks of a well-fortified European medieval city, the huge dome at the right, surmounted with a crescent, tends to confuse this first impression. Are we really on the Moselle, or is this the Bosporus? To the right of this structure is a pillar-shaped tower surmounted with a strident figure carrying a staff, or it may be a fork; for the figure itself appears to have horns. It is a comfort to assume that this is a statue, for another step or two would be suicidal. To the left of the dome, and hugging it rather closely, is a Catholic church, whose many-storied bell tower vies with the crescent in its aerial aspirations. From this part of the city a road leads upward to a fort or castle whose upper reaches are made accessible by a ladder. Although we see no one about except the lively figure on the pedestal, the town must be well populated, for it is well supplied with residences, all gabled. There is also a generous supply of city gates. Over one of these is a shield, but its field is blank, adding to the general utility of the woodcut. To the extreme left, beyond the formidable city wall is open country, suggesting the fields from which the citizens no doubt receive their sustenance. The principal gate, flanked by towers is made accessible by a rather precarious and meager plank bridge. Two other gates give access by water.

FOLIO XXIII verso

Damascus is the first city and a principal one of Assyria. Of all the cities of Asia it is about the oldest. According to the Holy Scriptures, it is supposed to have been founded by the servants of Abraham. It has fields. By nature its soil is dry and unproductive. It is supplied with water by means of aqueducts. By this means the soil is irrigated and made very productive, and where shaded by foliage, it is most excellent. A lone small river flows by the walls and battlements. A small tongue of land, extending behind the battlements, is covered with a growth of most luxuriant vegetation. This estimable city is removed from Jerusalem by a six days journey. In it the apostle St. Paul received baptism. Near by is the place where he saw a strong light from heaven, and heard a voice, ‘Saul (Paul), why do you persecute me?’ After his baptism he preached the Lord Christ in the Jewish synagogues. Because of the secret animosity of the Jews he escaped over the walls in the night by means of a basket.[The journey to Damascus was the turning point in Saul’s life. Until then he had been a zealous Jew, determined with all the ardor of youth to uphold the traditions of his fathers. As a young man he acquiesced in the stoning of Stephen, holding the clothes of those who murdered him. He persecuted the Christians in Jerusalem, and thereafter secured authority from the high priest to go to Damascus to arrest all the disciples, and to bring them bound to Jerusalem. As he approached the city he was struck by a blinding light, and he heard the voice of Christ as stated by the chronicler. He was led into Damascus and there instructed and baptized by Ananias. Immediately he confessed Christ in the synagogues of Damascus and retired into Arabia for spiritual preparation. He returned to Damascus while the deputy or ethnarch of the Nabataean king Aretas held the city, and Paul was persecuted there, making his escape over the walls of the city as the Nuremberg chronicler has already stated. ] And there is still to be seen to this day the house of Ananias from whom St. Paul received baptism. This city suffered much by opposition and attack. At last King Conrad undertook a crusade into Asia, and he brought three Christian princes, a cardinal who was also a legate, and the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and many bishops, before Damascus. Our princes, pursuant to wise counsel, laid siege to the city; but it was fortified by high and stout battlements so that it could not be taken by force. Yet, in a short time it might have been captured; for had the water required by the inhabitants been cut off, they would not have been able to sustain the cattle and horses which they may have taken into the city for defense and sustenance; and the city wells would have proven inadequate for so large a population. Now as the inhabitants feared that the secret ducts and hidden drains that supplied them would be cut off, and the wells become polluted, there came among them an Assyrian of arch cunning. He received money from the Damascans, and he advised the Christian kings to remove their forces to another place, and to besiege it if the inhabitants resisted. And as this change took place, the Damascans were again able to use their water supply; and they so fortified themselves that the river was again in their power and its use denied our people. In consequence it was no longer available for bringing up supplies, resulting in a shortage of scarcity of food and sustenance. Thereby the siege was broken up and the kings, Conrad and Ludwig, led their forces into Europe and came home in the year of our Lord one thousand and fifty-two.[Damascus is an exceedingly ancient city, being first mentioned in the history of Abraham’s pursuit of the defeated kings (Genesis 14:15), for which reason, no doubt, the chronicler had introduced it in his Third Age of the World, which begins with Abraham. It was also the birthplace of Eliezer, the old patriarch’s steward (Genesis 15:2). Josephus ascribes its foundation to Uz, a grandson of Shem. It was the capital of Syria during the Hebrew monarchy, and the Syrian king is called the king of Damascus. In the annals of Christianity it is noted for the conversion and first preaching of Paul. It is situated about 60 miles from the Mediterranean and at the extremity of the great desert of El-Hauran. It is surrounded by a wall, which is, however, in a ruinous state of decay, and scarcely defines the limits between the city and its suburbs. The Crusaders never succeeded in firmly establishing themselves at Damascus. The bulk of the city is set along the main stream of the Barada River. On its approach to the city walls the river has much of its water drawn off through channels, by which it is conveyed to every corner of the city. Despite various drawbacks, her rich streams, bursting, as they do, on the very edge of the desert, and creating a delicious verdure, have won for Damascus the name of the earthly Paradise of the Arab world. It is an indispensable harbor of refuge in the desert; the market of the nomads, the outpost of the Mediterranean world. She has survived wars and changes of empire that have overthrown or reduced to poverty every other great city of that part of the world. This is due to the combination of a rich fertility with a position so forward on the desert.]

ILLUSTRATION
The City of Damascus

5-5/8" x 8-7/8"

Another medieval city, located on a promontory, and surrounded by a wall. There is nothing about it that shouts ‘Middle-Eastern’. It might pass for Nuremberg, but never for Damascus. The salvation of this little town is well provided for in the two large churches. The first is provided with a single tower and two crosses; the second, with two towers, but no denominational symbols. In spite of its frowning walls, it seems a more cheerful place than the landscapes that have gone before. The artist was here surer of his architecture. There is no confusion of building styles. There is considerable vegetation.

FOLIO XXIIII recto

Hispania had its origin after the time of Tubal, from Peleg, his son.[According to Peleg was not a son of Tubal, but of Heber, the ancestor of the Hebrews. Tubal, on the other hand, was a son of Japheth. Josephus identifies Tubal with the Iberians, who once dwelt between the Caspian and Black Seas. Some of the Iberians settled in the east, some in the west.] For he went out of Armenia and established a seat there. Before that Hispania was also called Iberia. It is the region that begins at the Pyrenees and proceeds about the Pillars of Hercules and reaches up to the northerly sea. Everything within this circumference is considered as belonging to Hispania. Its size is unbelievable (as Apianus, the historian, states), for it is 10,000 eighths of a mile[10,000 furlongs.] wide, and almost as long. Various peoples of different names have lived there. This region also has many navigable waters, and is productive and rich in wheat, wine, oil, metals of all kinds, and animals that are serviceable to man. In particular, it produces an over-abundance of swift and sturdy horses. For three hundred years Hispania was warred upon by Scipio, Gracchus, Albinus, Cato, Metellus, Pompey the emperor, and others, and was by them added to their country.[The Cantabri were a people in northern Spain. The Romans originally gave this name to all the people on the north coast of Spain; but when they became better acquainted with the country, the name was restricted to the people bounded on the east by Astures and on the west by the Autrigones. The Cantaberi were a fierce and warlike people, and were only subdued by Augustus after a struggle of several years (25-19 BCE).] And finally the people called the Cantabri were warred against by Augustus. But as Hispania appeared obedient to the Romans and gave them assistance, the latter never conducted a war of note against the Hispanic knights. And to this day there are still to be seen in Hispania many indications of the presence of the Romans. Many cities in Hispania were garrisoned by the Romans from time to time. From this country we have not only received Quintillian, Seneca, Lucan, Lucius Florus, Pomponius Mela, Silius, Italicus, Martial, Orosius,[ (1) Quintillian, Marcus Fabius (c. 35-95 CE), Roman rhetorician, was a native of Calagurris, Spain, and for 20 years head of the foremost school of oratory in Rome. His greatest work, , is a manual on the training of public speakers. (2) Seneca, Lucius, Annaeus (3 BCE-65 CE) Roman philosopher, statesman and author, and his father, M. Annaeus Seneca, were both natives of Cordova, Spain. (3) Lucan, M. Annaeus, was also born at Cordova, 39 CE His father, L. Annaeus Mela, was a brother of Seneca, the elder. Lucan was a roman poet. His only extant production is a heroic poem in ten books, entitled "Pharsalia." He was sentenced to death by Nero at the age of 26, but followed the example of his uncle Seneca, opening his veins. Both died 65 CE. (4) Lucius (Annaeus) Florus, Roman historian of the time of Trajan and Hadrian, complied, chiefly from Livy, a brief sketch of the history of Rome to 25 BCE, entitled . It is a rhetorical panegyric of Rome’s greatness. Although not accurate, it was much used in the Middle Ages. Florus was of the family of Seneca and Lucan. (5) Pomponius Mela was the author of the first Roman treatise on geography, , a mere compendium of less than a hundred pages, dry in style and deficient in method, but of pure Latinity and occasionally relived by pleasing word pictures. It is the only treatise on the subject in classical Latin. He dives the earth in five zones, only two being habitable, and asserts the existence of indigenous peoples, who inhabit the southern temperate zone, inaccessible to the people of the northern temperate regions by reason of the unbearable heat of the intervening torrid zone. Nothing is known of him except name and birthplace—the small town of Tingentera of Cingentera, Spain. (6) Silius Italicus, Roman poet, was born about 25 CE, but where is not known. His great work was a heroic poem in 17 books, entitled , which has descended to us in its entirety. It is a dull, heavy work, treating of the second Punic war. (7) Martial (M. Valerius), the epigrammatical poet, was born at Bilbilis, Spain, 43 CE. His extant works consist of a collection of short poems, all include under the general appellation . They are a copious source of information on Roman customs and habits during the first century of the empire. (8) Orosius, Paulus, was a Spanish presbyter and Latin historian (c. 390-430 CE) His , and , are still extant. The pagans having been accustomed to complain that the ruin of the Roman Empire must be ascribed to the wrath of the ancient deities whose worship had been abandoned, Orosius composed his history to demonstrate that the world always has been the scene of calamities as great as the Empire was then suffering.] the teachers and writers, but also such most useful and brilliant rulers as Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the Theodosii in pagan times. But to the honor of Christ, Hispania gave birth to St. Lawrence[St. Lawrence (Laurentius) was one of the Christian martyrs. The basilica reared over his tomb is still visited by pilgrims. Deacon of Pope Sixtus II, he was called upon by the judge to bring forth the treasures of the church committed to his keeping. So he produced the church’s poor people. Seeing his bishop being led to punishment, he cried: "Father! Where do you go without your son? Holy priest! Where do you go without your deacon?" Sixtus prophesied that Lawrence would follow him in three days; and so he did, being burned alive on a gridiron. In the midst of his torments he addressed the judge with these ironical words: "Assum est, versa et manduca" (I am roasted enough on this side; turn me round and eat). So says the legend. The date of the martyrdom is usually put during the persecution of Valerian in 258. The punishment of the gridiron and the speech of the martyr are probably a reminiscence of the story of the Phrygian martyrs as related by Socrates (III, 5). But even the fact of the martyrdom is questioned.] and St. Vincent,[St. Vincent (or Vincentius) was also a deacon and martyr. He is said to have been born of noble parents in Spain and educated by Valerius, bishop of Saragossa, who ordained him to the diaconate. Under the persecution of Diocletian, Vincent was arrested and taken to Valencia, tortured and thrown into prison. There the angels visited him, lighting his dungeon and relieving his suffering. Seeing this, his warders became Christians. He died while new tortures were being prepared. His body, exposed to the wild beasts in vain, was thrown into the sea, but was recovered and buried.] Valerius’ deacon, and at almost the same time to Eugracia and other martyrs without number. Ferdinand, the king, and Elizabeth, the queen, have followed in their footsteps, and in the year 1491, in the end of that year, they brought the great city of Granada, called Ilupula, to the worship of Christ and to Christian obedience. [In 1482 Boabdil deposed his father and became the last Moorish sultan of Granada. However, the gradual advance of the Christians under Ferdinand and Isabella (not Elizabeth) forced him to entrust the task of defense to the more warlike hands of Muley Hassan and Ez Zagal (1483-86). Finally in 1491 Boabdil was compelled to sign away his kingdom, and on January 2, 1492, the year before the Nuremberg Chronicle was published, the Spanish army entered Granada and the Moorish power in Spain was ended.]

The kingdom of Bohemia had its origin in the Wendic people,[The term ‘Wendic’ is here used by the chronicler in the sense of Slavic, that is, to designate a class of the northern division of the Aryan family, embracing the Lettic and Slavonic branches or groups. Wends is an early German name applied to the Lusitanian branch of the Slavic race dwelling in Saxony and Prussia.] who left the plain of Shinar and migrated from Asia to Europe. Among them was one Cechus, a Croation of no mean birth, and he made a nation of the Bohemians. At that time Bohemia was not built up, but still consisted of forests and coarse vegetation better suited to wild animals than to man. But as his brother Lech, a companion to misfortune, saw that his brother had become rich in lands and cattle and had grown powerful, he migrated eastward and established his residence in a large open plain. And he called the region Poland.[Cech and Lech were brothers and the original ancestors of the Bohemians (Czechs) and the Poles (Lechs). Bohemia is the Latin name for Cechy.] As their progeny increased they acquired a large amount of territory. After the death of Cechus the people chose Crok as a prince. He built a castle at Stenna, and when he died he left three daughters, Libussa, Brela and Therba. Libussa, the oldest daughter, ruled the land after her father’s death, and she fortified the castle called Vischerat (Wyschehrad). Brela was a physician, learned in herbs and medicines. Therba was a seeress and mistress of good fortune. But the Bohemians thought it unreasonable that so much power and might should be vested in a woman. On a certain occasion Libussa spoke to a large assembly of her people. ‘I have ruled considerately and wisely, and now you shall be free. I will give you a man who will be of service to you. Go and lead my horse into the fields. Follow it where it may go. At least the horse will stop before a man who is eating from an iron table. He shall be my husband and a lawful prince.’ Now as the horse was released, it finally stopped before a plowman, called Primislaus. He had reversed his plow and was eating his meal of cheese on the iron plowshare, which was the iron table. They made him a duke and set him upon a horse. And he took with him his shoes made of flax. When they asked him why he took these with him, he replied and said, ‘I am taking them with me and will keep them at Vischerat so that my descendants may know who, among the Bohemians, received the principality.’ For a long time thereafter this country was ruled by dukes. And thereafter, since the time of the Emperor Frederick the First, of great glory among kings, and until the outbreak of heresy, this country flourished under various kings and emperors.

The early history of the Czechs is very obscure and confused with that of the Slavs in general. Cosmas of Prague (1045-1125), not to be confused with Cosmas of Alexandria, was the earliest Bohemian historian. His Chronicae Bohemorum libri III , which contains the history and traditions of Bohemia almost to the time of his death, has earned him the title of the Herodotus of his country. He relates that Cechus, a noble of Croatia (probably White Croatia or Galicia), having committed a homicide, fled with his followers to Bohemia, and first settled on the Rip Mountain, near Roudnice; that Libussa, the youngest (our chronicler says the oldest) of his three daughters, became ruler of Bohemia, founded Prague, and married a plowman, who became the founder of the Premyslides, or first native dynasty.

It is probable that the Slavs arrived in Bohemia, which was then inhabited by Germanic tribes, not later than the seventh century CE, or perhaps earlier. They are first mentioned in 805 CE, and the first certain historical state in these provinces is the kingdom of Great Moravia, destroyed by the Magyars in 904-905. While Slovakia now passed under Magyar rule, the Czechs founded the kingdom of Bohemia, which for centuries was among the most powerful and glorious in Europe. During this early period the religious movement among the Czechs, under the leadership of John Huss, influenced all Europe.

FOLIO XXIIII verso

Babylon was a celebrated city in Chaldea. Although Belus, the son of Nimrod, reigned in Babylonia for many years, the kingdom remained small. Yet the Greek and Roman historians, as well as the poets, say that the city was built by Semiramis, the queen, and enlarged and fortified with a wall made of baked bricks cemented together with sand, pitch and lime. The earth there contains these materials. This city was so noble that all Chaldea and Mesopotamia were named after it. The wall (as Philostratus[Philostratus (170-245) was a Greek sophist and rhetorician of Rome. He is the biographer of Apollonius of Tyana, a Greek philosopher of the Neo-Pythagorian school, born of a few years before the Christian era. The narrative of the travels of Apollonius, as given by his disciple Damis and reproduced by Philostratus, is so full of the miraculous that many have regarded him as an imaginary character. On his return to Europe from his Asiatic travels, Apollonius was received with reverence as a magician. Finally he set up a school at Ephesus, where he died, apparently at the age of 100 years. His life by Philostratus is generally regarded as a religious work of fiction. Very little is known of the career of Philostratus. He was probably born at Lemnos, studied rhetoric under Proclus and taught at Athens, and settled in Rome. He wrote a number of works in addition to his , upon which his fame chiefly rests. His is not really biographical, but consists of picturesque impressions of leading representatives. The contains matters of interest concerning the Olympian games and contests. The breathe the spirit of the New Comedy and the Alexandrine poets. Portions of 33 are almost literally translated in Ben Johnson’s Song to Selia, "Drink to me only with thine eyes."] states) is 380 times one-eighth of a mile[380 furlongs.] in circumference; but Pliny says its circumference was 64,000 paces, its thickness 50 elbows,[An obsolete measurement of length; same as cubit, being the length of the forearm measured from the elbow to the end of the middle finger, and varying from 18 to 21.888 inches; generally reckoned at 21 inches.] and its height four times as much. With its battlements, pleasure gardens, temples and towers, the city was wonderful indeed. Semiramis also brought Ethiopia under her sway; and she made war upon India, against which only she and Alexander had conducted a campaign up to that time. How Babylonia was destroyed is recorded hereafter in its proper place. The first king of the Assyrians (as Eusebius writes) was Ninus, the son of Belus. Ninus reigned 52 years, and his wife Semiramis 42 years after him; then for 38 years Sameus,[Should be Ninyas.] the son of both; and thereafter one king after another up to Sardanapalus, the 36th king, who was totally inclined to carnal excesses and audacity. Then the kingdom of Assyria was destroyed by Artus, the Mede, and added to Media in the fourth year of Azariah, the king of Judea. The duration of the kingdom of Assyria, from the first year to the last king is reckoned as 1240 years.[Sardanapalus, the last king of the Assyrian empire of Ninus or Nineveh, was noted for his luxury, licentiousness and effeminacy. He passed his time in his palace unseen by any of his subjects, dressed in female apparel, surrounded by his concubines. At length Arbaces (whom the chronicler refers to as Artus), satrap of Media, and Belesys, the noblest of the Chaldean priests, resolved to renounced allegiance to such a worthless monarch, and at the head of a formidable army advanced against Nineveh. Suddenly the effeminate prince threw off his luxurious habits, and appeared an undaunted warrior. Twice he defeated the rebels, but was at length worsted and obliged to shut himself up in Nineveh. Here he sustained a siege of two years, till at length the Tigris having undermined part of the city wall, and finding it impossible to hold out any longer, he collected all his treasures, wives and concubines, and placing them on an immense pile, set it on fire in his palace and thus destroyed both himself and them. His enemies then obtained possession of the city. The death of Sardanapalus and the fall of the Assyrian empire is dated to 876 BCE. Modern writers have shown that this narrative is mythical and must not be received as genuine history. The legend of Sardanapalus, who so strangely appears at one time as sunk in the lowest effeminacy, and immediately afterwards as an heroic warrior, has probably arisen from his being the same with the god Sandon, who was worshipped extensively in Asia, both as an heroic and as a female divinity. The name Sardanapalus is derived from that of Assur-danin-pal, the rebel son of Shalmaneser II, whose reign ended with the fall of Nineveh in 823 BCE. His character is that ascribed to Assur-bani-pal.] Item: Concerning Semiramis, Valerius Maximus[Valerius Maximus, a Latin writer, flourished in the reign of Tiberius. His narratives are loosely and irregularly arranged, and are from Roman history; but each section includes extracts from the annals of other peoples, principally the Greeks. The author’s chief sources are Cicero, Livy, Sallust and Pompeius Trogus. He often used sources now lost, and affords us some glimpses of much debated and imperfectly recorded reign of Tiberius. He intimates that this book is to be used as a commonplace book of historical anecdotes for use in the schools of rhetoric. The collection was very popular in the Middle Ages.] relates that once upon a time, when she was having her hair dressed, and it was announced to her that Babylon was defeated or repulsed, she ran with her hair half braided, to again give battle for the city; and she paid no further attention to her coiffure until she again had the city in her power. The column in the illustration shows her statue.

Jupiter, the first in heaven, and (as they say) Diei Filius,[He was not called Dieus Filius (the Son of Heaven) but Diespiter, of which Jupiter (more correctly Jup-piter) was a contraction; originally identical with divum (heaven) and pater (father). Jupiter literally means "the heavenly father." The German translation "sun of the day," is clearly incorrect. ] and otherwise called Lysania,[A corruption of Lycaeus, a certain local deity, referred to in a subsequent note (on Jupiter), being known to the Greeks as Zeus Lycaeus.] was at these times greatly esteemed in Arcadia. Because of his virtue he was given the highly renowned name of Jupiter. He traces his origin to the son of Heber, namely, Jerari,[Heber was a descendant of Shem (one of the three sons of Noah) and the father of Peleg (the ancestor of Abraham) and Joktan (the ancestor of the thirteen tribes of Joktanite Arabs). One of these thirteen sons was Jerah, and no doubt it is his stock to whom the chronicler refers as "Jerari." The chronicler’s claim that the supreme Greek deity traces his origin along Semitic lines is wrong. The Greeks traced their ancestry through Javan, one of the sons of Japheth, representing the Aryan branch of the human race. On a previous page the chronicler himself stated that of Javan came the Greeks and the Ionians (Folio XVI recto). See also Genesis 11:26.] and since he was a man of great intelligence, and observed that the Attic people were uncouth and lived almost like animals, he gave them laws and prescribed a formula of correct living and human conduct. And when he had succeeded in bringing them to observe good morals, he admonished them to worship gods and to institute altars, temples and priests. He taught them to observe the institution of lawful marriage, whereas theretofore they all had wives in common; and many other useful matters they learned from him. Now as the forest folk observed these things, and wondered therat, they came to consider him a god, called him Jupiter because of his resemblance to the planet Jupiter, which (as the astronomers say) is by nature warm and moist in due proportions, virtuous and patient, and by reason of his patience, fearless in the presence of danger. And so, because of his qualities, he was adjudged the equal of the planet and named after him. They say he is not a mundane, but celestial being. The ancients credited him with many children such as, Minerva, Apis, Sol, Diana, Mercury and seven others.

Jupiter, so called by the Romans, and the Zeus of the Greeks, was originally an elemental divinity. Being the lord of heaven (Diespiter), he was worshipped as the god of rain, storms, thunder and lightning, as well as the prince of light. The Greek Zeus was the greatest of the Olympian gods. When he and his brothers distributed the government of the world among themselves by lot, Poseidon (Neptune) obtained the sea, Hades (Pluto) the lower world, and Zeus (Jupiter) the heavens and the upper regions; but the earth became common to all. According to Homer, Zeus dwelt on Mt. Olympus, in Thessaly, which was believed to penetrate heaven itself with its lofty summit. He is called the father of gods and men, the most high and powerful among the immortals, and whom all others obey. Such was the Olympian Zeus. But mythology originally and at various places created such a god: (1) The Arcadian Zeus, who according to legend was born in Arcadia, either on Mt. Parrhasium, or on Mt. Lycaeus. Lycaon, a son of Pelasgus (heroic ancestor of the Pelasgians, the earliest inhabitants of Greece), erected a temple to Zeus Lycaeus on the mountain of that name, and instituted the festival of Lycea in his honor; (2) the Dodonaean Zeus, who possessed the most ancient oracle in Greece, at Dodona in Epirus, from which he derived his name. He was a prophetic god; (3) the Cretan Zeus, of whom Hesiod gives an account. He calls Zeus the son of Cronos and Rhea. Cronos was in the habit of swallowing his children immediately after birth, but when Rhea was about to bear Zeus, she applied to Ouranus ("Heaven") and Gaia ("Earth") for advice as to how the child might be saved. They sent her to Lyctos in Crete, requesting her to bring up her child there. Accordingly she concealed the infant in a cave of Mt. Aegaeon, and gave Cronos a stone wrapped up in cloth, which he swallowed in belief that it was his son. There Zeus was brought up on the milk of the goat Amalthea, and the honey provided by the bees of the mountain; (4) the National Hellenic Zeus, whose temple was at Olympia in Ellis. Here also Zeus was regarded as the father and king of gods and men.

In the course of time the local divinities became united in the minds of the people into one great national divinity, which is apparently not the one whom the chronicler had in mind in this narrative What he says refers to a local one, not Roman, as his use of the name Jupiter instead of Zeus might indicate—the Arcadian god; for he gives him the alias, ‘Lysania,’ a corruption of ‘Lycaeus.’ It was this god who was surnamed Lycaeus.

Certain traditions concerning one Lycaon are here enlightening. It was he who established the worship of Zeus Lycaeus in Arcadia. Some describe him, and not Zeus Lycaeus (as the chronicler would have it), as the first civilizer of Arcadia and builder of the town of Lycosura. More often he was represented as an impious king, with a large number of sons as impious as himself.

The claim of the chronicler that Jupiter was named after the planet seems improbable. It is more likely that the planets were named after the gods than that the latter were named after the former. Moreover, the very etymology of the name, as already given, would contradict such a claim. The name refers to and implies attributes of a god, and not of a planet.

ILLUSTRATION
Babylon and Babylonia

5-1/2" x 8-3/4"

This, according to the inscription, is the city of Babylon. Moreover, the Chronicle itself assures us that the serious young lady standing on the high pillar in the heart of the city, clad in regal robes, scepter in one hand and sword in the other, is none other than the warlike Semiramis herself—builder, ruler, and defender of that ancient and powerful city. These walls may not be fifty feet wide and four times as high (reckoning to every foot three fingers’ breadth beyond the ordinary measure of our foot) as Pliny states, but they do look somewhat formidable nevertheless. The stream at the right must be the Euphrates, which flowed through the ancient capital. The dome to the right of the mighty queen is probably the temple of Jupiter Belus, son of Nimrod and father of Ninus. There are other imposing structures, medieval castles, dome-shaped buildings, a watchtower with spacious timbered super-structure, two churches, etc. Note the peculiar tree, aspiring to the dizzy heights of Semiramis, and read Mark 11:12-21.

Jupiter

2" x 2"

Jupiter is differently portrayed in the Latin and German editions of the Chronicle; but in neither case is the great god portrayed according to the classical ideal and traditions.

The portrait in the German edition is that of an elderly bearded gentleman, with the proverbial cap and gown. He emerges from a floral decoration, and strangely enough makes the apostolic sing of blessing.

The portrait in the Latin edition is also not a very happy selection. This "Jupiter" is a little beyond the prime of life and heavily dressed in cap and gown suitable to a medieval merchant, rhetorician or doctor of philosophy.

Classical portraiture is entirely absent from the Chronicle.

FOLIO XXV recto

Semiramis, wife of Ninus the Great, king of Assyria, assumed the throne upon the death of her husband in the 12th year of Abraham. She reigned 42 years. When Ninus died he left him surviving Semiramis, still a young woman, and their only son, Ninyas, who was still a child. She did not consider it wise that so young a son should rule over so great a kingdom. Although reluctant to entrust the kingdom to a minor, yet, being a woman, she did not herself dare to rule over so large a people, who were hardly obedient to a man. So, being a magnanimous woman, able and cunning, she held herself out as the son, and the son as herself; for both were persons of medium stature and of tender voice, and resembled one another in other respects. Covering her arms, limbs and head, she stepped forward according to the custom of men. In order that she might not attract too much attention in her new garb, she commanded her people to assume the same manner of dress. And so, by the disguise of her sex and through the childlike confidence of her son, she attained to royal majesty. And thereafter she accomplished great things, and feared not to disclose her practiced concealment to anyone; and everyone wondered how a woman was able to function as such and yet excel in strength as a man. But when at last she tried to tempt her son to cohabit with her, he killed her.[See earlier note on Semiramis and Ninus under Trier, Folio XXIII recto.]

Ninyas, son of Ninus the Great and Semiramis, his wife, was the fourth king of Assyria. He began his reign after that of Semiramis, his mother, in the 53rd year of Abraham; and he reigned 38 years. He silenced the wars that had wearied the kingdom during the reign of his parents. And likewise, as he had exchanged his appearance with his mother and was seldom seen by men, so he aged amidst a multitude of women.

Arius, the fifth Assyrian king, began his reign in the 21st year of Isaac, and he ruled 30 years. During this period Ishmael was born to Abraham in his 86th year, by Hagar, the Egyptian, who was his and Sarah’s maid; and from him came the race of Ishmaelites, who were thereafter called Hagarians, and finally Saracens. As Sarah, Abraham’s wife, was without children (as the Holy Scriptures say), she spoke to Abraham and said, Go in to my maid Hagar, for you may bear children by her. And as this happened, she soon conceived and thereafter bore Ishmael. At first Sarah lived him as her own son and heir of the principality. But her love waned as soon as her Isaac was born. Therefore, by her advice Ishmael and his mother were sent to another region. And when his mother provided him an Egyptian wife, he bore twelve regal sons who occupied all the earth from the Euphrates to the Red Sea.

The succeeding kings of the Assyrians gave replies to their people by messengers, in the manner of their forbears. The Assyrians, afterward called Syrians, had the kingdom 1300 years. Their last king was Sardanapalus, a man debased by effeminacy.[See earlier note on Sardanapalus, Folio XXIV verso.]

Sol was the first son of Jupiter and a brother of Minerva. As Tullius says, he was an eminent and brilliant person of dignified disposition, and the pagans, by reason of his great powers, gave him a name indicating light. For the ancients, misled by Nimrod, believed that fire was the first element of creation. Therefore they gave him the name Sol, which is translated ‘sun.’ By reason of his mysterious and ingenious ways, they considered him a celestial being, or a lord who had come down from heaven.[Helios, called Sol by the Romans, was the god of the sun. He was the son of Hyperion and Thea, and a brother of Selene and Eos. From his father he is frequently called Hyperianides, or Hyperion. Homer describes Helios as giving light both to gods and men. He rises in the East from Oceanus, traverses the heaven, and descends in the evening in the darkness of the West and Oceanus. The manner in which Helios during the night passes from the western into the eastern ocean is not mentioned by Homer, but later poets make him sail in a golden boat, round one half of the earth, and thus arrive in the East at the point from which he has to rise again. The island of Thrinacia (Sicily) was sacred to Helios, and there he had flocks of sheep and oxen, which were tended by his daughters. Temples of Helios existed in Greece in very early times. The worship of Sol was introduced at Rome, especially after the Romans had become acquainted with the East, though traces of the worship of the sun and moon occur at an early period.]

Diana, the first sister of Sol and the daughter of the first Jupiter, was held in esteem at this time. Tullius frequently mentions her in his book on the nature of the gods. But they say that she is not the one to whom the poets attribute eternal virginity. [Diana is an ancient Italian divinity, whom the Romans identified with the Greek Artemis. Her worship is said to have been introduced at Rome by Servius Tullius, who dedicated a temple to her on the Arentine; and she appears to have been originally worshipped only by the plebeians. At Rome Diana was the goddess of light, and her name contains the same root as the word dies. As Dianus (Janus), or the god of light, represented the sun, so Diana, the goddess of light, represented the moon. The attributes of the Greek Artemis were afterward ascribed to her.]

Ceres was in vogue among the Sicilians, and she was a confidant of their king. She was of such ingenuity that she was the first to introduce husbandry among the Sicilians, tamed the oxen and plowed the earth into furrows, sowed it with seed, separated the grain from the ears, ground it with millstones, and taught the making of bread. Before that time the people subsisted on acorns and wood apples. And so they called her Ceres, the Goddess of Grain. [Ceres, under the name of Demeter, one of the great divinities of the Greeks, was the goddess of the earth, and her name probably signified ‘Mother-Earth.’ She was the protectress of agriculture and of all the fruits of the earth. She was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea, and sister of Zeus, by whom she became the mother of Persephone (Prosperina). Zeus, without the knowledge of Demeter, had promised Persephone to Aïdoneus (Hades). Demeter having learned of the abduction, which had taken place with the consent of Zeus, in her anger avoided Olympus, and dwelt upon earth among men, conferring blessing wherever she was kindly received, and severely punishing those who repulsed her. As the goddess continued to be angry, and did not allow the earth to produce any fruits, Zeus first sent Iris and then all the gods to persuade Demeter to return to Olympus. But she refused to return and to restore fertility to the earth until she had seen her daughter again. Zeus accordingly sent Hermes into Erebus to bring back Persephone. Aïdoneus consented, but gave Persephone part of a pomegranate to eat. Hermes then took her to her mother at Eleusis, who received her with great joy. The earth now brought forth fruit again. The meaning of the legend seems to be aetiological. Persephone, who was carried off to the lower world, is the seed-corn that remains concealed in the ground part of the year; Persephone, who returns to her mother, is the corn that rises from the ground and nourishes men and animals. The seats of the worship of Demeter and Persephone were Attica, Arcadia, and Sicily. The Athenians pretended that agriculture was first practiced in their country, and that Triptolemus of Eleusis, the favorite of Demeter, was the first who invented the plow, and sowed corn. The Romans received from Sicily the worship of Demeter, to whom they gave the name of Ceres. Her worship acquired considerable political importance at Rome. The property of traitors against the republic was often made over to her temple. The decrees of the senate were deposited there for the inspection of the tribunes of the people.]

ILLUSTRATIONS

The illustrations on this page may be divided into two classes: (1) Three individual portraits, each approximately two inches square arranged in a column at the left; and (2) a composite 2¼" x 14" consisting of six portraits representing a portion of the lineage of the kings of Assyria.

(1) The series to the left is devoted to three mythological gods of ancient Greece: Sol, the sun, or king of light; Diana, the goddess of the hunt, and Ceres, the goddess of grain. All three are pictured as medieval characters, and none carry the symbols of their divinity.

(2) The Assyrian royal lineage began at Folio XVII recto, with portraits of Nimrod, Belus I, and Ninus, respectively the first, second and third kings, and is here continued in a panel of six sovereigns—Semiramis, Ninyas (Ninia), Arius, Mamylas, Sparetus and Amytitas. The queen, in order to show her war-like disposition, holds a formidable sword in her right hand, and a silhouetted object resembling an ornamental ‘D’ in her left. This symbol is a mystery. Possibly the woodcut was used or to be used elsewhere as an initial letter. Semiramis is spoken of at length in the text opposite the illustrations, as well as in other parts of the Chronicle. Ninyas and Arius are given brief mention. Mamylas, Sparetus and Amytitas are not referred to in the text at all. The kings all carry orb and scepter and are crowned. There is nothing special to be said about any of these portraits, except that oddly enough the beard of Arius is braided.

The Assyrian royal lineage is continued further on in the Chronicle, and most of the portraits here shown are repeated to represent other rulers.

FOLIO XXV verso and XXVI recto

[NOTE: The text of Folio XXV verso and XXVI recto as given in the Chronicle has required rearranging in order to keep the subject matter in proper sequence. In the Chronicle the illustrations to the genealogies begin on a right hand page and extend from there to the left, and the text follows the same order, as the editor apparently set himself the task of keeping text and illustrations in juxtaposition. We will therefore begin at the right (Folio XXVI recto):]

Isaac, son of Abraham, beloved of God, lived for a long time after his father. When Isaac was 60 years of age, twins, namely Jacob and Esau, were born to him by his wife Rebekah, daughter of Bethuel. Said Isaac was a very virtuous man. He died at the age of 185 years and was buried at Hebron by his sons.

Esau, the hairy huntsman, first born, sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for a portion of lentils. Without the consent of his parents he married a Canaanitish wife.[According to Genesis 26:34-35, Esau at the age of 40 took to wife Judith, the daughter of Beeri, the Hittite, and also Bashemath, the daughter of Elon, another Hittite.]His brother defrauded him of his father’s blessing; and for this Esau determined to slay his brother. But he (Esau) lived in Edom, called Idumea, and later Mt. Seir. And as Jacob returned from Mesopotamia, his brother came to him peaceably with 400 men.[This is a rather unsatisfactory abridgement of the biblical narrative. It omits the wily advice of Asenath, the wife of Isaac, that Jacob flee from his brother until Esau’s wrath had cooled (Genesis 27:42-45); Jacob’s flight to Haran (Genesis 28:10), and hence to Mesopotamia (Genesis 29:1); the fraud practiced on his father-in-law, Laban (Genesis 30:37-43 and 31:19-23); how in fear of Esau he made extensive arrangements to appease his just wrath with 200 she-goats and 20 he-goats, 200 ewes and 20 rams; 30 milch camels with their colts; 40 kine and 10 bulls, 20 she-asses and 10 foals, and had his servants drive these to Esau with fine presentation speeches (Genesis 32:13-23); how he cunningly arranged his caravan should Esau give trouble (Genesis 33:1-3), etc. What wonder that the guileless and forgiving Esau ran to meet and embrace him! Either the chronicler held a brief for Jacob, or space was too precious to tell the whole truth.]

Jacob was born in the 3394th year of the world, and lived 147 years. He had four wives, Leah (Lya), Rachel, Zilpah (Zelpha) and Bilhah (Bala).

Rachel, Jacob’s wife, was barren for a long time, but finally she had two sons and died in childbirth. She was buried near Bethlehem.

Jacob, the patriarch and most holy man, was born to Isaac, and thereafter, in this 90th year, Joseph was born to him by Rachel. He lived 56 years thereafter, and died in Egypt.

(End of Genealogical Text on FOLIO XXVI recto)

and

(Continuation of Genealogical Text on FOLIO XXV verso):

Levi was the father of all the Levites, from whom all the priesthood sprang.

Chore (Korah), son of Izhar, quarreled with Aaron concerning the priesthood, because he was the firstborn of Izhar; for which reason he and 250 men were destroyed by fire from heaven. [Korah (Chore) was the son of Izhar, grandson of Kohath, and great grandson of Levi. He was a proud and ambitious ringleader, together with others of the tribe of Reuben, against his cousins Moses and Aaron. It was a widespread political rebellion against Moses, who held the leadership, to which the tribe of Reuben, the firstborn, aspired, and from which they had been excluded. With 250 men prominent in the congregation they went to Moses and Aaron, charging them with usurpation. Moses appealed to the Lord and Korah and his men were destroyed by fire from above.]

Maria (Miriam), the sister of Moses, was a prophetess, and she made a beautiful song of praise, which she sang. She was leprous for seven days because of her murmurings against Moses. She died in Kadesh in the wilderness and was buried there. [Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron, after the passage of the Red Sea, led the choir of the women of Israel in the sublime song of deliverance (Exodus 15:20); but afterward, having joined Aaron in murmuring against Moses, she was smitten with leprosy, and restored only in answer to the prayers of Moses. She died and was buried at Kadesh, in the wilderness (Numbers 12:1-15; 20:1).]

Jacob had six children by Leah[Actually Jacob had seven children with Leah, all of which are named in the rest of the paragraph.], namely: Judah, of whom came the kingly order, and thereafter our Lord, Jesus Christ; Reuben, who lost the rights of the firstborn, Simeon and Levi, of whom came the priestly order; Issachar; Zebulun; and Dinah, who was compromised by Shechem.[Jacob on his return from Padan-aram to Canaan, halted at Shechem. Here Dinah was wronged by Shechem, son of the Prince Hamor. His offer of marriage was accepted on condition that he and all the other men in the town be circumcised. But while they were recovering, Dinah’s brothers killed all the men, pillaged the place, and made prisoners of the women and children.]

As the evil city of the Sodomites was destroyed by fire, Abraham centenarian, by divine command knew his wife, and she conceived, and when the year was full she bore him a son, whom according to divine command she called Isaac, a name meaning that many people would come of him; and he was circumcised on the eighth day after birth.

FOLIO XXVI recto

As previously stated Aegialeus reigned in Sicyonia as its first king.[Sicyonia is a small district in the northeast of Peloponnesus, bounded on the east by the territory of Corinth, Phlius and Cleonar, and on the north by the Corinthian Gulf. The area was probably somewhat less than 100 square miles. Its chief town was Sicyon, one of the oldest cities of Greece. It is said to have been originally called Aegialea after an ancient king, Aegialaus, but was finally called Sicyon. Because of its limited territory, it never attained much political importance. In the Persian war the Sicyonians sent ships to Salamis. They took part with the Spartans in the Peloponnesian war. Under the Romans it gradually declined, and in the time of Pausanias in the second century of the Christian era many of its public buildings were in ruins. Sicyon was for a long time an important seat of Greek art. It gave its name to one of the great schools of painting which was founded by Eupompus, and which produced Pamphilus and Apelles. It is also said to have been the earliest school of sculpture. The town was also celebrated for the taste and skill displayed in the various articles of dress made by its inhabitants, among which we find mention of a particular kind of shoe that was much prized in all parts of Greece.] The country was called Aegialia after him; now Peloponnesus. After him reigned Europs,[The name of two mythical personages, one a son of Aegialeus and king of Sicyon; the other a son of Phoroneus.] the second king; and the third was Telchin (Selchim) twenty years.[Perhaps this final clause should read: "and the third was Telchin (Selchim), [who ruled] twenty years.]

Apis,[Apis ruled tyrannically, and was slain by Telchin, his father, and Thelxion, his son.] the fourth king of Sicyonia, began his reign in the 45th year of Abraham and 35th year of Semiramis. He ruled twenty-five years. After him the country formerly known as Aegialia, was called Apia, and is now known as Peloponnesus.

Artus was the fifth king of the Assyrians. Under him (As Augustine writes) Isaac was born.

Thelxion, or Thessalion, was the fifth king of Sicyonia. In his reign the times were prosperous and happy; so after his death he was honored as a god, with scarifies and games. After him reigned Thauriacus, Tiramachus, at whose grave they also made sacrifices.

Xerxes (Xerses) is the ancient king of Assyria, also called Baleus, or Balancus. Under him Jacob was born. The above named Thauriacus reigned at the same time.

As one reckons 3430 years, a great flood occurred in Achaia in the time of Jacob and King Ogygus.[Ogygys, or Ogyges, sometimes called a Boeotian autochthon, and sometimes son of Boeotius, and king of the Hectanes, is said to have been the first ruler of the territory of Thebes, which was called after him Ogygia. In his reign the waters of Lake Copais rose above its banks and inundated the whole valley of Boeotia. This flood is usually called after him the Ogygian. The name of Ogyges is also connected with the Attic story, for in Attica an Ogygian flood is likewise mentioned.]

FOLIO XXVI recto and XXV verso
ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) THE LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Cont. from Folio XXI verso)

The continuation of the biblical genealogies (as resumed from Folio XXI verso) here extends over two opposite pages. It begins with Isaac and his wife, Rebekah, shown by a dual portrait at the head of Folio XXVI recto, to the left. From them a branch passes to Esau, the long hairy hunter at the right.

Another branch passes downward to Jacob, shown in a triple portrait with Leah (Lya) and Rachel, his two wives. The line proceeds through Rachel on the right to her sons, Benjamin and Joseph. And with Joseph is his wife, Asenath, and beside them their two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim; but the ten children of Joseph’s brother, Benjamin, are not shown.

Let us now follow the third or left branch, which proceeds from Jacob through Leah. There were seven children born to Leah by Jacob: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun and Dinah. They are all portrayed, except Judah, who is mentioned in the text, but has been omitted from the family album.

And there are others to be accounted for. Leah had a handmaid, Zilpah (Zelpha), and when Leah left off bearing, Jacob had sexual relations with Zilpah, and through her added Gad and Asher (Aser) to his progeny. This ancillary transaction is shown unconnected and by itself in a triple portrait at Folio XXVI recto; and there the name of Gad and Asher appear; but their mother is erroneously designated as Zelpha "ancilla Rachel." She was not the ancillary or handmaid of Rachel, but of Leah.

In like manner, when Rachel proved barren, Jacob went in unto her handmaid, Bilhah (Bala), and in time Dan and Naphtali made their appearance. She and her two sons by Jacob are shown in a disassociated triple portrait at Folio XXV verso, over which are the following inscriptions:

LEFTCENTERRIGHT
Naphtali also makes a race.Bilpah, the maid of Leah (Jacob’s wife), bore two sons.Dan made a people of whom Samson was born.

(B) THE PRIESTLY LINEAGE (Beginning)

On the left of the Folio XXV verso, commences the priestly lineage of Levi. He is shown at the top of the line in his high pontificals, while below him are his three sons, Merari (Merary), Gershon (Gerson), and Kohath (Caath), in that order. Kohath has four sons, Izhar (Ysura), Amram, Hebron and Uzziel, but only the first two appear. The first, Izhar, was married and had three sons, Korah, Nepheg, and Zichri; but Korah (Chore) alone is portrayed.

To Amram, the second son of Kohath, three children were born—Miriam, Moses and Aaron, all of whom appear and complete the family tree up to their time.

There is nothing individual about these portraits. In these times no general conception seems to have been formed of any particular person, with the exception of God and Christ. Many of these portrayals are somewhat out of tune with the characters for whom they stand. The most unfortunate selection, however, is the portrait of Moses, shown in a tight-fitting garment, as of a page, with a conical cap whose terminus is carried out like a pennant to the nth degree. Moreover, the general conception of Moses is that of a man with the head of a thinker, ample locks and the flowing beard of a Jupiter. This man is clean-shaven.

(C) THE LINEAGE OF SICYONIAN KINGS (Beginning)

At the lower left of Folio XXVI recto begins the portrait gallery of the kings of Sicyonia— Aegialeus and Thelxion (Thessalion) respectively the first and fifth kings, according to the Chronicle. The second and third kings, Europs (Europes) and Telchin (Selchim) respectively, are referred to in the text, but not portrayed. Telchin was a son of Europs, and father of Apis. Pausanius calls Thelxion a son of Apis. From this we gather that the crown passed from king to king during this period as follows: (1) Aegialeus, (2) Europs, (3) Telchin, (4) Apis and (5) Thelxion.

(D) THE ASSYRIAN LINEAGE (Cont. from Folio XXV recto)

The Assyrian line of kings was begun at Folio XVII verso, where (1) Belus and (2) Ninus were shown. On Folio XXVI recto, this was continued with (3) Semiramis (4) Ninyas and (5) Arius, making a line of five kings who were there portrayed and described. Three other mysterious celebrities appeared in the line (Folio XXV recto), entitled respectively, Mamylas, Sparetus and Amytitas; but are left without text to clear the mystery.

And now we are to resume (at Folio XXVI recto) with Artus, who being here also called the fifth king, must be identical with Arius. Only one other Assyrian king is added. He is called Xerxes, alias Baleus, or Balancus.

FOLIO XXVI verso

While Sela (Shelah), the son of Judah, was still a child, Judah did not give him Tamar, who had been the wife of Er and Onan; but he sent her back to her father’s house as a widow. But after Shelah grew up, he was concerned to provide him a wife, so that he would not be killed as his brothers had been. Tamar disguised herself as a common woman and sat at the crossroad; and she conceived by Judah, and bore Pharez and Zarah.[According to Genesis 38, Judah went down from his brethren and turned in to a certain Adullamite, named Hirah. And there he saw the daughter of a certain Canaanite, and he took her, and she conceived; and she bore him three sons, Er, Onan and Shelah. He took a wife for Er, his first born, and her name was Tamar. Er was wicked and the Lord slew him; whereupon Judah gave Tamar to Onan for wife, and asked him to marry her and to raise up seed for his deceased brother. Onan did not approve, and spilled his seed on the ground. This displeased the Lord, who slew him. This left Judah but one son, Shelah. He asked Tamar to return to her father’s house and remain a widow until Shelah should become of age, lest Shelah should also die as his brothers had. And she did so. After some time Judah’s wife, who had born him these three sons, died; and he went to his friend Hirah, the Adullamite. Tamar heard of his proposed journey, disguised herself and sat in an open place on the way. Judah saw her and thought her a harlot, because she had her face covered. He went inside with her and in consequence Pharez and Zarah were born to him by his daughter-in-law. This is the point to which the chronicler has carried the story.]

Vincentius in his history, tells a good story about Asenath—how beautiful she was, and how honorable, but also, nevertheless, proud and arrogant, disdaining all men. Although she did not want Joseph as a husband at first, yet, after observing his wisdom and discretion, she fully desired him. But he would not accede to her unless she would give up her idolatry. As this caused her much grief, she was finally converted by angelic instruction. [Asenath was the daughter of Poti-phera, priest of On. She is the heroine of a remarkable Jewish and Christian romance (dating at least back to the fifth century CE), in which she renounces her false gods before her marriage with Joseph.]

Rhodes, the city on the island of Rhodes, off Lycia, from which it derived its name, was built in 740 B.C., in Joseph’s time, by the Telchines and Carians, who soon thereafter were conquered by Phoroneus, the king of Argira. It is one of the islands called the Cyclades for reasons known to the learned. Those who first came there from the East, while the city was being built (as Pomponius writes) and the ground was being dug up, found there a rosebud, after which the city and the island were called Rhodis; for, according to the Greek tongue, Rhodis means a rose. The island is 900 furlongs in circumference. Among other wonders it contained a statue 70 cubits high, built by Lindus, a disciple of Lisippus. The city suffered much through wars, and finally at the hands of the Turks. It was finally relieved and protected by the Order of the Kings of St. John.

Rhodes is the most easterly island of the Aegean, or more specifically, of the Carpathian Sea, and lies off the south coast of Caria. According to mythology it was first peopled by the Telchines, the children of Thalatta (the Sea). Homer mentions three Dorian settlements, namely, Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus, formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which was established from a period of unknown antiquity, in the southwest coast of Asia Minor. For centuries the island of Rhodes was the constant seat of war. During the Peloponnesian war, Rhodes was subject to Athens. Later it joined the Spartans. It was subjugated by Athens and Sparta in turn, till the end of the Social War of 355 BCE, when its independence was acknowledged. There were frequent internal dissensions. At the Macedonian conquest they submitted to Alexander, but upon his death expelled the Macedonia garrison.

The city of Rhodes, successfully endured the most famous siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who at length in admiration of the valor of the besieged, presented them with the engines he had used against them, from the sale of which they defrayed the cost of the celebrated Colossus by the artist Chares of Lindus in Rhodes, the favorite pupil of Lysippus, who flourished about 290 BCE. This, his chief work, a statue of the Sun, was celebrated as one of the Seven Wonders of the World, under the title "The Colossus of Rhodes." Its height was upwards of 105 feet, and it was twelve years in the making. It stood at the entrance of the harbor of Rhodes, but there is no authority for the statement that its legs extended over the mouth of the harbor. It was overthrown and broken to pieces by an earthquake 56 years after its erection in 224 BCE. The fragments remained on the ground 923 years, until they were sold by the general of the caliph Othman IV to a Jew of Emesa, who carried them away on 900 camels in 672 CE.

The Rhodians were at length deprived of their independence by the Roman Emperor Claudius, and their prosperity received its final blow from and earthquake which laid the city of Rhodes in ruins in 155 CE. In the Middle Ages Rhodes became the seat of the celebrated Knights of St. John.

ILLUSTRATION
The City of Rhodes

7" x 8-3/4"

The kingdom of Rhodes early became a flourishing one by reason of the skill of its settlers in astronomy and navigation, and other sciences and arts. And here we have its capital jutting out into the sea. The harbor is indicated at the left, and a chain is stretched across its mouth. Three galleons are in evidence, two at sea, under full sail, the third at anchor in the harbor. A pier or wharf leads off to the right. No doubt all these crenellated walls and towers are the ideas of the artist, rather than of Hippodamus of Miletus, the architect who laid out the city in the fourth century CE. At any rate, the absence of incongruous gothic spires and steep gabled roofs is a relief. Towers there are in abundance, it is true, but they are square and flat. The roof of every building is flat. All this seems in keeping with the geographical location of the island, the easternmost in the Aegean Sea, and just off the coast of Asia Minor.

But why all these squat little windmills with their sugar-loaf caps? We see two on the pier in the foreground, four by the harbor, and one in the background. These mills are not mere figments of the imagination. No doubt they had their use in harnessing the winds as sources of power, and were specially adapted to such a location as this where the winds blow from the west, often with violence, for nine months of the year. Other artists have testified to their presence by pictorial records. And where is the great Colossus of Rhodes, 105 feet high, which was 12 years in building and one of the seven wonders of the ancient world? The text mentions it hazily, but the pen of the artist is entirely silent.

N.B. The genealogical portraits on this page, which branch from the opposite one (Folio XXVII recto) will be considered in the connection with the succeeding text.

FOLIO XXVII recto

Judas, in the year of the world 3434.

All the kings of Egypt were at this time called Pharaoh. However, this was not their own name, but one of royal distinction, just as with us all Roman emperors are called augmenters of the empire. Ever pharaoh has his own name.[Pharaoh was adopted into Hebrew from the later Egyptian title Pero-o, ‘Great House.’ Originally designating the royal establishment in Egypt, it gradually became the appellative of the king, which from the 22nd dynasty (c. 950 BCE) onwards, was regularly attached to the king’s name in popular speech. The Hebrew Pharaoh-neco and Pharaoh-hophra, and as here—Pharaoh-Mephres, are thus precise renderings from the Egyptian.]

Pharaoh-Mephres elevated Joseph because of his interpretation of Pharaoh’s dream, and he placed a ring upon Joseph’s hand, arrayed him in a vestment of fine linen, put a golden collar about his neck, and caused him to be driven through Egypt, and a crier to proclaim that all were to bend the knee to him; and he named him preserver of the world.[Not so, according to Genesis 41:45: "And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphnath-paaneah," which in the Coptic signifies ‘a revealer of secrets,’ or ‘the man to whom secrets are revealed.’] He gave him a wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potiphar, the priest of On (Heliopolis), by whom he had two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.

Phares, in the year of the world 3445.

Pharaoh-Amenophis did not know Joseph, and he ordered the children (of Israel) to be oppressed. Under him they were in great distress and severe bondage. [Exodus 1:8-22.]

Pharaoh-Anefre, the ninth king, refused to hear the voice of the Lord, commanding him to release the children of Israel.[Exodus 5:1-2.] For that reason the Lord punished him with the ten plagues[The Plagues: Exodus 7:14-25; 8:1-15, 16-19, 20-32; 9:1-7, 8-12, 13-35; 10:1-20, 21-29; 11:1-10 and 12:29-36.] and drowned him and his men in the Red Sea. [Exodus 14:27-28.]

To Joseph, the most chaste patriarch and a man of zeal, two children, Manasseh and Ephraim, were born by his wife, Asenath, daughter of Potiphar, the priest. From youth Joseph had been a lad of fine stature, and superior to his brother in moral conduct. Because of this his father loved him more than the rest. In consequence his brothers envied him, and at the age of 15, they sold him into Egypt. At the age of 30 he stood before Pharaoh. But the king’s wife was fired with passion for him, and said, Joseph, lie with me. He replied, The king has given me power over all, except you. And so that she might entice him, she represented herself to be ill because of her love for him; and she caught him by his garment. But he left it in her hand, and fled from her. Then she spoke to her husband, the king, ‘A Hebrew servant came to me to mock me;’ and she showed the king the garment. The king believed her and caused Joseph to be put into a prison.[Joseph was brought down to Egypt, and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him from the Ishmaelites, who had brought him to this place. . . And Joseph found grace in his sight, and he served him; and he [Potiphar] made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hands. . . and it came to pass that his master’s wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, Lie with me, etc. (Genesis 39:1-7). So it was not the king’s wife, but the wife of Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, who tried to entice him.] But as Joseph thereafter interpreted his dreams, and prophesied the seven fruitful and seven unfruitful years, the king released him from prison and placed him over all Egypt. And after Joseph had ruled Egypt for 80 years, and had attained the age of 110 years, he died in Egypt. When the Hebrews finally left Egypt, they took his remains with them to Canaan, the Jewish land. To this they had pledged themselves in case of Joseph’s death.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Continued).

Here the Lineage of Christ begins with Judah, fourth son of Jacob by Leah, and who was not shown in the last genealogy (Folio XXV verso). The present section of the tree begins at the upper left of Folio XXVII recto. Here appears Judah and beside him his first wife, Shuah (Sue) a Canaanite, who bore him three children, Er (Her), Onan (Onam), and Shelah (Sela), who branch off to the opposite page. It will be remembered that Judah caused his first born to marry Tamar. Upon the death of Er she was passed on to Onan, Judah’s second son; and when he, too, suffered death, she was reserved for the third son, Shelah, then still a minor. But in the meantime Tamar, in the guise of a harlot, beguiled Judah, her father-in-law, and by him she bore Pharez (Phares) and Zarah (Zaram). And so from Judah a branch proceeds downward and to the left to a portrait we find noted "Thamar wife of Er and concubine of Judah;" and to either side are her sons Pharez and Zarah.

Apparently for no other reason than that the opposite text speaks of her, Asenath (Assenach), the wife of Judah’s half-brother, Joseph, is shown here behind a scroll that curls about one of the vines.

(B) THE EGYPTIAN KINGS

To the right of Folio XXVII is a panel 2.25" x 7" portraying three kings of Egypt—Pharaoh-mephres, Pharaoh-amenophis, and Pharaoh-anefre. The first has a sword and orb; the second, both orb and scepter. Each wears a crown. There is nothing about any of them in face or feature, dress or accessories, that suggests ‘Egypt.’

(C) JOSEPH INTERPRETING PHARAOH’S DREAM

By a single woodcut (5-1/16" x 8-15/16") at Folio XXVII recto, two important incidents in the life of Joseph, far removed in point of time, are depicted. Joseph holds the center of the stage, standing before Pharaoh (at the left) interpreting his dream; while at the right is the wife of Potiphar (labeled as the wife of Pharaoh) still clinging to his flowing mantle, as she gestures him to her medieval bed-chamber. The king sits on his gothic throne in a flowing robe, wearing his crown and holding a scepter in his extended left hand. He is listening intently to Joseph. His robe is trussed up a bit exposing the action of his feet. He seems nervous and appears to be scratching the ankle of one foot with the heel of the other. On the window seat in the background sits a portly gentleman in an ample robe with a fur collar, and wearing a cap. His gesture indicates that he is introducing Joseph to Pharaoh. This must be the king’s chief butler, who apprised his master of Joseph’s ability to interpret dreams. To perform this office Joseph was brought forth from prison, and not from the bedchamber of Potiphar’s wife.

FOLIO XXVII verso

Esrom, in the year of the world 3496.

Aram, in the year of the world 3544.

Here begins the kingdom of Greece (the Argives), where Inachus, a son (as they say) of the sea and the earth, began to reign in the 60th year of Isaac, as the first king of the Greeks in Thessaly.[Inachus, son of Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Phoroneus and Aegialeus, was the first king and most ancient hero of Argos; whence the country is frequently called the land of Inachus. The ancients made several attempts to explain the stories about him. Sometimes they looked upon him as a native of Argos, who, after the flood of Deucalion, led the Argives from the mountains into the plains; and sometimes they regarded him as the leader of an Egyptian or Libyan colony, which settled on the banks of the river, to which this first king also gave his name.] This kingdom endured 544 years. However, Cecrops, the Egyptian, left the kingdom in the 94th year of the Hebrew bondage, and ruled for 50 years as the first king of the Athenians.[Cecrops, a hero of the Pelasgic race, is said to have been the first king of Attica. His son, Erysichthon, succeeded him as king of Athens. In his reign Poseidon and Athena contended for the possession of Attica, but Cecrops decided in favor of the goddess. Cecrops is said to have founded Athens, the citadel, which is called the Cecropia (Acropolis) after him. It is also said that he divided Attica into twelve communities and introduced the first elements of civilized life. He instituted marriage, abolished bloody sacrifices and taught his subjects how to worship the gods. Later Greek writers describe him as a native of Sais in Egypt, who led a colony of Egyptians into Attica, and thus introduced Egyptian art and civilization.]

Athens was a celebrated city in Attica. Cicero says it was first built by Abalandus. Plato says Amasis, the Egyptian king, built it, and that according to the Egyptian tongue he gave it a name, which in Greek is Athena. Some say that king Cecrops built it, and after the miraculous appearance of an olive tree, called it Minerva, whom the same tree symbolizes, and in the Greek tongue is called Athena. But others say it was not built by him, but came about of its own accord with increase in the population, during which time Athena was worshipped as a goddess among the people. This city was a fosterer of the liberal arts, and of many philosophers and lovers of wisdom; but through the spawning of the devil, she was a worshipper of idolatry. Augustine, in his City of God, book 18, writes sundry things about it; for instance, that while King Cecrops was building the city, water burst forth in one place, and at another an olive tree appeared. Now when Apollo, the idolatrous god,, was consulted as to the meaning of this miracle, he answered that the olive tree meant Minerva, and that the water meant Neptune; and that the citizens were free to call the city after either. So the people assembled, and the men favored Neptune, and the women, Minerva; but the women succeeded, and so the Greeks called the city Athena, which in Latin is equivalent to Minerva. This enraged Neptune, and he despoiled the land with a flood. In making their peace with Neptune the Athenians were compelled to inflict a triple punishment upon their wives: Firstly, that they should never again be present in the common councils; secondly, children born thereafter should not be named after their mothers; thirdly, no one should name his daughter Athena. Their seventeenth and last king was Cordus, in the time of Samuel. And although this city was once upon a time very mighty and celebrated, it is now a little city without distinction, which a Florentine surrendered to Mohamed; for although he long sought the aid of Italy, he did not succeed in getting it.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) INACHUS

A small portrait of Inachus, about 2 inches square, appears in the upper lefthand corner. He wears a crown and has his scepter in hand. There is nothing distinctive about it; but then, who can say how a mythical Greek king should look?

(B) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Cont.)

At Folio XXVII recto, Pharez, the fourth son of Judah, was cut off without issue. But as already noted, Pharez (or Perez) had two sons, Hezron and Hamul. The importance of Pharez lies in the fact that he was the ancestor of David through Boaz and Ruth, and then of Christ. His descendents were in all probability the most numerous among the families of Judah; hence the blessing of the elders on Boaz: ‘Let thy house be like the house of Perez’ (Ruth 4:12). From Hezron, his first son, came Jerahmeel, Ram and Caleb, and through Ram was traced the line of the royal house of David.

So now, to continue the lineage of Pharez, we have here (Folio XXVII verso) Esrom (Hezron), his first born, and Aram (Ram), the first born of Hezron. Hamul, the second son of Pharez, has been discarded; as have also Jerahmeel and Caleb, the other sons of Hezron.

(C) ATHENS

The City of Athens is here represented by the same woodcut that has already done service for the city of Themiscyra, the capital of the Amazons (Folio XIX verso); and of course we look in vain for the Acropolis, and the numerous temples, buildings and monuments that reflect the splendor of the ancient city.

FOLIO XXVIII recto

Minerva, most celebrated of women, appeared on Lake Tritonitis in the 58th year of Isaac. She was also called Pallas after Pallante, an island of Thrace, where she was reared; or after Pallas (Pallante) the giant whom she slew. She was Jove’s eldest daughter, and among the barbarous Africans made many discoveries until then unknown; for which reason, not only the Africans, but the Greeks as well, believed Minerva to have been born without a mother out of the head of Jove, for her ancestry was unknown. She was the first to invent spinning in wool, then unknown to man; and how to cleanse the wool and to comb it with an iron comb; and she taught them how to spin it. In this manner she invented weaving, and the wool-makers, cloth-makers and weavers (as Ovid testifies) set aside a holiday in memory of the time when Minerva flourished. She also discovered and taught the use of oil, then unknown to man. She is also (as Cicero says) called the goddess of wisdom and the discoverer of the arts. As her renown and reputation spread far and wide, a number of temples were erected to her, particularly at Rome, near the Temple of Jove.[Athena, or Minerva, as the Romans call her, was one of the great divinities of the Greeks. She was surnamed Trito or Tritogenia, which is explained in different ways. Some derive it from Lake Tritonis, in Libya, near which she is said to have been born; others from the river Triton in Boeotia, where she was worshipped, and where according to some, she was born. Pallene is a township in Attica, a few miles southwest of Marathon. It possessed a temple of Athena, surnamed ‘Pallenis’ from the place. Later tradition relates that she sprang from the head of Zeus with a mighty war-shout and in full armor. Another tradition regarded her as the daughter of Pallas, the winged giant whom she afterward killed when he attempted to violate her chastity. According to another story she was carried to Libya and called the daughter of Poseidon and Tritonis. These legends vary, but by general belief she was the daughter of Zeus. As protectress of agriculture Athena is said to have invented the plow and rake, created the olive tree, taught husbandry, and the taming of horses. She was the patron of science, art and industry, inventing numbers, the trumpet, chariot, and navigation. She was believed to have invented nearly every kind of work in which women were engaged. Tiresias lost his eyesight for having seen her in the bath. For this reason, the ancient traditions always describe her as clothed.]

Armaniter (as Augustine states) was the eighth king of the Assyrians, at the time when God appeared to Isaac and promised him the things that he had also promised his father Abraham.

Prometheus flourished at this period in Arcadia—a man of keen intelligence and great experience, who taught the awkward and uncouth people refined customs and manners. He was the first to form images of people out of the earth, and he made them so real that a spirit seemed to move within them. And as he lived in the highest mountains of the Caucasus and learned astronomy, he first taught it to the Assyrians. He was the first to strike fire from rock; and he originated the custom of wearing a ring (but of iron) on the fourth finger, in honor of the arteries of the heart. But after the lapse of time the Romans promulgated a law to the effect that freemen and citizens wear rings of gold; the children of freemen, rings of silver, and the servants rings of iron.

Ancient legends relate that Prometheus had created man out of earth and water, either at the very beginning of the human race, or after the flood of Deucalion, when Zeus is said to have ordered him and Athena to make men of the mud, and the winds to breathe life into them. Prometheus is said to have given to men a portion of all the qualities possessed by all the other animals. For a trick that Prometheus attempted to play upon Zeus, the latter punished mortals by withholding fire from them, but Prometheus stole it in and gave it to men. Thereupon Zeus chained him to a pillar, where an eagle consumed his liver in the daytime, and it was restored in each succeeding night. Another legend is to the effect that Prometheus ascended into heaven, and there secretly lighted his torch at the chariot of Helios in order to bring the fire down to man. Prometheus had a sanctuary in the Academy, from whence a torch race took place in his honor.

From Asia legends concerning rings and ring lore were introduced into Greece. The classical derivation of the ring was attributed to Prometheus who, having incurred the wrath of Zeus, was compelled to wear on his finger an iron ring, to which was attached a fragment of the rock of the Caucasus.

In the reign of Belocus, the ninth king of Assyria, the Lord talked to Jacob and promised him the things which he had promised his forefathers, namely, possession of the land of Canaan, and blessing of all the people that were his seed, which is Christ. Belocus reigned 36 years.

Atlas was a great stargazer and so learned in astronomy that it was said that he carried the heavens on his shoulders. [Atlas was a brother of Prometheus, and with the other Titans made war on Zeus. Being conquered, he was condemned to bear heaven on his head and hands. The myth seems to have arisen from the notion that lofty mountains supported the heavens. Later traditions metamorphosed Atlas into the mountain. Thus Ovid relates that Perseus came to Atlas for shelter, which being refused, Perseus, by means of the head of Medusa, changed him into Mt. Atlas, on which rested heaven with all its stars. Others represent Atlas as a king who possessed great knowledge as to the courses of the stars, and who was the first to teach men that heaven had the form of a globe. Hence the expression that heaven rested on his shoulders was regarded as figurative speech. At first the story referred to but one mountain; but as geographical knowledge extended, the name of Atlas was given to others, and so we read of Mauretanian, Italian, Arcadian and a Caucasian Atlas. The general opinion, however, was the heaven bearing Atlas was in northwestern Africa, the range that covers the surface of North Africa between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert.]

Baleus was the 10th king of the Assyrians, under whom Isaac died; and he reigned 52 years during the time of Mesapus, the 9th king of the Sicyonians.

Apollo invented the harp and conceived the art of medicine, which his brother Aesculapius later enlarged upon. He vanished in a flash of lightning. Apollo, also called Delphi, was regarded as an enlightened and highly respected man, and after his death was considered a god. He was called a god of prophecy and wisdom; and he was a discoverer of the art of medicine, and the first to know the power of herbs, as Ovid writes of him.[Apollo was one of the great divinities of the Greeks. He was a twin brother of Artemis, the Roman Diana. Although all sudden deaths were believed the result of his arrows, he was also able to deliver men, if duly propitiated. From being the god who affords help, he is regarded as the father of Aesculapius, the god of healing. As the god of prophecy he had different oracles, especially at Delphi. He was the god of music and is said to have invented the flute and lyre. ]

Annichus was the 12th king of the Assyrians, and under him Joseph died while Plemmius the 11th king of the Sicyonians reigned.

Jupiter was also proclaimed as a god, and in his honor the foolish people sacrificed an ox. He was the first of the upper element of fire, and (as they say) a sun by day. His personal name was Lisania (Zeus Lycaeus) and he was highly honored in Arcadia at this time. By reason of his virtuous conduct he was given the very celebrated name of Jove. He was of a noble race in Arcadia. They say he had been at Athens and was a man of great intelligence; that he provided wholesome laws and rules of moral conduct for the coarse people of the country, who lived under beastly conditions. And he influenced them to worship gods, and set up temples and priests. And he taught them many other useful things. This barbarous primitive people marveled at his accomplishments and worshipped him as a god. And they called him Jupiter, and soon made him a king.[A repetition of what was said at Folio XXIV verso]

Saffeus was the 19th king of the Assyrians, and under him Moses was born in Egypt, while Orthopolis was the 12th king of Sicyonia and Criseus reigned as the 5th king of the Greeks.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) GODS OF GREECE AND ROME

In the first panel, at the left, are some of the pagan gods of Greece and Rome: Minerva, with her weaving implement; Prometheus, with his ring of iron, set with a stone, but large enough for a bracelet; Atlas, "the giant" holding a quarter section of a circle inscribed with numerals, probably emblematic of his astronomical accomplishments; Apollo, strumming on his lyre, and Jupiter without symbols of any kind, except a few mysterious signs inscribed on the collar of his hairy coat. He is certainly not the same god to whom we were introduced at Folio XXIV verso. He also posed for us once before as "Jareth, Enoch’s son" (Folio X recto). This may or may not be his farewell appearance.

(B) ASSYRIAN LINEAGE (Continued)

Another line of Assyrian kings—Armaniter, Belocus, Baleus, Annichus and Saffeus. Each one has an orb and a scepter. All but one wear crowns. Baleus wears a plumed hat. All look aggressive except the weary Armaniter, who portrays the old adage that "Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown."

FOLIO XXVIII verso

Lacedemonia (Lacedaemon) was a city in the land of Litaonie (Laconia, Laconica, or Loconice), in Achaea, and it was built by Lacedaemon, the son of Jove, of which Greece has its name. The same city was also called Sparta. But Herodotus states that Lacedemonia was a country, and Sparta was a city in it; yet the names have been used interchangeably. Justinus states why it was called Sparta and he says the people called Spartans had their beginning in the 50th year of King Ozie, after the death of Althumenis,[Probably Althemenes, son of Catreus, king of Crete. In consequence of an oracle that Catreus would lose his life at the hands of one of his children, Althemenes left Crete and went to Rhodes. There he unwittingly killed his father, who had come in search of his son.] the king of the Lacedaemonians, and after the destruction of their kingdom. And Cicero writes of the Spartan virgins, who were more assiduous in the development of their bodies for the action of knighthood, than in the acquisition and birth of children. Therefore (as Virgil states), they were also to be distinguished from others by the manner of their dress. The first king of the Lacedaemonians was Eurystheus,[Legendary king of Argos.] a Greek, in the 98th year of Abraham. Agesilaus[Agesilaus I, was the sixth king of the Agid line at Sparta, excluding Aristodemus. According to Apollodorus, he reigned forty-four years, and died in 886 BCE. Pausanius makes his reign a short one, but contemporaneous with the reign of Lycurgus.] was their 6th king, and he, by reason of his exemplary conduct is worthy of immortality. He descended from Hercules and conquered the land in his youth. He was a man of fidelity and faith. Lycurgus[Lycurgus was the reputed founder of the Spartan Constitution. About him it is not possible to make a single statement that is not called into question. Many scholars, indeed, suppose him to be in reality a god or hero. If this is so, he is probably to be connected with the cult of Apollo Lycius or that of Zeus Lycaeus. Tradition agrees in placing him in the 9th century.] was a prince and lawgiver of the Lacedaemonians, and a highly enlightened man. Among the learned he was looked upon as a man of high esteem. Concerning him, Plutarch, Valerius, Justinus and Aristotle have written much.

Laconia, Laconica, or Lacedaemon, in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese, is referred to by Homer only under the latter name, which is its most ancient one. He applies it to the city as well as to its capital. The usual name as found among the Greek writers, was Laconica, though the form Lacedaemon also continued to be used. The Romans called the country Laconica, Laconice, and Laconis. These names are applied to the whole free population of Laconia, both to the Spartan citizens and the Perioeci, old Achaean inhabitants who had become tributary to the Spartans and possessed no political rights. The Helots were also a portion of the old Achaean population; but they had been reduced to a state of slavery.

The Lacedaemonians are said to have derived their name from a mythical hero, Lacon, or Lacedaemon, their progenitor. The plain of Sparta is the very heart of the country, and accordingly, it was at all times the seat of the ruling class; and from it the whole country received its name. The city of Sparta was located on the right bank of the Eurotas (Iri), about twenty miles from the sea. The nearest modern town in the neighborhood is Mystra. During the flourishing times of Greek independence Sparta was never protected by a wall, since the bravery of its citizens, and the difficulty of access, were supposed to render such defenses unnecessary. Walls were not girded about it until the time of the Romans.

Sparta is said to have been founded by Lacedaemon, son of Zeus and Taygete, who married Sparta, the daughter of Eurotas, and called the chief city after the name of his wife.

From various causes the Spartans became distracted by internal quarrels, until at length Lycurgus, who belonged to the royal family, was selected by all those involved to give a new constitution to the State. This document laid the foundation for Sparta’s greatness; for she soon became aggressive and extended her sway over the greater part of the Peloponnese. Within later years this supremacy passed to Athens, then back to Sparta, then to Thebes, and finally to Philip of Macedon.

Mercury was experienced in many arts. These he taught the people, and was regarded as a god. All the poets write that he was the first messenger and interpreter of the gods. He was also the god of eloquence and the patron of merchants. He was also the messenger of thieves and the interpreter of the gods. He discovered the lyre of seven strings, and was highly learned in all the sciences, particularly in the natural sciences; for (as they say) he waked the dead by means of his plants and herbs. For these reasons he was considered one of the gods after his death, and the star Mercury was named after him.

Bacchus first discovered wine in Greece, and he was held to be a god. He also introduced wine into other regions, and taught the Germans how to brew barley.

Omagirus was the first to introduce the use of oxen in plowing and husbandry.

In this third age the women, called Amazons (Scythian women), ruled for 100 years, and concerning them we have in this book before written. With cruel wars they brought many cities of Asia and Europe under their sway. Their queens were Marsepia and Lambeta, Sinope, Anthiopa, Ipolite, Orothia and Penthesilea, who slew Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles before Troy.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LACEDAEMONIA

The city of Lacedaemon (or Sparta) is illustrated by a general landscape, here used for the first time. It is a walled town, consisting largely of defensive structures, showing that the citizens are not relying for security on their bravery alone, as did the ancient Spartans. To help out the application of the illustration let us assume that the time is after the advent of the Romans, who walled up the city. But there are other difficulties; for over the gate of the castle, at the left, we see a coat of arms, apparently displaying an eagle with wings outspread; while to the extreme right a gothic spire is outlined against the sky. In the foreground is a circular structure with a balcony, apparently a watchtower. Behind the city walls we see rows of gabled houses, packed side by side, like barracks. The vegetation consists of a few blasted leafless trees. On a high hill in the background is another defensive structure—a castle or fort.

(B) AMAZONS

The same triple portrait of Amazon warriors, first introduced at Folio XIX verso, is here repeated, with a small amount of additional text naming the queens of the Amazons.

(C) MERCURY, BACCUS AND OMAGIRUS

Mercury, Bacchus and Omagirus: The small portrait of Mercury does not have the slightest relation to the messenger of the gods—not a symbol, not an attribute is introduced. We have here just a wizened old man, selected for want of something else to fill the space.

Below him is Bacchus, who would at least make a good signboard to direct the thirsty traveler to a good glass of port. He wears a crown of leaves and holds forth a bunch of grapes.

Omagirus looks like a sturdy old husbandman, and in his hands he holds a yoke, a symbol of his calling.

FOLIO XXIX recto

And so at this time the kingdom of Greece sprang up under Inachus; and it endured through fourteen reigns, up to the time of Baroch (Barak)[Barak lived at a time when the Canaanite kingdom of Hazor, having recovered from its overthrow by Joshua, was taking vengeance by oppressing Israel. He is called from his home by Deborah to deliver Israel. He gathers an army of ten thousand men from the tribes of Naphtali and Zebulun. With this force, accompanied by Deborah, without whom he refuses to go forward, he encamps in Mt. Tabor, while the enemy under Sisera lies in the plain on the banks of the Kishon. At the word of Deborah, Barak leads his men down to battle, and completely defeats Sisera. The latter flees; Barak pursues him, but on reaching his hiding place finds that he has already been slain by Jael, the wife of Heber. The glory of the victory, therefore, does not lie with Barak, but with Deborah, who was the guiding spirit, and with Jael, who slew the enemy’s leader. (Judges 4:5).] and Delbore (Deborah),[Deborah is the fourth of the leaders or "judges" of Israel. The term "judge" had a special significance among the Israelites. The judicial authority was primarily administered by the elders, and by the heads of families. There were also others called "judges," whose history is given in the book of that name, but they were a class of persons raised up in special emergencies. Deborah was such a judge. She was also called a prophetess, that is, an inspired woman—one of the four mentioned in the Old Testament. Her home was between Bethel and Ramah in the hill country of Ephraim. She had her judgment seat under a palm tree, which from this circumstance, is spoken of as "the (well-known) palm tree of Deborah." Here the Israelites came to her for counsel and guidance. She was the real deliverer of the Israelites who had sunk into a state of feebleness under the oppressive bondage under Jabin, a Canaanitish king of Hazor. Deborah was a personality of great power and was looked upon as a ‘mother in Israel.’]a judge of Israel. And as at this time Criseus (Acrisius) was unwittingly slain, Perseus through fear left Greece and turned the kingdom over to the Mycenaens; so thereafter Aretius Acreus ruled.

Perseus, the famous hero of Argos, was a son of Zeus and Danae, and a grandson of Acrisius. Having no male issue, Acrisius consulted the Pythian oracle and received the answer that if Danae should give birth to a son, he, Acrisius, would perish at his hands. So he shut up his daughter in a subterranean apartment of brass or stone. But Zeus, having metamorphosed himself into a shower of gold, came down upon her through the roof of the apartment, and became by her the father of Perseus. When Acrisius discovered that his daughter had given birth to a son, he threw them both into a chest, and put them out to sea; but Zeus caused the chest to land on the island of Seriphos, one of the Cyclades, where Dictys, a fisherman, found them, and carried them to his brother, King Polydectes. This king made Danae his slave, and courted her favor, but in vain. In order to obtain the undisturbed possession of her, he sent off her son, Perseus, in the meantime grown to manhood, to the Gorgons, to fetch the head of Medusa. Another account states that Polydectes married Danae, and caused Perseus to be brought up in the temple in Athens. When Acrisius learned this he went to Polydectes who, however, interfered on behalf of the boy, and the latter promised not to kill his grandfather. Acrisius, however, was detained in Seriphos by storms, and during that time Polydectes died. During the funeral games the wind carried a discus, thrown by Perseus, against the head of Acrisius and killed him. Immediately thereafter Perseus proceeded to Argos and took possession of the kingdom of his grandfather.

According to the common tradition, Perseus brought back the head of the Medusa in a bag, and on his return visited Ethiopia, and there married Andromeda. His adventures concluded, he returned to Argos to visit his grandfather; but Acrisius, remembering the oracle, fled to Larissa. Perseus followed, intending to persuade him to return. The common tradition relates that when the king of Larissa celebrated games in honor of his guest Acrisius, Perseus took part and accidentally killed his grandfather with a discus.

At this time also Phoroneus first gave laws to Greece, and ordained that matters in controversy between the parties should be handled and decided by a single judge. Therefore the jurists say that the court in which legal matters were considered (in Latin called the ‘forum’) was named after Phoroneus. Item: Isis, his sister (as they say) was married to his son, named Apis. He was also regarded as a god by the Egyptians.

Inachus, the first king of Greece, began to reign in the 60th year of Isaac; and he reigned 50 years. At his death he left behind Isis, the queen of Egypt, and Phoroneus his son, who ruled after him.[Inachus (See earlier note to Folio XXVII verso)]

Isis, the daughter of Inachus, was first called Io (Juno). She went to Egypt, invented the alphabet, or writing, and taught the laws. There she was called Isis, which, in the Egyptian tongue, is equivalent to ‘earth.’ Because of her noble ways, great virtue and learning, she was held in great esteem and honor, and the Egyptians believed that she had fallen from the sky. They considered her a goddess, for she taught the crude people how to till the soil, plant seed, and to make bread from the grain.[Io, or Isis, daughter of Inachus, king of Argos, was loved by Zeus, but on account of Hera’s jealousy he metamorphosed her into a white heifer. The goddess was aware of the change, obtained the heifer from Zeus, and placed her under the care of Argus Panoptes; but Zeus sent Hermes to slay Argus, and to deliver Io. Hera then tormented Io with a gadfly, and drover her, in a state of frenzy, from land to land, until at length she found rest on the banks of the Nile. Here she recovered her original form, and bore a son to Zeus, called Epaphus. The wanderings of Io were very celebrated in antiquity, and were extended and embellished with the increase of geographical knowledge. The Bosphorus is said to have derived its name from her swimming across it. According to some traditions Io married Telegonus, king of Egypt, and was afterward identified with Isis. Her connection with Egypt seems to have been an invention of later times, and was probably suggested by the resemblance which was found to exist between Argive Io and the Egyptian Isis.]

Phoroneus, as already stated, established courts in Greece, and he wrote its laws. He had a brother who taught the people how to observe the months and years. To the honor of the pagan gods he erected temples and altars. For these reasons he was considered a god, and oxen were sacrificed to him. He was also known as Phegeus.[Phoroneus, son of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia or Archia, was a brother of Aegialeus and the ruler of Argos. He was married to the nymph Laodice, by whom he became the father of Niobe, Apis and Car. According to other writers his sons were Pelasgus, Issus, and Agenor, who, after their father’s death divided the kingdom of Argos among themselves. Phoroneus is said to have been the first to offer sacrifices to Hera at Argos, and to have united the people, who until then had lived in scattered habitations, into a city which was named for him. The patronymic Phoronides is sometimes used by Argives in general.]

A great flood occurred in Thessaly. It was called the Deucalion Flood because in that kingdom it was the most severe.[Deucalion, king of Phthia, in Thessaly, was a son of Prometheus. When Zeus, for the treatment he received from Lycaon, resolved to destroy the degenerate race of men, Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, were, on account of their piety, the only mortals saved. On the advice of his father he built a ship in which he and his wife rode out the nine-day flood in safety; but all the other inhabitants of Hellas were destroyed. When the waters subsided, Deucalion offered up a sacrifice to Zeus and consulted the oracle at Themis as to how the race of man might be restored. The goddess told them to cover their heads and to throw the bones of their mothers behind them; which they interpreted to mean the stones of the earth. And so they did. The stones thrown by Deucalion became men; those thrown by his wife Pyrrha became women. By his wife, Deucalion became the father of Hellen.]

In the flourishing days of King Serapis a bull came out of the river and ascended into the air. And he came down again into the water and disappeared. The foolhardy people considered him to be a god.

Serapis, the third king of Greece, sailed to Egypt. He died there, and the benighted people made him the greatest god of Egypt.[Serapis or Sarapis, was an Egyptian divinity, whose worship was introduced into Greece in the time of the Ptolemies. His worship was introduced into Rome with that of Isis.] At this time they also worshipped a garlanded bull of various colors, whom they called Apis; and when he died, the Devil put a calf in his place, thereby to deceive the people.[ At Folio XXII recto (see Memphis) the chronicler stated that Osiris was worshipped at Memphis; that when he inherited the kingdom of Argos from his forefather, Phoroneus, he sailed to Egypt, and married Isis; that after he taught the people many useful things, they honored him as a god, and changed his name and called him a bull and that from this arose the custom that when a beautiful bull unexpectedly appeared, they detained him, and for a time worshipped him. See also at the same folio, notes on Osiris, Phoroneus, Apis his son, and on the Bull of Memphis. Compare also with text at Folio XXVI recto where Apis appears in the . And now, in conclusion of that lineage, we here find another reference to the Bull of Memphis, but none to Apis, son of Phoroneus. We are told that ‘when the bull died the Devil put a calf in his place in order to deceive the people, this being the reason why the children of Israel worshipped a calf at Horeb.’ What a confusion of Egyptian and Greek mythology, and Genesis thrown in for good measure! In the pictorial we have Inachus, Phoroneus, Serapis, and Argus. And finally, in the account of the Deucalion Flood, we come upon another bull story to the effect that a bull came out of the river, ascended into the air, returned and disappeared; as a result of which the foolhardy people regarded the bull as a god.] Following this custom, the children of Israel, in their folly, also worshipped a calf in Horeb. There is nothing more pitiable than a sensible being discovered in such a folly.

Argus was the fourth king of the Greeks, and after him the kingdom of Argos was named. After his death he was held to be a god and was honored with temples and sacrifices. In this period the Greeks commenced to grow grain, for seed was brought there from other regions.[Argus, son of Zeus and Niobe, is generally called the third king of Argus, and from him the place is said to have derived its name. In reckoning him as the third king we count Inachus and Phoroneus, his son, as his predecessors, omitting Serapis, to whom the chronicler assigns third place. The descendants of Inachus, who may be regarded as the Pelasgian kings, reigned over the country for nine generations, but were at length deprived of the sovereignty by Danaus, who is said to have come over from Egypt.]

Job, a very holy man and praiseworthy example of patience, was born to Zareth, his father and Bosra, his mother, in the regions of Judea and Arabia. He was just, upright, kind, intelligent and brave, useful to his times, moderate and wisely patient. Among those who lived in his time in the East he was regarded a very rich man. He owned 7000 sheep, 3000 camels, 500 oxen, 600 asses, and had many servants. By his wife he had six sons and three daughters, and the Lord protected him against the temptations of the Devil. His estates and his wife and children were taken from him, and he was laden with sores. But in spite of all he did not sin, but said, The Lord gave it, and he has taken it away. However, the Lord made him two-fold restoration, and he lived thereafter 140 years, and saw his children multiplied to the fourth generation. He died old and full of years.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF THE GREEK KINGS

Here beings the Lineage of the Kings of Greece, portrayed in a panel about 2" wide and extending for almost the full length of the page. They appear in the following order: Inachus, Phoroneus, Serapis and Argus. Crown, orb and scepter are present in each case, and the regal robes are medieval.

(B) ISIS, QUEEN OF EGYPT

Isis is the usual type of medieval woman, and she appears in the bonnet and veil, without royal attributes or Egyptian characteristics. The woodcut is 2" x 2.5".

(C) THE DEUCALION FLOOD

The Deucalion Flood is represented by a sort of cloudburst, in consequence of which large drops of rain are precipitated. This woodcut is about 2" square.

(D) JOB AND THE DEVIL

Here sits Job, the famous patriarch of Uz, whose sorrows are recounted in the book of his name. He lived in very primitive times, unacquainted with the Mosaic Law and the Jewish worship—a holy outsider, who was yet, like Melchizedek, a worshipper of God. He was a prince of great wealth, piety, integrity and happiness; but now he appears before us with no other possession than a loose mantle that barely covers his nakedness. His hands are held together in an attitude of prayer. By God’s permission Satan tested him, destroying his property, his children and his healthy, and visiting him with the most loathsome form of leprosy. And here the Devil is at him again—a horned demon, with a long tail, curled into the form of a figure 8, and with ornate flaming wings and long claws. He is fluttering about the old patriarch with devilish glee, tormenting him and making a vigorous effort to disturb his meditations.

And these pious meditations continued. Job remained faithful to the Lord, who reversed the sentence of the Devil, and restored to Job all he had lost and more. With daughters renowned for their beauty, with sons to perpetuate his name, with fullness of days and abundance of honor he passed away, 140 years after his great trial. Hales places him before the birth of Abraham, Usher about 30 years before the Exodus (traditionally dated to 1521 BCE).

FOLIO XXIX verso

Moses, true and highest prophet, prince of historians, and a serene man, released the people of God from Egyptian bondage; and he reigned forty years in the wilderness. He was beloved of God and man. God remembered Moses in his blessing, and decided to admit him to the presence of his glory on Mt. Sinai. So while Moses was attending the flocks of Jethro, his father-in-law, grazing in the wilderness, God appeared to him in a burning bush; but the bush was not consumed. And the Lord commanded Moses to depart for Egypt to release the people of Israel. This Moses is the man by whose praise heaven and earth are illuminated. He clearly saw God face to face, and this the Scriptures do not record of any other being of mortal flesh. So says St. Paul among the heathens, gave witness and taught the existence of one true God, to be believed in and worshipped.

Aaron, brother of Moses, was a holy man and endowed with the gift of eloquence. By divine command he deservedly accepted the highest priestly office, which he bequeathed to his sons in perpetuity. Aaron died at the age of 133 years and was buried at Mt. Horeb. Eleazar, his son, was bishop after him; for upon him Aaron, before his death, placed the stole of the priesthood. Eleazar died at the age of 123 years, in the 36th year of his priesthood, on Mt. Horeb, in Arabia.

These three (referring to he illustration accompanying the test), namely Nadab, Abihu and Eleazar, were Aaron’s sons; but Nadab and Abihu offered strange fire; wherefore they were punished by God and destroyed.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) MOSES AND THE BURNING BUSH

(A) By a woodcut 8-7/8" x 5" the artist has faithfully portrayed the incident of Moses and the burning bush:

Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the back side of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb. And the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt. And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the midst of the bush, and said. . . Do not draw near to this place; take off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you stand is holy ground. . . Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God. . . . I will send you to Pharaoh, so that you might bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt.

Exodus 3:1-10

And so here we find ourselves on Mt. Horeb. The flock of Jethro, consisting of a few sheep, are huddled together at the right, a number of goats in the distance. At the extreme left is the burning bush, from which God himself appears (with a halo), addressing Moses. The cautioning words have already been spoken, for Moses is kneeling and removing his shoes, while his faithful watchdog is seated before him and complacently looking on. He is not the kind of dog a shepherd would use—just a s good sleek little dog, with a lion’s tail and a neat collar. Note also that Moses is portrayed with "horns of honor," as we generally find him pictured. The bush is burning, as the flames above it indicate, but its lower leaves show that it is not being consumed. The landscape is rugged and mountainous. The woodcut may be crude and quaint, but it tells the story far better than the Chronicler.

(B) THE PRIESTLY LINE (Continued)
(C) THE DEATH OF NADAB AND ABIHU

(B and C) In the pontifical lineage at the lower left appear Aaron and his son Eleazar. Aaron’s other sons, Ithamar, Nadab and Abihu, branch off to the right for the full width of the page. Eleazar is swinging a censor whose flames are consuming Nadab and Abihu, both of whom appear in great distress. Ithamar, the fourth and youngest son, has turned away from his brothers and remains unharmed, for he had no part in the transaction. Nadab, the eldest son, had been admitted to the priestly office, and on the very day of his consecration he and Abihu perished for offering "strange fire." (Leviticus 10:1-2). Concerning what specifically their transgression consisted of is not clear. It is suggested that "strange fire" means fire taken from a common source instead of from the altar.

FOLIO XXX recto

Aminadab was the first who in full faith followed Moses into the Red Sea, while the rest doubted. For this he was rewarded as the origin of royal lineage. In the year of the world 3644.

Balaam, the prophet, son of Beor, and a celebrated man, lived by the river in the land of the children of Amon. To him Balak, the king of the Midianites, sent his trusty messengers with the request that he come and curse the Israelites. And although Balaam sought the counsel of the Lord in the matter, and God forbade him to comply, nevertheless he saddled his ass, and accompanied his messengers. As he approached a narrow defile along the road, the angel of the Lord intercepted him and with a drawn sword barred the way so that Balaam could neither pass on the right nor on the left. The ass sank down under him; and, as he beat the animal on its sides, the Lord opened its mouth. At the same time Balaam saw the angel of the Lord, who punished him. So Balaam wandered away and at the command of the angel, made this prophesy: ‘A Star shall arise out of Jacob and a Sceptre out of Israel.’[Balaam was a soothsayer of Pethor on the Euphrates, and was engaged by Balak, king of Moab, to curse the Israelites, who were encamped in the Jordan valley in great numbers. Balaam encountered great difficulties in undertaking the task, for the Lord repeatedly intervened, commanding him to bless and not cures Israel. To fully understand the story of Balaam and his ass, it is necessary to read 22-24.]

Naason (Nahshon), in the year of the world 3688.[Nahshon was a brother-in-law of Aaron and a descendant in the fifth generation from Judah. He is also mentioned as one of the ancestors of David, and of Christ. The German edition replaces the Latin text’s "Naason (Nahshon), in the year of the world 3688." with "Naason (Nahshon) was a prince of the tribe of Judah in the wilderness."] Joshuah, the son of Nun, was, after the death of Moses, appointed a judge over Israel by the Lord and instructed to parcel out the lands.[Joshua 1:1-6.] He sent out men to spy upon Jericho. Rahab, a harlot, lodged and hid the spies. They promised immunity to her and her house, and to her servants, provided she would place in her window a bloody or red sign. And she let them go forth secretly.[Joshua 2:1-21.] The Israelites miraculously crossed the Jordan, the Levites proceeding in advance with the ark. Joshuah ruled over the people of the Lord for 27 years. He and Caleb were the only ones out of the 600,000 men who left Egypt to reach the promised land.[Numbers 13:1-33; 14:1-7, 14:30, 37, 38.] Joshuah died at the age of 110 years and was buried in the mountains of Ephraim.

Otoniel (Othniel), a brother of Caleb, released the people from the oppression of the king of Mesopotamia and slew him. At this time the angel of the Lord appeared and punished the children of Israel for transgressing the law. He reminded them of the blessings with which God had favored them, and thus he brought them to tears, for they had often wandered from the Lord and suffered bondage in consequence. When they repented, they were relieved of their punishments by various judges; but as often as they did so, they again succumbed to evil and transgressions.

Ahoth (Ahoah) slew Eglon, the king of the Moabites and freed Israel. He was a strong man and used both hands in furtherance of justice.[According to Judges 31:2 ff. Ehud, the father of Ahoah, slew Eglon, and brought the Moabite ascendancy over Israel to an end.]

Sangar (Shamgar), son of Anath, slew 600 Philistines who attempted to enter his land with plowshares. Thereafter they (the Israelites) sinned and fell into the hands of Jahin (Jabin) king of Canaan. The captain (of Jabin) was Sisera, who fought with Barak. Deborah, the prophetess, advised Barak to give battle, and helped him. She was given the honor of judging Israel. [Shamgar smote these 600 Philistines with an ox goad, a light wooden pole shod at one end with an iron spike with which to prick the oxen, and having at the other a small spade with which to clean the plowshare. See Judges 3:31]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Continued)

The Lineage of Christ is resumed from Folio XXVII verso. It there ended with Aram (Ram). We now begin with Amminadab, son of Ram (which some have assumed to be a contraction of Aram). Below him is a portrait of his son Nahshon. Although the panel is 2 and ¼" wide and 12-5/8" high, it contains no other portraits. The remainder of the space is filled in with floral designs. There is nothing distinctive or particularly significant about either of these portraits.

(B) LINEAGE OF THE JUDGES

The Lineage of the Judges of Israel begins with Joshua (Josue) successor of Moses as leader of Israel. In one hand he holds a grapevine, while with the other he makes a gesture as if to call attention to something. He is followed by Othniel (Othaniel), Ahoah (Ahoth), and Sangar (Shamgar). They are grouped in a panel 2-1/8" x 7-1/8". Why Joshua exhibits a vine is not clear. On the other hand Shamgar at least might have been given the ox-goad for a symbol.

(C) BALAAM AND HIS ASS

The story of Balaam and his Ass is depicted in a small woodcut 6.5" x 4-3/8". The soothsayer of Peor is enroute to curse Israel at the behest of the Moabite king. He is mounted on his faithful ass and beating the animal with a stick. As he approaches a narrow in the road, and the animal has sensed danger for a third time, further progress has apparently become impossible. After the third belaboring the ass turns back his head reproachfully and remonstrates with its master:

Am I not your ass, upon which you have ridden ever since I was yours up to this day? Was I ever in the habit of doing such a thing to you? And he said, No.

And at the same time the Lord who had opened the mouth of the ass, also opened the eyes of Balaam. And he sees the Lord’s angry messenger barring the way. His sword is raised; and a formidable weapon it is! The angel upbraids Balaam for already having smitten the faithful animal three times, and warns him that had the ass not turned aside on each occasion, the rider would certainly have been slain. Balaam contritely surrenders: "If it displeases you, I will return." And Israel was not cursed.

FOLIO XXX verso

When Moses and the children of Israel had been in Egypt for 440 years, he received the law from God and gave it to them. After God had visited the Egyptians with ten plagues, the Israelites wandered through the wilderness in the direction of the Red Sea. They were preceded by an angel in the form of a pillar of a cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night. But Pharaoh regretted that he had permitted them to go forth; and he hastened after them with his army and his chariots in order to bring them back to Egypt. After Moses in accordance with the ordinances of God had eaten the paschal lamb with his people, they saw the Egyptians approaching; and they murmured against Moses because he had led them out of Egypt. Then Moses, in accordance with God’s command, put forth his rod over the Red Sea, and the waters parted and left a way in between; and the children of Israel passed through freely. As Pharaoh’s army pursued them over the same way, Moses again stretched forth his rod over the Sea, and it flowed together again, drowning Pharaoh and his army in its midst. Therefore Moses and the people rejoiced with Maria (Miriam) his sister.[Exodus 14:5-30; 15:20-21.]

Now as the children of Israel proceeded from Raphidin (Rephidim) and came to Mount Sinai, the Lord commanded them through Moses to sanctify themselves, and to wash their clothes on the second day, and to go to the mountain on the third. But neither man nor beast was to come near it. And the mountain smoked, and thunderclaps and the sound of a trumpet were heard, and lightening was seen. A very dense cloud covered the mountain, and Moses went into it to receive the law. And so the Lord gave his people the laws on Mount Sinai in the third month of their exodus from Egypt.[Exodus 19 and 20.] The laws are divided into three classes, namely moral, juridical and ecclesiastical. The moral are the ten commandments which God (as stated above) gave the people through Moses. And although a number of other moral laws have been prescribed at various places, yet they are all comprehended within these ten commandments. These commandments all persons and peoples are bound to obey. The first three concern our obligation to God, while the remaining seven set forth our duties to our neighbor. But the juridical ordinances are prescribed to maintain the peaceful relations of the people and to preserve civic order.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Each woodcut is 5-1/8" x 8-7/8" and covers the full width of the page.

[The order of these two woodcuts are out of chronological sequence in the Latin edition of the Chronicle.]

(A) MOSES ON MOUNT SINAI

The children of Israel having successfully effected passage of the Red Sea, are now encamped in great numbers and in comfortable, spacious medieval tents at the foot of Mount Sinai. The horned Moses has climbed up into the mountain and is just receiving the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments from the hands of God. The whole scene is very quaint. The tents are higher than the mountain and are rather close to the scene of action considering the warnings that were sounded and the precautions which were taken for the occasion.

(B) PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA

Moses and his people, a motley gathering of panic stricken men, women and children, have just passed over the Red Sea and are huddled together on the farther side. Moses, equally excited, is in their midst. He has appealed to the Lord, and in accordance with his command, again raises his rod, and the pursuing hosts of Egypt are being swallowed up by the closing sea. It is apparent that not only many lives are being lost on Pharaoh’s side, but that a substantial amount of medieval armor, cross bows, lances, battleaxes, and other military equipment are finding their way to Davy Jones’s Locker.

FOLIO XXXI recto

During these times the children of Israel made a molten image of a calf, according to the customs of the Egyptians (who worshipped Busiris, their king).[Busiris, king of Egypt, son of Poseidon and Lysianassa, is said to have sacrificed all foreigners who visited Egypt. Hercules on his arrival there, was likewise seized and led to the altar; but he broke his chains and slew Busiris.] This occurred while Moses was detained up in the Mount with the Lord. The people asked Aaron to make gods for them to worship and to go before them. And as Hur opposed them, he was (as the Scriptures state) suffocated with spittle.

According to Josephus, Hur was the husband of Miriam, sister of Moses. Exodus makes no mention of Hur’s protest and fate on this occasion. At a previous time he and Aaron held up the hands of Moses in order that by continual uplifting of the sacred staff Israel might prevail over Amalek (Exodus 17:10). And with Aaron he was left in charge of the people when Moses ascended Mount Sinai (Exodus 24:14). But there is no further reference to him.

When Moses returned from the mountain the situation of his people and the depravity (in his eyes) into which they had fallen astounded him. It was natural that he should demand an explanation of Aaron. And Aaron replied, "Let not the anger of my lord grow hot; you know the people, that they are set on mischief (Exodus 32:22). There is no reference to Hur’s fate, although this, according to the chronicler, influenced Aaron to give way to the people. Neither Vulgate nor the King James Version of the Bible attest the death of Hur at this time.

So Aaron was afraid, and said, Take the golden earrings of your wives and of your children; and as they took them, he made a molten calf thereof. And the people said, ‘Israel, these be they gods which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’ And Aaron built an altar and proclaimed a feast for the following morning. And the people rose up early and offered the Host; and they sat down to eat and drink, and then rose up to play (that is) to idolize. Then the Lord said to Moses, ‘Depart, thy people have sinned with idolatry. Let me destroy them.’ But Moses said, ‘Lord, allay thine anger, so that the Egyptians may not say, For deceitfully he brought them out to give them the land which he promised them.’ And as the Lord repented of his wrath, Moses departed with the stone tablets inscribed by the finger of God. And Joshua ran to meet him, saying, ‘There are lamentations of war in the tents.’ But Moses said ‘It is the noise of singing.’ And as Moses came near he saw the calf and the ring of dancers, and he was very angry. And he cast down the tablets, and they were broken. Having reprimanded Aaron for setting up the calf, and having heard his explanation, he burned the graven image and ground the fragments to powder, which he cast into the water and gave it to the children of Israel to drink. And this same powder appeared in the beards of the idolaters. And Moses asked the people to take swords and to slay all the guilty thus identified. Many thousand men fell on that same day. [Neither nor authenticates these latter details. True, according to the Scriptures, Moses burnt the calf in the fire, ground the fragments to powder, strewed the powder upon the water, and made his people drink (Exodus 32:20); but what followed was this: "Then Moses stood in the gate of the camp and said, Who is on the Lord’s side? Let him come to me. And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together to him. And he said to them, Thus says the Lord God of Israel, put every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate, throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbor. And the children of Israel did according to the words of Moses" (Exodus 32:26-28). There is no mention of beards polluted with the powder of idolatry. The whole people are put to their choice.]

ILLUSTRATION
THE CALF OF GOD

Size 8-3/8" x 10-5.8"

Forty days and forty nights Moses sojourned with the Lord on Sinai, securing the fundamental law written by the finger of God, voluminous instructions governing the holy service to be observed by the children of Israel, as well as minute plans for the Tabernacle (Exodus 25-31). But matters were moving too slowly for the idle hordes encamped below. "Up, make us gods which shall go before us," they demanded of Aaron. Knowing their temper he made them a molten calf from the golden earrings that they broke from the ears of their wives and children. And here, on a high pedestal, isolated form the world in the manner of St. Stilus, the first flagpole sitter, is the precious little calf. The morning of the feast proclaimed by Aaron on the day before is at hand. The sacrifices and offerings have been made, and the people have partaken of the feast. So now they rise up ‘to play.’ Out of their tents they come, and the dance of men, women and children about the calf of gold is in progress. The artist, in his modesty, has not depicted the temper of the people as Moses saw it. He introduces us to a very sedate performance, participated in by a handful of fully appareled and serious people. "Stiff-necked," to use the language of the Bible, they do appear, and by no means exuberant with festive joy.

And so here, as we look again, we feel that all is under a heavy cloud, as though a storm were approaching. And not without reason, for the Lord has observed this stiff-necked people, and his wrath has grown hot against them. Seeing his divine plans for his chosen people frustrated by corruption, he orders Moses down from the mountain in order that he may be alone in carrying out their doom. Except for the intercession of the horned one, his congregation would have been consumed before now.

And as we give the work further study we see Moses himself coming down from the mountain. Joshua has rushed up to meet him, for there is much to be explained. By word and gesture he indicates that there is a noise of war in the camp, but the wise Moses recognizes it as the hilarity of song. And as he sees the handiwork of Aaron, high up on the stile, and his people dancing about it in idolatrous worship, his patience is exhausted. He casts the precious tablets upon the ground and there they lie in fragments. Soon the precious little calf will also succumb to his wrath, and the dance will come to an end, and three thousand idolaters will bite the dust.

In the background of the woodcut are two mountains, Sinai (Sinay), the taller, to the right, and Horeb (Oreb), the lesser, to the left. Moses has apparently come down from Horeb, although according to the Scriptures, he received the law on Sinai. And so we become puzzled. But Mount Sinai, whose name connects it with the old Babylonian moon god Sin, is also known as Horeb (I King 8:9; Mal. 4:4, etc.); and not only is the site disputed, but it is possible that there were originally two mountains, which later harmonizing tradition has combined. There is no genuine pre-Christian tradition on the subject. The chief authority form the ancient sanctity of Mount Sinai is Antoninus Martyr (end of the 6th century CE), who tells that the Arabs (before Mohammed and Islam) in his time celebrated a moon-festival there. As Sin was a moon-god, the feast has been connected with the name of Sinai. Some authorities are of the opinion that Horeb is the name of the whole range, Sinai for a particular peak. Apparently the artist knew of the two names but not of the probable identity of the mountain. On the other hand, he may have had different views on the subject.

Opposite the peak of Sinai is the inscription ‘Sepulchru(m) S. Katherine.’ The female saint here referred to is St. Catherine of Alexandria, not to be confused with St. Catherine of Siena. Catherine of Alexandria was beheaded after a wheel equipped with blades for her torture broke up and would not do its work. The broken wheel is her symbol. According to legend angels carried her body over the desert and the Red Sea, and deposited it on the summit of Mt. Sinai. There it rested in a marble sarcophagus, and in the eight century a monastery was built over her remains. On the summit of Horeb is a house, probably a hospice or monastery, inscribed ‘S. Salvatoris.’

FOLIO XXXI verso

Now as Moses, three months after the exodus, ascended Mount Sinai, and there fasted and attended for forty days and forty nights in order to obtain the law of the Lord, the Lord at the same time ordered him to make an ark of undecayed shittim wood,[Acacia wood, a hard wood tree common in the Sinai peninsula.] two and one-half cubits in length, and one and one-half cubits in width, and in height the same; and entirely covered inside and out with purest gold; and above it, a crown (cornice) of gold; and a lid of the same breadth and length as the ark, so as to cover it, called a mercy seat. And lengthwise of the ark on either side of it, two golden rings, which passed through the wood, and through them gilded staves of shittim wood with which to carry the ark, and these were never to be removed. And at each end of the mercy seat was to be placed a golden cherubim, and each was to face toward the mercy seat, and they were to face one another; and their wings were to be outspread over the ark and toward each other, and to touch one another. And this was to be placed in the sanctum sanctorum (holy of holies). But within the ark were placed the golden bowl and the showbread, the rod of Aaron and the two tablets containing the Ten Commandments. [For a more accurate description of the ark and its contents, see Exodus 25:10-21.]

And the Lord said to Moses, You shall also make a table of shittim wood overlaid with gold plate, and supported by four feet, and a golden ring in each foot, and through the rings golden staves by which the table may be carried; and finally, round about it, as on the ark, a golden crown (cornice), four fingers in breadth, so that half of it projects above the table, in order that the things placed on it may not fall off; the other half to hang down as an ornament. On this table were placed twelve cakes of unleavened bread, six to the right and six to the left, and upon each stack a golden bowl or cup was placed, provided with incense each morning. On the Sabbath they placed fresh warm cakes on the table, which remained untouched until the following Sabbath, when they were taken from there, and the priests alone ate them. These cakes were known as priestly bread, because the priests made and baked them, placed them on the table, and removed them from it. They were called the bread of the offering; for they were laid before the Lord as an everlasting memorial of the Twelve Tribes of the children of Israel. [See Exodus 35:23-30.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) THE ARK OF THE TESTIMONY

The first of these illustrations (8-3/4" x 5-1/4") shows two arks, both placed on a tessellated floor, side by side, apparently for purposes of comparison. The ark at the left shows the construction according to the Rabbi Solomon; the one at the right, according to the ‘Catholic doctors.’ The arks themselves are identical in construction, but in the former the cherubims stand on the ark in opposite corners, while in the latter they stand beside the ark, lifting its lid or mercy seat.

(B) THE TABLE OF THE SHOWBREAD

The second illustration (8-3/4" x 3-13/16") is of the Table of the Showbread (one version only). The table rests on a tessellated floor. On either side is a stack of six cakes, surmounted by a bowl of burning incense. On the right and left appears the open country, no doubt to indicate that the table was not placed in the holy of the holies, but ‘without the vail.’

FOLIO XXXII recto

The Lord also caused to be made a candlestick of pure gold. The shaft or stem was fastened to a base of iron, and was ornamented with golden rods or pipes joined together; and where the heads of the rods came together, there were two knops or cups in the form of a nut; and out of the knops came bent flowers like lilies; and in the same field between the knops and the lilies was a circular knop; and likewise on the shaft or stem there were five rods, joined together in like manner, resulting in four grooves. And each had two knops, joined together, and the knops were beside each other; and so the lilies. But the standard went straight up, and it had three feet. And up above were six rods coming out of the stem, three to one side and three to the other, bent upward, one over the other, and reaching to the height of the stem. And on the stem or standard were four knops, resembling a nut, which some call little apples; that is, two knops were set, one against the other, and together they formed a little apple. Rabbi Solomon writes that these knops were elongated, and so constituted that the rods went through them, and that the purpose of the knops and the lilies was merely to ornament the candlestick. And this candlestick was (as Josephus says) made of seventy parts, assembled as a standard; and it was always made with seven heads of equal height.

FOLIO XXXII verso

And on each head was to be a golden lamp resting on the last or highest knop of each branch. And so there were seven vessels of gold with which the oil was poured into the lamps. There were also at the hand snuffers of pure gold, with which the lamps were trimmed and extinguished and the burnt matter removed; and there were vessels with water into which this burnt matter was thrown so that it would not smoke. Together these implements were to be of the weight of one pound of gold; but the Hebrews say a hundred weight. No one knows the exact weight; but no doubt a large quantity of gold was required to create so great a work. And the candlestick was placed to the south, over against the table, not directly but to the side.[The candlestick is to be thought of as an elaborately constructed candelabra, with places for seven lamps or lights. Like the cherubim it consisted of beaten work, elaborately wrought by some hand process. It had a main stem or shaft, rising up from a triangular pedestal or base. The main stem and branches were ornamented with flower-shaped cups into which the spherical knops were set, and both the knops and cups were further connected with flowers, or blossoms, all together serving the purpose of ornamentation. Three branches came out of the main stem to either side. These, with the stem, furnished at their tops the places for the seven lamps. The entire candlestick was to be wrought out of one piece of pure gold, so that the completed work should form one solid piece. It was to be placed so that it would throw light to the opposite side of the room. The description (Exodus 35:31-40) is obscure. The exact form of the shafts, or branches, and of the knops and flowers is left to conjecture. No dimensions are given for the whole or any of its parts. A conspicuous object among the spoils of Jerusalem, pictured on the Arch of Titus at Rome, is a figure of a candlestick, with its central shaft and six arms. It is not certain that this is an exact copy of the one captured at the fall of the temple, for the Roman artist may have modified some of its parts; but in its main outline it probably represents the original. The exact form of the snuffing tools and dishes is nowhere described.]

FOLIO XXXII recto and verso
ILLUSTRATIONS
THE CANDLESTICK

By two woodcuts (9.5" by approximately 11") the artist has visualized the lighted candlestick, firstly according to "the other doctors," (Figura Candelabri lum(in)us, Secundum Doctores aliquos), and secondly according to the Rabbi Moses (Figura Candelabri luminus, Secundum Raby Moysen). The first appears at Folio XXXII recto, the second at Folio XXXII verso. From the inscriptions it would seem the two plates should have appeared in the inverse order, that is, the Jewish version first, and then the version "according to the other doctors." The general construction is the same in both cases, the only difference being in the ornamentation.

FOLIO XXXIII recto[]

And the Lord stood by Moses and told him to give the holy priesthood to his brother Aaron, and indicated how the priestly robes were to be made. There were four garments, common also to lesser priests, namely a linen shirt; a coat of white linen, double throughout; a girdle four fingers wide with various beautiful designs; and a mitre pointed at the top. Over these garments the high priest wore his own clothing. The first was a blue coat, the lower seams of which pomegranates and small bells were attached. The second was a shoulder dress (habergeon) without sleeves, and reaching down to the hips, and embroidered roundabout with various designs. The third, a breastplate, foursquare and doubled, and set with twelve precious stones. Fourth, a girdle of five colors. Fifth, a mitre made of white linen; and sixth, a golden plate, formed in the shape of a halfmoon, graven with the name of the great God, written Tetragrammaton[The groups of four letters representing the name of the Supreme Being in Hebrew texts, consisting of the four consonants JHVH, JHWH, YHVH, or YHWH. From reverence and for other reasons the word JHVH was almost never uttered in later Jewish traditions (predating the Christian era), the vowel sounds of ‘Elohim,’ or of ‘Adonai’ being used instead, accompanying the Tetragrammaton in the text. The true pronunciation of the word was in this way lost, though the form ‘Yahweh’ is that on which most scholars agree.] to be worn on the forehead and reaching from ear to ear.[]

And again the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Thou shalt make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass and it shall be put between the tabernacle and the altar; and with the water poured in it the priests shall wash their hands and feet when about to don the holy garments and to go in and out of the tabernacle, as did Aaron and his sons while carrying the blood of the sacrifices to atone for the sins of the people, and when they went to the altar and offered incense. The laver was made of the mirrors of the women who watched at the entrance to the tabernacle. These mirrors were placed about he upper rim of the laver so that the priests could look in it and ascertain whether their faces and garments were without blemish.

The Lord also commanded Moses to make a tabernacle in this form. The tabernacle was a house consecrated to God, four-cornered and rectangular, with three closed walls toward the north, south and west. The entrance from the east was open, so that it might be lighted by the rays of the rising sun. The length was thirty cubits, the width was ten cubits, and its height ten cubits. On the south side were twenty erect boards of shittim wood, each ten cubits in length, four fingers thick, and a cubit and a half wide. These boards were made to fit together and were gilded on both sides, and each was set upon two silver perforated posts. The north wall was made in the same manner. But to the west there were six boards, all

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) THE ALTAR OF THE BURNT OFFERINGS

Of the Altar of the Burnt Offerings two versions are given: one according to the Latin (‘Altare holocasti secundum latinos’), the other according to the Hebrew (‘Altare holocasti secundum hebreos’). Between these two woodcuts a third is inserted, showing a landscape, no doubt to give the idea that these altars were used in the open. The composite extends across the page to a height of 2-3/4". The Latin altar follows the description in Genesis very closely. The Hebrew altar is more elaborate, probably according to specifications worked out by some Rabbi. The structure was also known as the "brazen altar," and it stood directly in front of the principal entrance. Translated into our own measurements, it was 7 feet and 6 inches square, and 4 feet and 6 inches high. The fire used on this altar is said to have been kindled miraculously and was perpetually maintained. The altar was a place of constant sacrifice.

(B) THE VESTMENTS OF THE HIGH PRIEST

The Vestments of the High Priest are illustrated by a woodcut 7-3/4" x 3-3/4". In order to fully demonstrate the various points of his apparel, the high priest is made to stand with his feet apart in sailor fashion and his hands uplifted, his arms being crooked at the elbows. He wears his pointed mitre with its crescent-shaped emblem, the Tetragrammaton, or group of four letters inscribed on it, referring to the Deity; his breastplate with its twelve jewels, emblematical of the twelve tribes of Israel; his embroidered girdle; his sleeveless habergeon extending to the hips and highly embroidered; his coat, ornamented on the lower seams with alternating bells and pomegranates, and below this his long white coat. The bells were designed to assure those out and about that their officiating minister was about his holy work, and when the sound was heard they knew that he was performing his duties in proper attire. The sound indicated both when he entered and when he came out of the holy place. A failure to wear this robe would have been a wanton contempt to the holy place and its service, and would have exposed him to the judgment of death. The breastplate was a piece of embroidered work about ten inches square and made double, with a front and lining so as to function as a pouch or bag.

(C) THE LAVER

The Laver is represented by a woodcut 5" x 4-3/4". Elevated above its rim are twelve circular mirrors. These were not of glass as in our day, but the brazen mirrors of the women who assembled at the door of the tabernacle court (Exodus 38:8). The use of these reflectors has already been explained in the text. The laver has been conceived as a circular bowl, supported by a pedestal, giving it the appearance of a squat chalice, and here the woodcutter has added four water spouts equidistantly placed about the rim of the laver and taking on the form of animal heads.

FOLIO XXXIII verso

alike. In the middle of the temple and for its width the Lord commanded a beautiful veil (or dividing curtain) to be suspended against four pillars, and a quadruple ceiling of skins, with various colors interwoven, and of haircloth, of red skins, and blue skins. The other details are set forth in the Book of Exodus.[The chronicler has given us an abridgment of the tabernacle specifications, given with elaborate detail in Exodus 26:1-36. A clearer idea of the whole structure is given in Exodus, and may be further clarified by consulting commentaries, many of which contain illustrations.]

In the first year Moses constructed a tabernacle for the Lord. Completing the work in seven months, on the first day of the first month of the second year he erected it. The Jews also through Moses began to keep their law at the same time with their letters.[The translation provided above ("The Jews also through Moses began to keep their law at the same time with their letters.") of the Latin phrase Judei quoque per Moysen lege(m) sil(=simul?) cu(m) l(itte)ris h(abe)re ceperu(n)t is very uncertain. Perhaps the meaning (if the translation is at all correct) is that the Jews began to write down the Torah when they first received the Hebrew letterforms from Moses.] Once again the Lord said to Moses, When you will count the sons of Israel, each one will give a price to the Lord for his own soul so that no plague comes to them, half a shekel according to the measurement (of a shekel) of the sanctuary. And a shekel is worth twenty obols. And this money was paid back for the use of the tabernacle.[Cf. Exodus 30:12-16.] And when these speeches had been completed, he gave to Moses two tablets of stone, written with the finger of God.[Cf. Exodus 31:18.] A divine work, not human, the Decalogue was written on both sides (of the tablets). And as the Hebrews pass down in their tradition, on one side there were figures like the figures on the opposite side, which was ascribed to a miracle. Others were speaking that the figures were carved in repeated letters. Furthermore, Catholic theologians, in particular the divine Augustine, place three commandments on the first tablet of the testimony; these govern man in relation to God. On the second (tablet) seven are written which are ranked next in importance. However, Rabbi Solomon and the Hebrews separate the commandments into five on one tablet and five on the other. Afterwards, when it appears to the man in the figure of a calf[The translation provided above ("Afterwards, when it appears to the man in the figure of a calf") of the Latin phrase Postea vo (vero? viro?) ut i(n) figura vituli videt(ur) is very uncertain.], Moses, descending and seeing the calf and the dancers, growing angry, threw the tablets down, and they were broken.[Cf. Exodus 32.19. This entire paragraph has been deleted from the later German edition.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) TABERNACLE DETAILS

The architectural details show: (1) The individual boards of which the tabernacle was built, how they were tennoned, how held together and set in to place; (2) a view of the boards set and locked into position; and (3) a full view of one side of the tabernacle assembled.

(B) THE TABLETS OF THE LAW

Of the Tablets of the Law there are two versions: (1) according to "other doctors"; and (2) according to the Hebrew doctors. In both cases the form is the same, namely, that of a hinged or folding diptych, such as the Greeks and Romans were accustomed to write upon with a stylus. The tablets are rectangular in general form, but each leaf is rounded at the top. The commandments are inscribed in Latin.

FOLIO XXXIIII recto

Aptheros, the king of Crete, was the first to discover the gathering of honey. His daughter conceived through sinful intercourse, and of her some unfavorable things are said. After him (Aptheros) his son Anidis reigned. He also made laws and invented plowing with oxen. Erictonius[The reference is probably to Erichthonius or Erechtheus I, son of Hephaestus and Atthis, the daughter of Cranaus. Athena reared the child without the knowledge of the gods, and entrusted him to Agraulos, Pandrosos and Herse, concealed in a chest. They were forbidden to open it, but they disobeyed. On opening it they saw the child in the form of a serpent, or entwined serpent; whereupon they were seized with madness, and threw themselves down the rock of the Acropolis, or, according to others, into the sea. When Erichthonius grew up he expelled Amphictyon, and became king of Athens. He was the first to use a chariot with four horses, for which reason he was placed among the stars as Auriga (‘Charioteer’), a large northern constellation. He was buried in the temple of Athena, and was worshipped as a god after his death. His famous temple, the Erechtheion stood on the Acropolis.], a prince of the Athenians, was the first to introduce the use of the wagon.

Fenix (Phoenix) reigned in Tyre and Sidon and taught the use of the alphabet, and invented the use of Phoenician or red color with which capital letters are made.[ Phoenix was a brother of Cadmus, and he, like Cadmus, was sent by his father in search of Europa, his sister, whom Zeus had carried off. Phoenix settled in the country, which was later called after him Phoenicia, of which Tyre and Sidon were the most important cities. Purple red was obtained from a sea snail on the Phoenician coasts and was a celebrated article of Phoenician commerce. The name Phoenicia is first found in Greek writers as early as Homer, and is derived by some from the abundance of palm trees in the country; by others from the purple red color, just mentioned; besides the mythical derivation from Phoenix, the brother of Cadmus.] A B C D Alpha vita (Beta) Gamma Delta.

At this point, the German edition includes the following text: "Cadimus (Cadmus) built the city of Thebes in Boeotia, and reigned there himself. He invented the Greek letters, Alpha, Beta, Gama, Delta." The Cadmus here referred to is probably the son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and Telepassa, and the brother of Europa. When Zeus carried off Europa to Crete, Agenor sent Cadmus in search of his sister. Unable to find her, he settled in Thrace; but having consulted the oracle at Delphi, he was commanded by the god to follow a cow of a certain description, and to build a town where the cow would sink down with fatigue. Cadmus found the cow in Phocia and followed her into Boeotia, where she sank down on the spot on which Cadmus built Cadmea, afterwards the citadel of Thebes. Athena assigned Cadmus to its government. He is said to have introduced into Greece an alphabet of 16 letters from Phoenicia or Egypt, and to have been the first to work the mines of Pangaeon in Thrace. The story of Cadmus suggests Phoenician or Egyptian immigration into Greece, by means of which the alphabet, the art of mining and civilization, came into the country. But many modern writers deny the existence of such a colony, and regard Cadmus as a Pelasgian divinity. Following this missing text, the German edition also includes the following two short paragraphs:

Under this (referring to the opposite illustration in the Latin edition called Amynthas) Amictus, the 18th king of the Assyrians, Joshua died. At the same time King Corate reigned as the 16th king of Sicyonia.

This Lompares (referring to the opposite illustration named Bellothus in the Latin edition) was the 23rd king of the Assyrians, under whom the history of Deborah (as Augustine states) was written and the kingdom of the Greeks ended.


Nuremberg Chronicle, German Edition

Corinth, the city in the land of Achaia, was quite celebrated. It was first named by Sysiphus[Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, is said to have built Ephyra, afterwards Corinth. For his avarice and deceitfulness in life he was severely punished in the lower world, being obliged to roll a huge block of marble up a hill, which, when it reached the top, rolled back down again.] in the 80th year of Moses, and was built on Mt. Ischmon. It was first called Cerchira, and afterward Ephyra. For this reason Virgil writes of Ephyrian bronzes; for the Corinthians were much praised for their most beautiful and artistic vessels. But the city was thereafter destroyed. It was rebuilt by Corinthus, son of Orestes, and after him it was named Corinth. It was finally set in flames by the Romans, and since then it has never returned to its former prestige. The first ruler of the Corinthians was Athletes[Corinth was originally inhabited by the Aeolic race, and here ruled the Aeolic Sisyphus and his descendants. When the Dorians conquered the Peloponnese, the sovereign power passed into the hands of Heraclid Aletes, whom the chronicler calls Athletes. The conquerors became the ruling class, and the Aeolian inhabitants their subjects. After Aletes and his descendants had reigned five generations, royalty was abolished and followed by an oligarchical form of government confined to the powerful families of the Bacchiadae.], a Greek, and a most successful warrior. Corinth was governed by twelve kings over a period of 323 years. Thereafter it became a government of the citizens. Peloponnesus, the country which the Latins call Norea (Noreia) was a protector and defender of all Greece. But when the Turkish power commenced to oppress Europe, the Greek rulers built a wall from one sea to another through the narrows, and thereby Peloponnesus was separated from the rest of Greece. The holy apostle Paul, with understanding, taught and did wonderful works, drawing the Corinthians from their idolatries to the true Christian religion.[Corinth, which Homer calls Ephyra, was located on the Isthmus of Corinth, and this is what the chronicler may mean when he refers to "Mt. Ischmon." Its territory embraced the greater part of the isthmus. In the north and south the country is mountainous, but in the center it is a plain with a solitary steep mountain rising from it, called Acrocorinthus, which served as the city’s citadel. Corinth was built on the north side of this mountain. Its favorable location raised it to great commercial prosperity and importance, and it became a great sea power. The city was adorned with magnificent buildings, and the fine arts were practiced with vigor and success. With great wealth came luxury and a reputation for licentiousness. The worship of Aphrodite prevailed, and in her temples a vast number of courtesans was maintained. Corinth maintained its independence to the time of the Macedonian supremacy. In the year 146 BCE the city was destroyed by the Romans in a most barbarous manner. Its inhabitants were sold into slavery, and such of its works of art as the soldiery did not destroy were carried off to Rome. Its buildings were razed to the ground, and for a century the city lay in ruins. In 46 BCE it was rebuilt by Caesar, who people it with a colony of veterans and descendants of freemen. It was now called Colonia Julia Corinthus. It became the capital of the Roman province Achaia, recovering much of its ancient prosperity.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) FOUR DISTINGUISHED KINGS

At the top of Folio XXXIIII recto, by a horizontal panel 6-3/4" x 2.5", we are introduced to a gallery of four kings:

  1. Aptheros, king of Crete, who first conceived the idea of gathering honey from the bees. He is represented as any king might be, scepter in hand, and without symbols.
  2. Erichthonius, king of Athens, who holds as symbol the wheel of the chariot, indicative of his invention of that vehicle in his own country.
  3. Phoenix (Fenix), who carries a scepter in one hand and gestures with the other.
  4. Cadmus (Cadinus), the builder of Thebes (in Boeotia) carries the scepter and orb. The text on Cadmus—in which he is described as introducing Phoenician letters to Greece—was inadvertently left out of the Latin edition (a problem fixed in the German edition six months later).

(B) LINEAGE OF ASSYRIAN KINGS (Cont.)

By a vertical panel 2-1/4" x 8.5" on the left side of Folio XXXIIII recto, the Lineage of the Assyrian Kings is continued from Folio XXVII recto as follows:

  1. Ascades (in the German edition called Astades), a king who is not mentioned in the text, appears in royal form with crown, scepter and orb.
  2. Amynthas (in the German edition named Amictus), appears in royal form with crown, scepter and orb.
  3. Bellothus (in the German edition named Lomperes), appears in royal form with crown, scepter and orb.

(C) THE CITY OF CORINTH

The City of Corinth, represented by the same woodcut as Nineveh (Folio XX recto).

FOLIO XXXIIII verso

This Carmentis (referring to a portrait opposite) was a daughter of Evander (Euandri). She invented the Latin alphabet. A b c d e f g h i k l m n o p q r s t v x.[The Carmenae, Camenae, or Casmenae, were prophetic nymphs, who belonged to the religion of ancient Italy, although later traditions represent their worship as introduced from Arcadia. Some accounts identify them with the Muses. The most important of these goddesses was Carmentis, or Carmenta, who had a temple at the foot of the Capitoline Hill. Evander was a son of an Arcadian nymph, Themis, or Nicostrata, and in Roman traditions Carmenta or Tiburtis. About 60 years before the Trojan War, Evander is said to have led a Pelasgian colony into Italy, and there to have built a town on the Tiber, which town was subsequently incorporated with Rome. He taught his neighbors milder laws, arts of peace, and social life, and especially the art of writing, with which he himself had been made acquainted by Hercules. Such is the general tradition, but it differs from the in these respects: (1) Carmentis was not the daughter but the mother of Evander; (2) he, and not she, introduced the alphabet.]

Salmon, the son of Naasson, was born, according to the seventy interpreters, in the 3725th year of the world, which is the 1474th year before the birth of Christ. He was prince in the tribe of Judah. With Joshua he went into the Promised Land and took for wife Rahab, a common woman.[Rahab was a woman of Jericho who kept a public house. She had heard of the Israelites and of their favor with God (Joshua 2:8-11); so when Joshua’s spies came to Jericho to explore the land of promise, she favored them as has been told in a previous note, and she and her family were preserved. It is supposed that she married into a noble family of the tribe of Judah. Under the name of Rachab she is mentioned in the genealogy of Christ. "And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon; and Salmon begat Boaz of Rachab; and Boaz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse; and Jesse begat David, the king," etc., (Matthew 1:4-6).]

Italus, the king, built a city on the river Tiber, and reigned there. On the same site Rome was built in later times. All Italy was afterwards named for Italus.[Italus was one of the ancient kings of the Pelasgians, Siculians, or Oenotrians, and it is from him that Italy was believed to have derived its name.]

From this Rechab (referring to a portrait opposite) sprang a very spiritual lineage, which is said to have existed at this time. He descended from Jethro, the friend of Moses, and was converted to the Jewish faith.[Rechab, father of Jehonadab, appears in II Kings 10:15-28, as a fervent supporter of Jehu’s attack on the house of Ahab and his endeavor to root out the idolatry which that dynasty had allowed. Neh. 3:14 reports that a son of Rechab assisted in re-fortifying Jerusalem. It is to be noted that later Rabbis found the fulfillment of Jer. 35:19 in those marriages of Rechabite maidens into priestly families from which later priests sprang. Hence the statement of the chronicler that from Rechab sprang a spiritual lineage.]

Tiberias, or Tiberiadis, formerly called Zenreth or Cynaroth, lies in the coast regions, between the east and south, about two miles from Bethulia[Bethulia was a city of Samaria. It is the scene of the Book of Judith.], the mountain, where Judith slew Holofernes. After the city was rebuilt by Herod, the ruler of Galilee, it was named Tiberiadis in honor of the emperor, Tiberius; and now it is called Tiberias.[Tiberias is a city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The ancient city was south of the modern one. Herod made it his capital. The town was built on an ancient site, probably Rakkath (Joshua 29:35) and in the course of construction a graveyard was disturbed. In consequence the Jews, fearful of uncleanness, refused to live there, and Herod was forced to use compulsion in order to people his town (Joseph, . XVII, 2, 3). No mention is made of Tiberias in the gospels, except casually in John 6:23. The city was of too recent date and too Hellenistic in outlook to invite attention. It is unlikely that Jesus ever visited it. Christianity found no congenial soil there and made no headway until the 4th century. The Arabs came in 637. When the Crusaders established their kingdom in Jerusalem, Tancred was appointed ruler in Galilee. Tiberias became his capital and was in part rebuilt on the new site farther north. In their advance on Damascus, British troops seized it in October 1918.] Here Christ made an apostle of Matthew, the toll gatherer. At one time there was here a bishop whose jurisdiction comprehended the Sea of Galilee. Near this city (as it is said) are natural warm springs. Here also ends the region called Decapolis[Decapolis was a district of Palestine, so named from the ten cities contained within its limits. The cities are variously given by different writers. According to Pliny there were Damascus, Philadelphia, Rhaphana, Scythopolis, Gadara, Hippos, Dios, Pella, Galasa (Gerasa?) and Canatha.], so called by reason of its ten distinguished cities. In this same region, not far removed from Tiberias, is the sea of Asphaltides,

Asphaltites Lacus. Of all the natural phenomena of Palestine, the Dead Sea is that which ahs attracted the notice of geographers and naturalists both in ancient and modern times, as exhibiting peculiarities and suggesting questions of great interest from a geological point of view. The earliest reference to it is in Genesis (14:3), where it is identified with the vale "of Siddim," and denominated "the Salt Sea." Its common name among the classical authors, first found in Diodorus Siculus, and adopted by Josephus, is "Asphaltites Lacus." The name by which it is best known among Europeans is "Mortuum Mare." Its modern native name is Bahr Lot,’— "The Sea of Lot"— therein perpetuating the memorial of the catastrophe to which legend ascribes its formation. Its waters are very salty and of an extremely noxious odor, so that neither fish nor any of the other marine animals can live in it. Through fresh-watered rivers flow into it, yet by its odor it counteracts their effect. From its center there arises every year a large mass of bitumen. The bitumen floating on the surface appears at a distance like an island. About twenty days before the material rises to the surface its odor spread about the sea with a noxious air, and all the silver, gold and brass in the neighborhood loses its natural color. This returns when the bitumen is ejected. This bitumen is carried off by the inhabitants on large rafts of reeds that they launch in the lake. There is no danger of drowning because the waters support all weight capable of expansion, or which contains air, but not solid substance, which have a density like that of gold, silver, lead and the like.

The dismal associations of the name of the Dead Sea are not borne out by the sea itself. The wild tales of medieval travelers that in its poisonous air no plant could live, that over its dead waters no bird could fly, and that no waves ever disturbed its gloomy surface, are figments of the imagination. The tradition that this sea covers Sodom and Gomorrah dates from Josephus. The site of the overwhelmed cities, whether under the waters of the sea at its north end, or its south end, or on its eastern or western shores, continues to excite the ingenuity of investigators. The Dead Sea lies about 1300 feet below the surface level of the Mediterranean, and is the lowest sheet of water on the earth’s crust.

which, by reason of its size and the immobility of its waters, is called the Dead Sea. Its waters are stiff and tough because of the clay or lime which resists the waves, so that it is not activated by the wind and cannot be used by ships. All inanimate matter sinks to the bottom, and so this sea does not support material of any kind, except such as receives the light of day. Its length exceeds one hundred thousand paces; its width at its greatest point is twenty-five thousand paces, and at its smallest point six thousand paces.[This last sentence relating the Dead Sea’s length and width are not in the German edition of the .]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) CARMENTIS, ITALUS, AND RECHAB

The following are represented by individual portraits (each 2" square):

  1. Carmentis, daughter of King Evander, portrayed by the same woodcut which represented Zilpah (Zelpha), handmaid of Leah (not of Rachel), at Folio XXVI recto.
  2. Italus Rex, Italy’s first mythical king. The same woodcut was used for Xerxes, Folio XXVI recto.
  3. Rechab, from whom a priestly line was evolved. The same woodcut did service for Sol, the son of Jupiter, at Folio XXV recto.

(B) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (CONT.)

The Lineage of Christ was brought down to and including Naasson (Naason) at Folio XXX recto, and is here continued; but with only one addition—Salmon, his son. This woodcut, 5" x 2-1/4" is a sturdy piece of work, far superior to many of the portraits in the Chronicle. It is the typical conception of an old Jewish patriarch. This lineage will not be resumed until we reach Folio XXXV recto.

(C) TIBERIAS

Tiberias (Tyberias or Tyberiadis) is depicted by the same woodcut that was used for Lacedaemonia at Folio XXVIII verso.

FOLIO XXXV recto

At about this time the kings of Italy commenced to reign. Their names frequently changed. The very first was Janus. He built a palace that was named Janiculum after him. Later he was held to be a great god. He is portrayed with two faces, and his holiday was the beginning of the year. He was the end of the old year and the beginning of the new. The first month, January, is for him.[Janus was worshipped by both the Etruscans and the Romans, and occupied an important place in the Roman religion. He presided over the beginning of everything, and was therefore always invoked first in every undertaking, even before Jupiter. He opened the year and the seasons, and hence the first month of the year was called after him. He was the porter of heaven, and therefore bore the surname Patulcus, or Patulcius, the "opener," and Clusius, or Clusivius, the "shutter." In this capacity he is represented with a key in his left hand and a staff or scepter in his right. On earth also he was the guardian deity of the gates, and hence is commonly represented with two heads, because every door looks two ways. He is sometimes represented with four heads, because he presided over the four seasons. At Rome, Numa is said to have dedicated to Janus the covered passage bearing his name, which was opened in the time of war, and closed in time of peace. This passage is commonly, but erroneously, called a temple. It stood close by the forum. It appears to have been left open in time of war to indicate that the god had gone out to assist the Roman warriors, and to have been shut in time of peace that the god, the safeguard of the city, might not escape. On New Year’s Day, which was the principal festival of the god, people gave presents to each other, consisting of sweetmeats and copper coins, showing on one side the double head of Janus, and on the other a ship. The sacrifices offered to him consisted of cakes, barley, incense and wine.]

Saturn, the king, was the father of Jove, the Cretan Zeus, the son of Arius, the son of Ninyas, the son of Ninus, the son of Belus, the son of Nimrod; he began to reign in the time of Isaac, and was thereafter ousted from the kingdom by his son Jove. Now as Janus saw that Saturn wished to assume the life of a peaceful citizen, and desired to plant vineyards and teach their cultivation, he hospitably received him and shared the kingdom with him. And Saturn bore Picus, who ruled after him. Some call Saturn by the name of Stercutius from manure (stercus), the use of which he, as a most informed husbandman, discovered. For this reason, after his death, they made him a god of agriculture and good fortune. The Romans pictured Saturn with a sad countenance gray with age, in his left hand a scythe, in his right a flame-spewing dragon. His sorrowful countenance indicated that he had been driven out of his own country, or that the appearance of Saturn, the star, foreboded grievous things. Item: And as this star is the coldest in its operations, the ram and the water carrier (Aquarius), which indicate Saturn, are also considered cold signs. Item: the gray hair symbolizes that he discovered husbandry, or that by reason of his cold nature he is an enemy of humankind; for (as Servius states) he held in his left arm the children whom he slew with his scythe. Item: the dragon denotes that he is the end of the year. He is also called the father of Jove, for he is higher than Jupiter. He also wears a water-colored garment, for his star is by nature moist and cold. Saturn loves to receive the sacrifice of a young person by death; for the devil, being envious of the human race, dotes on human sacrifice and the spilling of human blood.

According to the popular belief of the Romans, Saturn made his first appearance in Italy when Janus was reigning over the fertile region that stretches along the banks of the Tiber. Ejected from his own country, he presented himself to Janus, and was kindly received. He proceeded to instruct the people in agriculture and many other arts then unknown to them, for example, how to train and nurse the vine, and how to cultivate fruit trees. And so he raised the people from their rude condition to one of peace and order. In consequence he was held in high esteem, and in course of time Janus shared with him the government of the kingdom, which thereupon assumed the name of Saturnia, ‘a land of seed and fruit.’ The poets called his time the golden age. Once a year, in December, the Romans held a feast, the Saturnalia, in his honor.

Sterculius, Stercutius, or Sterquilinus are surnames of Saturn, derived from stercus, manure, because he had promoted agriculture by teaching the people the use of manure. Saturn’s temple stood at the foot of the clivus Capitolinus leading from the Forum where the ruins of a late restoration of it are still visible. It contained the Republican treasury. The feet of his statue were bound together by woolen bands, probably to keep it from running away. He was untied during the Saturnalia to join in the fun.

Juno, a daughter of Saturn and Ops, and a sister and wife of Jupiter, lived at this time. Through pagan error she was regarded as the queen of the gods, and so became the goddess of the kingdom’s finances and of marriage. And they imagined her to be the guardian of women in childbirth; so they made her a beautiful chariot and a coat of arms, and assigned to her fourteen excellent maids. She was also waited upon by a peacock, in whose tail (as Ovid states) she set the eyes of her herdsman, Argus, who was slain by Mercury. Juno bore Vulcan by Jupiter, and upon her death was finally accounted a goddess. The Samians erected a noble temple to her.

Juno (the Hera of the Greeks), was the sister and wife of Jupiter, the Zeus of the Greeks. As Jupiter was the king of heaven, so his spouse was its queen. As such she was worshipped at Rome. As Jupiter was the protector of the male sex, so she was the protectress of the female. She was supposed to accompany every woman through life. Moreover, she was the guardian of the realm’s finances, and under the name Moneta, had a temple, which contained the mint. Being a married goddess, she was believed especially to preside over marriage. June, originally called Junonius, was considered the most favorable period for marrying. Women in childbirth invoked Juno Lucina, and newly born children were likewise under her protection. In the representations of the Roman Juno that have come down to us, the type of the Greek Hera is commonly adopted.

A splendid temple was erected to Hera at Samos. She is usually represented as a majestic woman of mature age, with a beautiful forehead, large and wide-open eyes, and a grave expression commanding reverence. Her hair is adorned with a crown or diadem. A veil frequently hangs down the back of her head, to characterize her as the bride of Zeus, and the diadem, veil, scepter and peacock are her usual attributes.

The Argus to whom the Chronicle refers was surnamed Panoptes, "the all-seeing," because he had a hundred eyes. Hera appointed him guardian of her cow into which Io had been metamorphosed. But Hermes (Mercury) at the command of Zeus, put Argus to death, either by stoning him, or by cutting off his head, after sending him to sleep with sweet notes of his flute. Hera transplanted his eyes to the tail of the peacock, her favorite bird.

Poets describe the marital difficulties of Zeus and Hera at great length. She was extremely jealous of his early amours. On one occasion, at least, Jupiter beat his spouse, and threw her son Hephaestus (Vulcan) out of Olympus. As goddess of storms, Hera was consistently described as the mother of Ares (Mars), occasionally herself taking part in wars.

Picus, the son of Saturn, was the first king of Laurentum, and an excellent warrior. He was also a prophet in interpreting the cries of birds. He was assigned a rank among the gods. [ Picus, a purely Roman deity, was the son and successor of Saturn. He was an ancient prophet and forest god. According to one story he loved and married Pomona. Circe, the witch, was attracted by his beauty, but finding her affection unreciprocated, avenged herself by changing him into a woodpecker, a bird held to be a sacred symbol of prophecy by the Augurs, or Roman priests, whose office was to foretell coming events by observing the flight of birds and other phenomena. Besides being worshipped as a god, Picus was also regarded as one of the first kings of Italy. According to another legend, Picus was not changed into a woodpecker, but merely made use of that bird in his prophetic art. He was a famous soothsayer and augur. The whole legend of Picus is founded on the notion that the woodpecker (picus) is a prophetic bird.]

Faunus was the second king of Laurentum and was also a god, according to some who chose to call him such. [ Faunus was a son of Picus. He corresponds to the Greek Pan, and the Roman poets frequently called the latter "Faunus." But Faunus had certain myths peculiar to himself. He delivered oracles in groves and communicated them by means of dreams, which those desiring them obtained by sleeping in sacred places on hides of animals that had been offered as sacrifices.]

All the women who prophesy, or foretell the future, are commonly, according to the Greek tongue, called Sibyls. The very learned speak of ten of these: as one from Persia; the second from Libya; the third from Delphi; the fourth from Cimmeria; the fifth from Erythrea; the sixth from Samos; the seventh from Cumaea, or Amalthea; the eighth form the Hellespont; the ninth from Phrygia, the tenth from Tiburtina.

Sibylla is a name designating a number of prophetic women in various countries and at different times in antiquity. The first and original Sibyl is said to have been a daughter of Dardanus and Neso. The number of Sibyls varied according to authors from one by Plato to twelve by other writers: Erythrean, Samian, Egyptian, Sardinian, Babylonian, Libyan, Delphian, Cimmerian, Hellespontine, Phrygian, Tiburtine and Cumaean. The most famous of these was the Cumaean Sibyl, identified with Herophile of Erythrae in Ionia, and who was thought to have lived a thousand years. She was consulted by Aeneas concerning his descent into Hades and sold to the last Tarquin three prophetic books at a price he refused to give for the original nine, six of which she had burned.

The derivation and meaning of ‘Sibylla’ are unknown, but certainly are not Greek. In the period preceding the development of the full classical culture (about 800-600 BCE), religious movements of all sorts were common in Greece and Asia Minor, and especially, inspired prophets were numerous. Many prophecies, generally in hexameter verse, the usual meter of Apolline oracles, were attributed to the Erythrean Sibyl, and her popularity led ultimately to her multiplication, numerous places claiming, from about the 4th century on, to be her native city, or to have been visited by her, or to be the birthplace of another Sibyl of like inspiration. Varro gives a list of ten, which includes the famous Cumaean Sibyl, often identified with the Erythrean.

The Sibylla was supposed to be the authoress of the Sibylline Oracles, which were kept in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus at Rome under the care of the quindecimviri and consulted in emergencies by order of the Senate. Apollo loved her and granted her the gift of prophecy, and also a life of as many years as she had grains of dust in her hand; but she forgot to ask for youth, and so gradually withered away almost to nothing. Finally, Jewish and Christian apologists discovered a Judaean or Babylonian Sibyl to whom were attributed the numerous prophecies, still extant, containing Judaeo-Christian propaganda.

The Sibylline Oracles have been defined as a collection of Apocalyptic writings, composed in imitation of the Greek and Roman Sibylline books by the Jews and, at a later date, by the Christians in their efforts to win the pagan world to their faith. The fact that they copied the Greek form in which the revelations were conveyed, and the Homeric language, is evidence of a degree of external Hellenization, which is an important fact in the history of post-exilic Judaism. Book III contains Jewish oracles relative to the Golden Age established by Roman supremacy in the East about the middle of the second century BCE. Book IV is a definite attack upon the ‘heathen’ Sibyl (the Jews and Christians did not attempt to pass off their "forgeries" as genuine) as the mouthpiece of Apollo by a Jew who speaks for the Great God and yet uses a Greek review of ancient history from the Assyrian empire. Book V contains a more developed form of the myth of Nero redivivus in which a panegyric on him has been brought up to date by some Jew or Christian, and eulogies of Hadrian and his successor, side by side, with the legend of the miserable death of Titus in revenge for his destruction of Jerusalem, which probably represents the hope of the zealots who survived it. The remaining books appear to be Christian, and to belong to the 2nd and 3rd centuries.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) JUNO

Juno is represented by the same illustration that portrayed Ceres at Folio XXV, recto. There is nothing Greek or Roman about the portrait—just a commonplace medieval portrait of any woman.

(B) LINEAGE OF THE KINGS OF ITALY

The Lineage of the Sovereigns of Italy appears here in illustration for the first time. It covers the full length of the page, and includes Janus, the prime mythological ancestor; Saturn, who became his partner in government; and Picus, and Faunus, respectively Saturn’s son and grandson. All four are represented in regal attire with crown, orb, and scepter. The portraits of all four are the same used in the Greek Lineage (Folio XXIX, recto) of Inachus, Phoroneus, Serapis, and Argus.

FOLIO XXXV verso

Sibilla Agrippa, in a rose-colored dress, and not so very young, holds one hand to her bosom as if surprised, while with the other she points to a brief writing which says: "The unseen word will be touched, and will bring one forth as from a root. He will wither like a leaf, and his beauty will not be apparent. The motherly body will be encompassed and God will blossom forth in eternal joy. And he will be trodden down by man. He will be born of a mother, as a god, but will wander about as a sinner. A heathen saw this glory."

Sibilla Libica, adorned with a green floral wreath, clothed in a modest mantle, and also not very young, speaks thus: "Believe this as true, The day will come, and the Lord will illumine the density of darkness; and the bond of the synagogue will be released, and the last of the human race will come to an end and see the king of the living. A virgin will hold him in her bosom, a mistress to the pagans. And he will rule in mercy, and the body of his mother will be a balance or scale for the people of the age."

Sibilla Delphica, was born before the Trojan War. She is clad in black. Her hair is dressed in a coronet braid, and she is of youthful stature. In her hand she holds a horn. She says: "A prophet will be born of a virgin without human intercourse."

Sibilla Frigia, in a red dress, her arms bare, a sad elderly countenance and tousled hair. She points with a finger and says: "From heaven on high he will come and he will strengthen his council in heaven. And a virgin in the valley of the wilderness will receive the annunciation."

Sibilla Samia, young in person, with a beautiful bosom, wearing a subtle veil, and holding her hand to her breast, speaks: "Accept this for truth, A wealthy one is coming, born of a poor woman. The animals of the earth will worship him and cry out and say: In the forecourts of heaven you shall praise him."

Sibilla Europa, young and beautiful, of ruddy face, framed in the subtlest veil, and wearing a dress embroidered in gold, points to a short inscription, and says: "He will come, and he will pass over the hills and the hidden waters of heaven, or the mountain Olympus. He will govern in poverty and reign in silence, and come forth from the womb of a virgin."

Sibilla Persica, in a dress of gold and a white veil, speaks thus: "Take for true, you irrational animal that is trodden upon, the Lord will be born within the confines of the earth. And the lap of the Virgin will be a salvation to the pagans, and his feet will be employed in the advancement of mankind, and the hidden word will be touched."

I have also found another Sibyl (whose name I have not been able to learn). She testifies to Christ, and speaks: "Out of the tribes of the Hebrews will come forth a woman named Mary, who has a spouse by the name of Joseph. Out of her will issue, without cohabitation with man, but through the Holy Ghost, the Son of God, called Jesus. And she will be a virgin before and after the birth. He who will be born of her will be a true God and a real man. And he will fulfill the laws of the Jews, adding his own laws to them. His kingdom will remain upon earth. Over him will come a voice, saying This is my beloved Son, Him you shall hear. He will be the resurrection of the dead. He will speedily cure the lame and crippled; and the deaf will hear, the blind will see, and the dumb will speak. With five loaves of bread and two fishes many thousands of people will be fed. With a word he will allay the winds and calm the raging sea. And he will tread the sea with his feet and wander about on the waters. He will relieve the sick and drive away much pain."

Item: Another Sibyl, called Erythraea, said: "In the last age God will become patient, and the godly race will become human and the Deity will come among humanity. The lamb will lay down in the hay, and God and man will be sustained by a virgin’s care. And he will elect twelve from among the fishermen and the rejected."

ILLUSTRATIONS
THE SIBYLS

These prophetic ladies are represented by eight distinct portraits, four to the left and four to the right of the text. In view of the fact that the chronicler has already described them, not much remains to be said. In reading these descriptions we note that the chronicler has introduced the element of color: The dress of the Phrygian Sibyl is said to be red; while that of Sibyla Agrippa is rose-colored. The Libyan, or Egyptian Sibyl, is said to be adorned with a green wreath. The European Sibyl has rosy cheeks, while the Persian Sibyl is represented as dressed in gold and white.

The last, or ‘very spiritual’ Sibyl (Sibilla q(ua)dam valde religiosa), is undoubtedly the invention of the chronicler himself. The Erythrean prophetess is mentioned in the text but not honored in the gallery. The Cumean, Tiburtine, Hellespontine, Cimmerian, Babylonian, Sardinian and Egyptian Sibyls (unless the latter is included under the Libyan) are neither mentioned in the text nor portrayed. On the other hand, in addition to the Spiritual or Religious Sibyl already mentioned, the Chronicle speaks of and illustrates the Sibyls of Agrippa, Persia and Europe.

The confusion arises through the fact that the ancients have not agreed upon either the names or the numbers of these prophetic women.

FOLIO XXXVI recto

This Troys (Tros; referring to the portrait below), reigned in Dardania and built Troy.

Anchises (portrayed opposite), according to the erroneous idea of the pagans, bore through the goddess Venus a son, Aeneas, who ruled in Italy.

Laomedon (portrayed opposite), the king of Troy, was slain. His daughter Ixiona was taken prisoner and carried to Greece. Out of this a serious war resulted and terrible evils followed.

Troy (Troas) is a region in Asia Minor in which lay the city of Ilion (Ilium). Yet at times Troy was considered the name of the city. According to Homer, Troy was the most celebrated city among all cities under the sun and the heavenly stars. But now great Troy (which was the capital of almost all of Asia) is extinguished, so that hardly a trace of it is to be seen. For now (as Ovid and Virgil write) fields and farms have taken its place, the city having been burned and destroyed. And so end all mortal things. Once upon a time a king’s son, named Troys (Tros), in his old age, it being the 40th year of Aioth (Aiah or Ajah) the judge, came into Dardania and built Troy. He was a fighter and learned in the art of war. He enlarged the kingdom, and the region formerly called Dardania was named Troy after him. One Dardanius came into the land of Phrygia, and he called it Dardania. To this same Dardanius (Dardanus) was born the above named Troys (Tros), who in righteousness and goodness was a praiseworthy man. In his memory Troy was named. He had two sons, Ilium (Ilus) and Astiricum (Erichthonis?). The first and eldest of these ruled Troy and called it Ilium. Laomedon, son of Ilus, was the father of Priam. He restored and rebuilt Troy after its first destruction and made it great. He erected battlements and surrounded its suburbs with a high wall of marble, thus well fortifying it. He organized a large army, so that the city would not be again destroyed (as happened before in the time of Leomedontiades). Item: He there built a royal city, and dedicated columns and a temple to Jove. Through the city flowed the river Xanthus (Scamander), and the river Simois (Satnois), which flowed by Troy and had its source in the Trojan Mount Ida. As this river Simois approached the sea it joined the Xanthus. It flows into the sea near the Sigean mountain (Cape Sigeum). Priam, by his wife Hecuba, bore Hector, the first-born, Alexander or (Paris), Deiphobus, Hellenus, Troilus, Andromache, Cassandra, and Polyxena.

Troas, the territory of Ilium, or Troy, formed by the northwestern part of Mysia, and was bounded on the west by the Aegean Sea, on the northwest by the Hellespont, on the east and northeast by the mountains which border the valley of the river Rhodius, and extend from its sources southwards to the main ridge of Mount Ida, and on the south by the north coast of the Gulf of Adramyttium along the south foot of Ida. The chief rivers were the Satnois on the south, the Rhodius on the north and the Scamander (Xanthus) and Simois in the center. The Scamander and Simois, so renowned in the legends of the Trojan War, flow from two different points in the chain of Mount Ida, and unite in the plain of Troy, through which the united stream flows northwest and falls into the Hellespont east of the promontory of Sigeum.

The mythical account of the origin of the kingdom is briefly this. Teucer, the first king in the Troad, had a daughter, who married Dardanus, the chieftain of the country to the northeast. Dardanus had two sons, Ilus and Erichthonius; and the latter was the father of Tros, Troas and Troes. Tros was the father of Ilus, who founded the city, which was called after him Ilium, and also, after his father, Troja. The next king was Laomedon, and after him Priam. In his reign the city was taken and destroyed by the confederated Greeks, after a ten years’ siege. Ancient chronologers have assigned different dates for the capture of Troy, the calculation most generally accepted placing it in 1184 BCE.

Tros was the son of Erichthonius and grandson of Dardanus. He was the king of Phrygia and father of Ilus.

Anchises was the son of Capys and Themis, the daughter of Ilus, king of Dardanus on Mount Ida. In beauty he equaled the gods, and was beloved by Aphrodite, by whom he became the father of Aeneas. The goddess warned him never to betray the real mother of the child; but as on one occasion he boasted of his intercourse with the goddess, he was struck by lightning and killed, blinded or lamed, depending upon which account one reads. Virgil in his Aeneid makes Anchises survive the capture of Troy, and Aeneas carries his father on his shoulders from the burning city.

Laomedon, son of Ilus and Eurydice, was the father of Priam. Poseidon and Apollo, who had displeased Zeus, were doomed to serve Laomedon for wages. So the former built the walls of Troy, while Apollo tended the king’s flocks on Mount Ida. When they had done their work Laomedon refused them the reward and expelled them from his dominions. Thereupon Poseidon let loose the sea over the lands, and also sent a sea monster to ravish the country. By the command of an oracle, the Trojans were obliged to regularly sacrifice a maiden to the monster, and one occasion it was decided by lot that Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon himself, should be the victim. Hercules promised to save the maiden, if Laomedon would give him certain horses that Tros had once received from Zeus. He promised, but again broke his word. So Hercules, who had killed the monster and saved the king’s daughter, sailed with a squadron of ships against Troy, killed Laomedon, with all his sons, except Pordaces (Priam). Hesione ransomed her brother Priam with her veil. Priam, as the son of Laomedon, is called Laomedontiades.

After this, war was waged against the Trojans by the Greeks for ten years and six months. It occurred in the first year of Esebon (Ezvon), the judge of Israel, and this (as the poets write) was the cause: As Alexander (who is also called Paris) once upon a time went hunting in the forest, and fell asleep, Mercury

ILLUSTRATION
THE CITY OF TROY

The city of Troy is represented by a woodcut 7-7/8" x 8-3/4", which has not, as yet, done service for any other city. There are certain characteristics that indicate that the artist may have had the City of Troy in mind. It is well fortified by high walls, towers and battlements. A river flows along at the left beyond the walls, reaching far out into the mountains. A bridge gives access to the suburbs on the left bank. In the background on a high elevation is the citadel. Two gothic churches with tall steeples, strangely surmounted with a crescent, are rather anachronistic elements.

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brought before him Juno, Venus and Minerva to judge of their beauty. On this occasion Venus promised Paris that if he would judge her the most beautiful, she would give him the most beautiful woman in Greece for a wife. On this assurance Paris favored Venus; and thereafter he carried off Helen, the wife of Menelaus, the king; and this brought on the final destruction and extinction of Troy.[Paris was the second son of Priam and Hecuba. Before his birth Hecuba dreamed she had brought forth a firebrand that spread forth over the whole city. So when the child was born it was given to a shepherd to expose on Mount Ida. When the shepherd returned after five days, the child was still alive, having been fed by a she-bear. He took the boy home, and called him Paris. He grew up a valiant defender of the flocks and shepherds, receiving the name of Alexander (‘defender of men’). He discovered his real origin, and was received by Priam as his son. The most celebrated event in his life was his abduction of Helen: When Peleus and Thetis celebrated their wedding, all the gods were invited except Eris, or Strife. Enraged at her exclusion, she threw among the guests a golden apple inscribed "to the fairest." Hera (Juno), Aphrodite (Venus) and Athena (Minerva) each claimed the apple, and Zeus ordered them taken to the beautiful shepherd, Paris, to decide the dispute. Hera promised the judge the sovereignty of Asia and great riches; Athena, glory and renown in war; and Aphrodite promised him the fairest of women for wife. Having awarded the apple to Aphrodite, Paris sailed under her protection to Greece and was well received in the palace of Menelaus at Sparta. He carried off the king’s wife Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world, and with both her and the treasures that he stole from the hospitable house of Menelaus, he returned to Troy. This gave rise to the war. Before her marriage to Menelaus, Helen had been wooed by the noblest chiefs of Greece, and these, now resolved to avenge her abduction, sailed against Troy. Paris fought with Menelaus before the walls of Troy and was defeated, but was carried off by Aphrodite. He is said to have slain Achilles, either by one of his arrows, or by treachery in the temple of the Thybraean Apollo. On the capture of Troy, Paris was wounded by Philoctetes with an arrow of Hercules. He then returned to his abandoned wife Oenone, but she refused to receive him. He returned to Troy and died there. Philoctetes was one of the suitors of Helen, who took part in the Trojan War.] This ten years’ war is noted and described by Dares Phrygius and Dictys Cretensis, who were present in the camp of the Trojans at that time; and their accounts are so clear that nothing better or briefer can be found.

Dares Phrygius was a priest of Hephaestus at Troy, mentioned in the Iliad (5.9) to whom was ascribed in antiquity an Iliad, believed to be more ancient than the Homeric poems. This work, undoubtedly the composition of a sophist, is lost; but there is extant a Latin work in prose, consisting of 44 chapters, on the destruction of Troy, entitled Daretis Phryggi de Excidio Trojae Historia , and purporting to be a translation of the work of Dares by Cornelius Nepos. But the Latin work is probably of much later origin. It is the production of a person of little education and bad taste, and is by some believed to have been written as late as the 12th century. It is usually printed with Dictys Cretensis. The best edition is by Dederich Bonn, 1837.

Dictys Cretensis is the reputed author of an extant Latin work on the Trojan War, in six books, entitled Ephemeris Belli Trojani, professing to be a journal of the leading events of the war. The preface states it was composed by Dictys of Cnossus, who accompanied Idomeneus to the Trojan War, and was inscribed in Phoenician tablets on limewood or paper made from the bark. The work was buried in the same grave with the author, remaining undisturbed till the sepulcher was burst open by an earthquake in the reign of Nero, the work being found in a tin case. It was carried to Rome by Eupraxis, whose slaves had discovered it, and it was translated into Greek by the order of Nero. It is from the Greek that the extant Latin work professes to be translated by one Q. Septimus Romanus. Although its alleged origin and discovery are unworthy of credit, it appears to be a translation from a Greek work extant under the name of Dictys, since it is frequently quoted by Byzantine writers. It was probably written in Greek by Eupraxis in Nero’s reign, but the time of the translation is uncertain. It contains a history of the Trojan War from the birth of Paris to the death of Ulysses. The complications ascribed to Dictys and Dares are of much importance in the history of modern literature, since they are the chief fountain from which the legends of Greece first flowed into the romances of the Middle Ages, and then mingled with the popular tales and ballads of England, France, and Germany. The best edition of Dictys is by Dederich Bonn, 1835.

The city was captured in the third year of Labdon, judge of Israel, 430 years before the city of Rome was built.

On the war of the Greeks against the Trojans and the destruction of Troy.

Orosius writes that 430 years before the building of Rome, a sworn confederacy of the Greeks and gathering of one thousand ships took place in consequence of the abduction of Helen. And thereafter the city of Troy was besieged for ten years. Phrygius Dares (who wrote the history), says that the princes or generals who besieged Troy numbered 47, and they brought with them 1202 ships. But there came to the assistance of Priam, the king of Troy, 33 princes or generals. And this is the substance of the history of Troy, written by the above mentioned Dares, and brought out of the Greek into Latin by Cornelius. When Castor and Pollux heard that the beautiful Helen, wife of Menelaus, brother of Agamenonis (Agamemnon), had been abducted by Paris, they boarded a ship and followed after her. When they landed by the island of Lesbos a great storm came up, and they disappeared. The Lesbians searched for them as far as Troy, and as they could not be found, they believed them to have become immortal gods.[ Castor and Pollux, generally referred to as the Dioscuri, the well-known heroes, were sons of Zeus. The Romans also called the brothers Castores. According to Homer they were the sons of Leda and Tyndareus, king of Lacedaemon, and consequently brothers of Helen. Castor was famous for his skill in taming and managing horses, and Pollux for his skill in boxing. Both had disappeared from the earth before the Greeks went against Troy. Although they were buried, says Homer, they came to life every other day, and they enjoyed honors like those of the gods. According to other traditions both were the sons of Zeus and Leda, and were born at the same time with their sister Helen out of an egg. According to others, Pollux and Helen only were children of Zeus, and Castor was the son of Tyndareus. Hence Pollux was immortal, while Castor was subject to old age and death. The fabulous life of the Dioscuri is marked by three great events, namely, their expedition against Athens, their battle with the sons of Aphareus, and their part in the expedition of the Argonauts. According to story, Zeus rewarded the attachment of the two brothers by placing them among the stars as Gemini. These heroic youths received divine honors at Sparta, and their worship spread from Peloponnesus over Greece, Sicily and Italy. They were worshipped as the protectors of travelers. Whenever they appeared they were seen riding on magnificent white steeds. They were regarded as presidents of the public games and were believed to have invented the war dance and warlike music. When Sparta went to war its kings were accompanied by symbolic representations of the Dioscuri. Their usual representation is that of two youthful horsemen with egg-shaped helmets, crowned with stars, and with spears in their hands.] There gathered at Troy 47 leaders of troops, with 1202 ships. At first Diomedes[Diomedes succeeded Adrastus as king of Argos. According to Homer, Tydeus, father of Diomedes, fell in the expedition against Thebes while his son was yet a boy; but Diomedes was afterwards one of the Epigoni who took Thebes. He went to Troy with a number of ships, and was, next to Achilles, the bravest hero in the Greek army. He enjoyed the especial protection of Athena, and fought against the most distinguished of the Trojans, such as Hector and Aeneas, and even with the gods who espoused the cause of the Trojans. He thus wounded both Aphrodite and Ares. He and Odysseus (Ulysses) carried off the palladium from Troy since it was believed the city could not be taken so long as this object was within its walls. The palladium was an image of Athena, which was kept hidden and secret, and was revered as a pledge of the safety of the town, where it existed.] and Ulysses[Ulysses, Ulyxes, or Ulixes, called Odysseus by the Greeks, was one of the principal Greek heroes of the Trojan War. He succeeded his father Laertes as king of Ithaca, was the husband of Penelope, and father of Telemachus. During the Trojan War he is prominent, not only as a brave and skillful fighter, but more so as the giver of shrewd counsel and for his cunning enterprises, alone or with Diomedes. After Homer, his character in literature often is portrayed as that of an unscrupulous and dishonorable man. He tries to shirk service at Troy by pretending madness; but Palamedes discovers the trick. In revenge, Odysseus brings about his ruin and death. After the death of Achilles, Odysseus and Ajax contend for his armor, which is adjudged to the former. He is at length accidentally killed by Telegonus, his son by Circe or Calypso.] were sent to Priam[Priam is the famous king of Troy who reigned during that country’s disastrous war. His original name is said to have been Podarces, that is, "the swift-footed," which was changed to Priamus, "the ransomed," because he was the only surviving son of Laomedon and was ransomed by his sister after he had fallen into the hands of Hercules. When the Greeks landed on the Trojan coast, Priam was already advanced in years. He took no active part in the war, and once only did he venture upon the field of battle, to conclude the agreement respecting the single combat between Paris and Menelaus. When the Greek entered Troy the aged king put on his armor to rush against the enemy, but his wife prevailed upon him to take refuge with his family as a suppliant at the altar of Zeus. He was slain in the temple by Pyrrhus.] to demand restoration with reference to the outrage which had been perpetrated. The Trojans having refused to make reparation, war resulted between the parties. In the first engagement, Hector[Hector was the chief hero of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks. He was the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba, and the husband of Andromache. He fought with the bravest of the Greeks, and at length slew Patroclus, the friend of Achilles. This roused the latter to the fight. The other Trojans fled before Achilles into the city. Hector alone remained outside the walls; but when he saw Achilles his heart failed him and he took to flight. Three times he raced around the city, pursued by the swift-footed Achilles, and then fell pierced by Achilles’ spear. Achilles tied Hector’s body to his chariot and dragged his corpse before the walls of Troy. At the command of Zeus, Achilles surrendered the body to Priam, who buried it at Troy with great pomp.], the son of Priam, slew Protesilaus[Protesilaus led the warriors of several Thessalian places against Troy, and was the first of all the Greeks who was killed by the Trojans, being the first to leap form the ships upon the Trojan coast. According to common tradition he was slain by Hector.].

In the second battle he killed Patroclus[Patroclus was the celebrated friend of Achilles. Aeacus, the grandfather of Achilles, was a brother of Menoetius, so that Achilles and Patroclus were kinsmen as well as friends. He is said to have taken part in the expedition against Troy on account of his attachment to Achilles. He was slain, and a long struggle ensued between the Greeks and Trojans for his body; but the former obtained possession of it, and vowed to avenge the death of his friend. His ashes were collected in a golden urn and deposited under a mound, where the remains of Achilles were subsequently buried.], and overcame Minones (Menoetius?)[This probably refers to ‘Menoetius,’ son of Actor and Aegina, father of Patroclus, who is for this reason called Menoetiades.], and Ajax, the Telamonian[Ajax was the son of Telamon, king of Salamis. Homer calls him Telamonian Ajax. He sailed against Troy in twelve ships, and is represented in the as second only to Achilles in bravery, and as the hero most worth, in the absence of Achilles, to contend with Hector. In the contest for the armor of Achilles, he was conquered by Odysseus, and this, says Homer, was the cause of his death. Others relate that his defeat by Odysseus brought on madness, and that he rushed from his tent and slaughtered the sheep of the Greek army, imagining them to be the Greek leaders who had ‘betrayed’ him; and that at length he put an end to his own life.]; but he did not recognize his own blood; for he was born of Esiona, the sister of Priam.

Then at the request of the Greeks a truce of two years was declared. In this third encounter Hector slew the Boeotian Archilocus (Arcilycus) and Prothenorus (Prothoenor), the generals.[Prothoenor and Areilycus, respectively son and father, took part in the Trojan War. Prothoenor was one of the leaders of the Boeotians against Troy, where he was slain.] In the fourth battle Alexander pierced the hip of Menelaus with an arrow.[Menelaus was a younger brother of Agamemnon. He was king of Lacedaemon and married the beautiful Helen. When she was carried off, he and Odysseus sailed to Troy to demand her restitution; but the journey was of no avail. Thereupon Menelaus and his brother resolved to march on Troy with all the forces Greece could muster. Agamemnon was chosen commander-in-chief. In the Trojan War Menelaus distinguished himself with bravery. He was one of the heroes concealed in the wooden horse; and as soon as Troy was taken he and Odysseus hastened to the house of Deiphobus, who had married Helen after the death of Paris, and put him to death. He was among the first to sail away from Troy with his wife, Helen.] In the fifth engagement Hector slew seven very strong commanders, and Aeneas[Aeneas, according to the Homeric story, was the son of Anchises and Aphrodite. On his father’s side he was the great grandson of Tros, and thus nearly related to the royal house of Troy, as Priam himself was a grandson of Tros. At first he took no part in the Trojan War; and it was not until Achilles attacked him on Mount Ida and drove away his flocks that he led his Dardanians against the Greeks. From that point on he and Hector are the great bulwarks of the Trojans against the Greeks. After the city fell he withdrew to Mount Ida with his friends and the images of the gods. From there he journeyed to Italy, settling at Latium (near Rome), where he became the ancestral hero of the Romans.] slew two, and Diomedes two. The sixth engagement lasted 80 consecutive days; and then, at the request of the Greeks, a three years’ truce was declared. At the expiration of it the war was renewed, and Hector, at the head of his forces, slew four strong commanders. On the side of the Greeks two Trojans were slain by Achilles.[Achilles is the great hero of the . According to the Homeric story he was a son of Peleus, a king of Thessaly. He was educated by Phoenix, who taught him eloquence and the arts of war, and accompanied him to the Trojan War. In the art of healing he was instructed by Chiron, the centaur. In 50 ships he led his hosts of Myrmidons against Troy. Here he was the great bulwark of the Greeks. Previous to the dispute with Agamemnon, he ravaged the country around Troy. When Agamemnon was obliged to give up Chryseis to her father, he threatened to take away Briseis form Achilles, who surrendered her on the persuasion of Athena, but refused to take any further part in the war, and shut himself up in his tent. The affairs of the Greeks declined in consequence. An embassy was sent to Achilles, offering him rich presents and the restoration of Briseis; but in vain. By his dearest friend Patroclus he was persuaded to allow the latter to use Achilles’ horses, armor and men on behalf of Greece. Patroclus was slain; and Achilles, to avenge his death, went back into action for Greece. Soon thereafter he slew Hector.] They fought thirty days, when Priam requested a third truce of six months. Agamemnon,[Agamemnon was the brother of Menelaus, and became one of the most powerful princes in Greece. When Helen was carried off by Paris, the Greek chiefs resolved to recover her by force, and Agamemnon was chosen their commander-in-chief. His quarrel with Achilles has been told elsewhere.] on the part of the Greeks, requested a fourth truce of thirty days. Andromache,[Andromache, daughter of Eëtion, king of the Cilician Thebes, is one of the noblest characters in the . Her father and seven brothers were slain by Achilles at the taking of Thebes, and her mother, who had purchased her freedom by a large ransom, was killed by Artemis. She was married to Hector, for whom she had the deepest affections.] the wife of Hector, desired her husband not to engage in the ninth battle, for in her sleep she saw that it would be useless for him to participate in it; but as Hector would not heed her request, she laid her two sons at his feet; but still she was unable to detain him. He went forth to battle and slew three of the strongest opponents, wounded two, and also Achilles. But Achilles finally slew him. The Greeks then asked for a fifth truce of three months. But after the tenth engagement the Greeks requested a sixth truce of one year.

In the eleventh battle, Palamedes[Palamedes joined the Greeks in their expedition against Troy; but Agamemnon, Diomedes, and Ulysses, envious of his fame, caused a captive Phrygian to write him a letter in the name of Priam, and bribed a servant of Palamedes to conceal the letter under his master’s bed. Then they accused Palamedes of treachery. Upon searching his tent they found the letter that they themselves had dictated; and thereupon they caused him to be stoned to death. When he was led to death he exclaimed, "Truth, I lament you, for you have died even before me." The manner in which Palamedes perished is variously related. Some say Odysseus and Diomedes induced him to descend into a well, where they pretended they had discovered a treasure, and when he was below they cast stones upon him and killed him; others state that he was drowned by them while fishing; and others that he was killed by Paris with an arrow. The story of Palamedes, which is not mentioned by Homer, seems to have been first related in the , and was afterwards developed by the tragic poets, especially by Euripides, and lastly by the sophists, who liked to look upon Palamedes as their pattern. The tragic poets and sophists describe him as a sage among the Greeks and as a poet; and he is said to have invented lighthouses, measures, scales, the discus, dice, the alphabet and the art of regulating sentinels.], who became king through an uprising, was slain. In the twelfth encounter Troilus[Troilus was a son of Priam and Hecuba; or, according to others, a son of Apollo. He fell during the Trojan War at the hands of Achilles. However, others relate that he was made a prisoner, and that Achilles ordered him to be strangled; or, fleeing from Achilles he ran into the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo, where Achilles slew him.] slew many in the Greek ranks. The thirteenth engagement lasted for seven consecutive days. And Agamemnon desired a truce of thirty days. In the eighteenth engagement Troilus wounded Achilles, and they fought for seven consecutive days. In the nineteenth encounter Troilus fell from his horse and was slain by Achilles. In the twentieth battle Menno, the Persian leader, was slain.

Then at the request of Priam there was a tenth truce of thirty days.

In the twenty-first engagement Alexander slew Achilles in the temple of Apollinus, to which he enticed him for the purpose of negotiating peace. For this reason the Greeks requested the eleventh truce. In the twenty-second battle Alexander wounded Ajax, and he in turn gave Alexander a mortal wound, of which he died. In the twenty-third and twenty-fourth encounters Pathasillia (Penthesilea), the queen of the Amazons, many times wounded Neoptolemus[ Neoptolemus, also called Pyrrhus, was the son of Achilles. The name of Pyrrhus is said to have been given him because he had fair hair, or because Achilles, while disguised as a girl, had born the name of Pyrrha. He was called Neoptolemus, that is, young or late warrior (or ‘new war’), either because he had fought in early youth, or because he had come late to Troy. Neoptolemus was reared in Sycros in the palace of Lycomedes, and was brought from there by Ulysses to join the Greeks against Troy, because Hellenus had prophesied that Neoptolemus and Philoctetes were necessary for the capture of Troy. Neoptolemus was one of the heroes concealed in the wooden horse. At the capture of the city he killed Priam at the sacred hearth of Zeus, and sacrificed Polyxena to the spirit of his father. He took Andromache, the widow of Hector, and had children by her.], the son of Achilles; but she was thereafter slain by him. Finally Antenor[Antenor, according to Homer, was one of the wisest among the elders of Troy. He received Menelaus and Odysseus into his house when they came to Troy as ambassadors, and advised his fellow citizens to restore Helen to Menelaus. Thus he is represented as a traitor to his country, and when sent to Agamemnon just before the taking of Troy, to negotiate peace, he concerted a plan of delivering the city, even the palladium, into the hands of the Greeks. On the capture of Troy Antenor was spared by the Greeks. His history after this event is related differently. Some writers say that he founded a new kingdom at Troy. According to others, he embarked with Menelaus and Helen, was carried to Libya and settled at Cyrene; while a third account states that he went with the Neneti to Thrace, and hence to the western coast of the Adriatic, where the foundation of Patavium and several towns is ascribed to him. The sons and descendents of Antenor were called Antenoridae.], Polydamus[Polydamus, son of Panthous and Phrontis, was a Trojan hero, a friend of Hector, and brother of Euphorbus.], and Aeneas spoke to Priam on the subject of peace; and when he refused to make peace they betrayed and gave up the city.

When Troy was captured, Agamemnon divided up the possessions and estates of the Trojans. And so the war against Troy lasted ten years, eight months and twelve days; and (as Dares Phrygius states), Greece lost 870,000 and Troy 676,000 men, in dead, up to the time of the surrender of the city; but after the surrender and betrayal of Troy 276,000 Trojans were slain. Aeneas sailed back to Greece with 22 ships, and Alexander went with him. Three thousand four hundred Trojans followed. And so two thousand five hundred followed Antenor; and Etheleaus, with Cassandra and Andronica and Hecuba, Priam’s wife, with fifteen hundred persons, went to Orinuseum. Homer says that Menelaus and Helen fled to the Egyptian country, called Thecures or Polipus, after the destruction of Troy.

When I see that innumerable writers make mention of the destruction of the Trojans and, in addition, when readers of the places, names, and deeds (of this story), on account of their ignorance of history, begin to stumble and often even to fall, for this reason I send everyone back to the histories of the Trojan destruction that Dares the Phrygian and Dictys the Cretan, cultured men, recounted in detail, since the former lived and fought at that time, and the latter was present as a follower of Idomeneus, leader of the Cretans. And as far as knowledge of Trojan affairs is concerned, nothing is briefer or more useful. In fact, nothing can be found clearer and more succinct. He narrates the deeds with such diligence and with such care. And all these deeds, thus arranged by the times, the names, and the places, he treats so accurately in the end that the story is not narrated, but performed, not described, but in fact it seems to readers that they are dragged back again into the war itself and are present (in the story).[This entire paragraph is not included in the German edition of the .]

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The Trojan ten years’ war (as Eusebius states) started in the first year of Esbon, the judge of Israel. During this period those mentioned hereafter also flourished. Troy (which Ilus the son of the Trojan king built up), was only 1500 paces from the sea. Want as well as abundance of all things was at hand. For, as Troy had suffered a ten years’ siege on the part of the Greeks, so the city was finally destroyed.

Hercules, with Jason, laid waste the city of Troy, which was built up again by Tros, and began the Olympian War. There was much fighting. And twelve extraordinary and superhuman deeds were performed by Hercules.

Hector, the first born of Priam by Hecuba, his wife, was a man of unequaled strength and ability as a warrior; and because of the great brilliance of his career the Trojans held him in high esteem; for, with his incredible strength and wisdom, he not only elevated his ancestry, but his country as well, to nobility, honor and glory. By his wife, Andromache, he bore many sons. One of these was called Franco, and from him (as Vincentius, historian of Burgundy says) the French originated.

Helen was the lawful wife of Menelaus, the king. She was abducted by Paris, the son of Priam, and taken to Troy. And this was the cause of the Trojan War. After the destruction of Troy, Helen was returned to Menelaus. Happily he embarked with her on a ship, bound for home. But by reason of an adverse sea, and because of storms, they came to Egypt, to King Polibus. Thereafter they wandered about aimlessly for eight years (as Eusebius testifies[This parenthetical phrase is not in the German edition of the .]), and finally reached home.

Paris, who is also called Alexander, was Hector’s brother, born of Priam and Hecuba. Supposedly as a messenger he came to Greece with 20 ships, and was hospitably received by Menelaus. When Paris saw the wife of the king, he abducted her, and in the king’s absence carried her and the king’s treasures off to Troy. In consequence of this wrong the Greeks waged a ten years’ war against he Trojans. In this war, Paris, after many valorous exploits, was slain by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles.

Agamemnon was the brother of King Menelaus, and commander-in-chief of the entire forces sent by Greece against Troy, which was shamefully and treacherously surrendered in the end. Agamemnon was the son of Atreus, the king[He was the grandson of Atreus, king of Mycenae; though some call him the son of Atreus and the grandson of Pelops.]. All the forces were under his command. He left his wife, Clytemnestra, who had born him many children, and went to war. He labored hard and endured much opposition on the part of the princes before Troy, in consequence of which he was deposed and supplanted by Palamedes. But when Ulysses later slew Palamedes, Agamemnon was restored to his former powers, which he exercised with great honor. After Troy was captured and destroyed, Agamemnon sailed for home with Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, and with much booty. However, adverse seas and heavy storms caused him to wander about aimlessly for an entire year.

These two (referring to opposite portraits), Turcus and Franco, fled from Troy and set up two kingdoms; but this occurred long afterward.

Franco was a son of Hector and grandson of Priam, and of him the French derived their name. He was driven from Troy, and after wandering through all Asia he came to the Donau (Danube). After staying there for sometime he sought a region removed from organized communities; and he came to the river Tanais and the Sea of Maeotis (the Sea of Azov), where he built the city of Sicambria.

Turcus was a son of Troilus, who was a son of King Priam. At his wish his people were called Turks, after him. Some say their place of origin is in the neighborhood of Scythia.

ILLUSTRATIONS

The images on this page (several of which have been used previously) are, like nearly all portraits in the Chronicle, conventionally attired in late medieval dress. In addition, the physical characteristics of many of the figures seem to have little or nothing in common with the figures they purportedly represent (e.g., Hector and Paris are portrayed as older individuals, Agamemnon is too young, etc.).

FOLIO XXXVII verso

Phinehas (Phynees) was the son of Eleazar. Because the children of Israel began to commit whoredom with the women of the Midianites and to worship their gods, God commanded that the twelve princes be hanged. Thereupon Phinehas, the priest of God, slew one of the children of Israel, who had illicit relations with a Midianitish woman; and thereby he turned away the wrath of God. Because of this evil there fell in Israel 24,000.


This is an abridgment of Numbers 25:1-9, 14:15:

And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods: and the people did eat, and bowed down to their god. And Israel joined itself unto Baal-peor; and the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel. And the Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and hang them up before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel, Slay every one of its men that were joined unto Baal-peor. And behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianite woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, who were weeping before the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest saw it, he rose up from among the congregation, and took a javelin in his hand; and he went after the man of Israel into the tent and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed form the children. And those that died in the plague were twenty and four thousand. . . . . Now the name of the Israelite that was slain, even that was slain with the Midianite woman, was Zimri, the son of Salu, a prince of a chief house among the Simeonites. And the name of the Midianite woman that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter of Zur; he was head over a people and of a chief house in Midian.

Phinehas, whose name means ‘brazen mouth’ was a son of Eleazar, and a grandson of Aaron (Exodus 6:25; I Chr. 6:4, 50). Phinehas filled the office of high priest of the Jews for a period of almost twenty years. His zeal and promptitude in punishing the sin of Zimri turned away the wrath of the Lord against the Israelite nation, and was duly rewarded by a promise to his family of perpetual succession in the Jewish priesthood (Numbers 25:6-15). This promise was fulfilled; for except for the interval from Eli to Zadok, the priesthood continued in the family of Phinehas until the destruction of the temple and the captivity of the nation.

Deborah (Delbora) was a prophetess and a judge of Israel under whom Jabin, the king of the Canaanites and Sisera, the general of his army, were slain. He (Sisera) sprang from his chariot and fled into a woman’s house. After a drink of milk he became drowsy and fell asleep. And this same woman drove a nail through his temple and with a hammer pinned him to the ground; and so he was killed.[And Deborah said to Barak, Get up; for this is the day in which the Lord has delivered Sisera into your hand: has not the Lord gone out before you? So Barak went down from Mount Tabor, and ten thousand men after him. And the Lord discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and his entire host, with the edge of the sword before Barak; so that Sisera lighted down off his chariot, and fled away on his feet. But Barak pursued after the chariots and after the host, etc. Nevertheless, Sisera fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite: for there was peace between Jabin the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite. And Jael went out to meet Sisera, and said to him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned toward her, in the tent, she covered him with a mantle, and he said to her, Give me, I pray of you, a little water to drink, for I am thirsty. And she opened a bottle of milk, and gave him drink, and covered him. . .Then Jael, Heber’s wife, took a nail of the tent and took a hammer in her hand, and went softly to him, and drove the nail into his temples, and fastened it into the ground: for he was fast asleep and weary. So he died. (Judges 4:14-23)] This same Deborah also made a song of thanksgiving because of the victory of the people.[ Blessed above women shall Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, be blessed shall she be above women in the tent. He asked water, and she gave him milk; she brought forth butter in a lordly dish, she put her hand to the nail and her right hand to the workmen’s hammer; and with the hammer she struck Sisera, she struck off his head, when she had pierced and stricken through his temples (Song of Deborah, Judges 5:24-26).]

Gideon (Gedeon), the fourth judge, judged Israel for forty years. He slew four kings, Oreb, Zeeb, Zebah and Zalmunna.[Judges 7:25, 8-21.] And so were subjugated the Midianites into whose hands the children of Israel had been given for seven years because of the evils which they had practiced. For while Gideon was threshing the wheat, an angel appeared unto him with the prophecy that the children of Israel should be delivered from bondage through him; and as a sign of future victory, the broth and the unleavened bread were consumed upon a rock; and Gideon’s fleece (of wool) laden with heavenly dew lay upon the dry earth; and when the skin was dry, the earth about it was moist.[And there came an angel of the Lord, and sat under an oak which was in Ophrah, that pertained unto Joash, the Abi-ezrite; and his son Gideon threshed wheat by the winepress, to hide it form the Midianites. And the angel of the Lord appeared to him, and said to him, the Lord is with you, you mighty man of valor. And Gideon said to him, Oh my Lord, if the Lord is with us, why then has all this happened to us? And where are all his miracles that our forefathers told us of? . . . But now the Lord has forsaken us, and delivered us into the hands of the Midianites. And the Lord looked upon him, and said, Go in this your might, and you shall save Israel from the hand of the Midianites: have I not sent you? . . . And he (Gideon) said to him, If now I have found grace in your sight, then show me a sign that your are talking with me. . . And Gideon went in and made ready a kid, and unleavened cakes of an ephah of flour; the flesh he put in a basket, and brought it out to him under the oak, and presented it. And the angel of God said to him, Take the flesh and the unleavened cakes, and lay them upon this rock, and pour out the broth. And he did so. Then the angel of the Lord put forth his staff that was in his hand, and touched the flesh and the unleavened cakes; and there rose up fire out of the rock, and consumed the flesh and the unleavened cakes. Then the angel of the Lord departed out of his sight. . . And Gideon said to God, If you will save Israel by my hand, as you have said, Behold, I will put a fleece of wool in the floor; and if the dew is on the fleece only, and it is dry upon the earth beside it, then shall I know that you will save Israel by my hand, as you have said. And it was so; for he rose up early in the morning, and thrust the fleece together, and wringed the dew out of the fleece, a bowl full of water. And Gideon said to God, Let not your anger be hot against me, and I will speak but this once: let me prove, I pray you, but this once with the fleece; let it now be dry only upon the fleece, and upon all the ground let there be dew. And God did so that night: for it was dry upon the fleece only, and there was dew on all the ground. (Judges 6:11-14, 17-21, 26-40)]

Abimelech, the fifth judge of the Jews, was a natural although illegitimate son of Gideon. He persuaded the men of Shechem to slay his seventy legitimate brothers, the sons of Gideon, so that he alone might rule. This they did, and all of them were beheaded on a stone, with the exception of Jonathan (Jotham), the smallest, who was hidden. For this the Lord caused Abimelech to suffer an evil death. And Jotham told them the fable of the trees that went to the vine, the fig tree, the olive tree and lastly to the bramble, in order to persuade each in turn to act as the king of the trees. Abimelech afterward quarreled with the men of Shechem; and he fired the tower of Shechem, destroying a thousand persons in it. When he finally besieged and was storming the city of Thebes, he was struck on the head and knocked down by a stone thrown upon him from the walls by a woman. He called upon his armor-bearer to kill him so that it might not be said that he was slain by a woman. And the armor-bearer did as Abimelech wished. [This Abimelech is not to be confused with the king of the Philistines at Gerar (Genesis 20:2), nor with his successor (Genesis 26). The Abimelech here in question was a son of Gideon by his concubine in Shechem (Judges 8:31). After the death of his father he persuaded the men of Shechem to make him king. He put to death seventy of his brothers who dwelt in his father’s house at Ophrah, leaving only Jotham, the youngest alive, who had concealed himself (Judges 9:1-5). And when Jotham learned that Abimelech had been proclaimed king, he went and stood on the top of Mount Gerizim, and lifting his voice, called upon the men of Shechem to listen to him. And he told them the fable of the trees, which is said to be the oldest fable extant. It seems the trees went forth once upon a time to anoint a king over them. They invited the olive tree first; but he declined, saying, Should I leave my fatness, on account of which by me they honor God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees? The fig tree, next asked, also declined, refusing to forsake its sweetness and good fruit for a royal promotion. And the vine also declined the honor, refusing to leave its wine that cheers God and Man. At last they approached the bramble, who said to them, If in truth you anoint me king over you, then come and put your trust in my shadow; and if not; let fire come out of the bramble and devour the cedars of Lebanon (Judges 9:8-15). See also Judges 9:52-54.]

Tola (Thola), of the tribe of Issachar, judged Israel for 23 years. He had 30 sons, who rode asses, and were rulers over 30 cities. He gave them wives. After him the Israelites sinned against the Lord and were punished many fold by the Amonites and Midianites. Thola finally died and was buried in Shamir.[ It was not Tola, but his successor Jair, who had 30 sons who "rode on thirty ass colts, and they had thirty cities," which were in the land of Gilead (Judges 10:1-5). This is confirmed by a succeeding paragraph on the same page of the .]

Uzzi (Osy), the priest, was from the seed of Aaron, through the line of Eleazar; and after his death, the priesthood, according to the will of God, passed to the line of Ithamar for 120 years, and Eli, the first high priest of Ithamar was the last.[Ezra: 1-6.]

Jair (Yair), of the tribe of Manasseh, the seventh judge of Israel, had thirty pious sons whom he made rulers over 30 cities. And as the times were quiet and peaceful, it would seem that in the days of these two judges the children of Israel were devoted to God; for which reason all things were fortunate in their outcome. And after he (Jair) had worthily carried the office for twenty years, he died in old age.

During the time of these two judges, Thola and Jayr, Israel was devoted to the Lord, for which reason these same times were peaceful and prosperous. But after their death, life among the Hebrews became dishonorable and irreligious, and the laws were ignored. For this reason the Palestinians (Philistines) destroyed their country with large armies.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (Continued)

The Lineage of the Priests, begun at Folio XXV verso, and continued at XXIX verso, is here resumed with these additions:

  1. Phinees (Phinehas), who is mentioned in the text, is here represented by a woodcut that has not been used before. He wears the mitre of a high priest, bearing the crescent described and illustrated at Folio XXXIII recto. He raises his fingers in benediction. His robes are not those prescribed for his high office.
  2. Abysue (Abishua), son of Phinehas, appears in the same regalia as his father, and this woodcut is also here used for the first time. Abysue is not mentioned in the Chronicle text at this point.
  3. Booz or Buuz (Bukki), the son of Abishua, is not to be confused with Boaz, the husband of Ruth, who is also, later on, styled Booz or Buuz. Bukki is portrayed by the same woodcut used at Folio XXV verso for Levi.
  4. Ozy (Uzzi), the son of Bukki, is represented by the same portrait served for Merari, son of Levi, at Folio XXV verso.

(B) LINEAGE OF THE JUDGES

The Lineage of the Judges is here continued with the following additions:

  1. Delbora (Deborah), who appeared as Diana at Folio XXV recto.
  2. Gedeon (Gideon), who appears in very complete armor, his head not only encased, but his face almost entirely covered. Through the slits in his visor he peeps at a helpless protesting little lamb which he holds in both hands, and which is struggling to get away.
  3. Abimelech, middle-aged, jowly, and clean-shaven he seems slightly bored (or mildly disgruntled).
  4. Thola (Tola), who is shown in a fur cap and with both hands tucked away in the ample sleeves of his coat.
  5. Jayr (Jair), a very sickly, decrepit old man, and bald, except for a forelock. He is almost swallowed up in the great coat he wears.

FOLIO XXXVIII recto
Of the Famous Islands of the Mediterranean Sea

Sardinia is an island of the sea which flows out of the great ocean that surrounds the earth, and which sea runs through the middle of the earth.[The Mediterranean Sea.] It was named after Sardus, the son of Hercules. This same Sardus with countless numbers migrated out of the land of Libya and overran the island of Sardinia, in the Tyrrhenian Sea[Tyrrhenum Mare was the name given in ancient times to the part of the Mediterranean Sea along the west coast of Italy. The name was originally employed by the Greeks, who generally called the people of Etruria Tyrrhenians, and was merely adopted by them from the Romans. It was the designation of that part of the Mediterranean that extended from the coast of Liguria to the north coast of Sicily and from the mainland of Italy to the islands of Corsica and Sardinia on the west.], which island the Greeks called Icus[Not Icus, but ‘Ichnusa,’ from its resemblance to the print of a foot. They also called it ‘Sandaliotis’ from its likeness to a sandal.]; and he called the island Sardinia after himself. The island is 98 miles wide and 220 miles long. Some say its circumference is 4000 furlongs. The island has many rough, sharp, and turbulent regions, but the remainder is in all things blessed and productive, particularly in wheat, cattle and pastures. There no wolf is born, nor are any snakes found. But in the summer time the most productive regions suffer from plagues and sickness. It has many cities, of which Calaria (Caralis or Cagliari) is the foremost. Large coral fisheries are found there. For a long time it was enlightened by the holiness of the blessed father, Augustine. In ancient times the island produced rams whose shaggy locks were used for wool. They were called musimones. The inhabitants of the island clothed and protected themselves with the skins of these rams, which at the same time served them as armor or breastplate. The inhabitants of the island were formerly called Jolenses (Iolai or Iliensis); and it is said that Iolaus, who was born of one of the love intrigues of Hercules to Sardinia, who lived there among the inhabitants. And they were thereafter called Sardinians. Item: The Peni (who came from Africa to the same place) later secured control of the country; and they undertook a war against the Germans, but were completely exterminated by them. The Romans for a long time sought to master this island, and after it had suffered many revolts, attacks, invasions and defeats at the hands of the barbarians, the Pisans and the Geneose, it finally fell into the hands and power of the Arragonians.

The statements of ancient writers with reference to the origin of Sardinia’s population are various and conflicting. According to Pausanias, the first inhabitants were Libyans, who crossed over under the command of Sardus, the son of a native hero or divinity, whom the Greeks identified with Hercules. He is supposed to have given the island its name, which was previously called Ichnusa by the Greeks for reasons already stated. But neither the name Ichnusa nor Sandaliotis were ever in common use. Though the theory of Pausanias is plausible, little value is to be attached to these traditions. He states that the next settlers were a Greek colony under Aristaeus, to whom some writers ascribe the foundation of Caralis; and these were followed by a body of Iberians under Norax, who founded the city of Nora. Next came Greeks from Thespiae and Attica, under command of Iolus, who founded a colony at Olbia. After this came a body of Trojans who had escaped the destruction of Troy, and who established themselves in the southern part of the island. But they in turn were soon expelled by a body of Libyans, who drove them into the mountainous regions, which they retained down to a late period under the name of Ilienses. They are mentioned by Livy as well as by geographers. The Iolai or Iolaenes, on the other hand, had lost their name in the time of Strabo. There is no account of any Greek colonies in Sardinia during the historical period. The first historical event is the island’s conquest by the Carthaginians, but the time cannot be definitely dated. The subsequent Roman conquest occurred 238 BCE, after which it became a Roman province.

The mountain tribes revolted in 181 BCE, but were put down with heavy losses. The number of captives brought to Rome on this occasion was so great that it is said to have given rise to the expression "Sardi venales," for anything that was cheap and worthless. Another revolt was suppressed in 114 BCE, the last war of importance in Sardinia.

In 456 CE Genseric, the Vandal, wrested Sardinia from Rome, and it was not recovered until 534 CE, in the reign of Justinian. It was again conquered by the Gothic king Totila in 551 CE. In the eighth century it was conquered by the Arabs.

Corsica, one of the islands of the above named sea, was first taken possession of by Cirinus (Cyrnus), brother of the aforesaid Sardus and son of Hercules, (who came there from Libya); and after him the island was named Cirinum (Cyrnus).[Cyrnus is the name by which Corsica was known to the Greeks; but the origin of this name is wholly unknown, though later writers, as usual, derived it from a hero, Cyrnus, whom they pretended to be a son of Hercules.] But once upon a time after that, a woman named Corsica (Corsa) was pasturing her bull in the land of Liguria; and the bull went into the sea and swam to this island. Without the knowledge of her parents, the woman sailed after the bull and came to the island. There she found him in fertile pastures. And she was greatly pleased with the beauty of the place. She made it her home, and named it Corsica after her own name.[Solinus, following authors now lost, who has written fully concerning Corsica, especially ascribes the first population of the island to the Ligurians, and this is confirmed by the legend of the Ligurian woman of the name of Corsa (not Corsica), who has fabled to have first discovered its shores. Corsica was probably the native name of the island, adopted form the people themselves by the Romans.] The island is 160 miles in length and 70 miles wide. It has a circumference of 3200 furlongs[The ancients exaggerated the size of the island. Its greatest length is 116 miles, and its greatest breadth about 51.] and lies in the Ligustian Sea[Ligusticum Mare was the name given by the ancients to that part of the Mediterranean Sea which adjoined the coast of Liguria, and lay to the north of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The name was applied (like all similar appellations) with considerable vagueness, sometimes as limited to what is now called ‘the Gulf of Genoa,’—in which sense it is termed the Ligusticus Sinus by Florus; at others it was used in a much wider sense, so that Pliny speaks of Corsica as an island "in Ligustico Mari." This is the more usual significance with which the name is used.], but to the north it is nearer the Tuscian Sea.[Tuscum Mare or Tyrrhenum Mare. The latter of these two names was given in ancient times to that part of the Mediterranean Sea that adjoins the western coast of Italy. It is evident from the name itself that it was originally employed by the people of Greece, who called the inhabitants of Etruria Tyrrhenians. The people more frequently called the sea on the west coast of Italy simply the "lower sea" (Mare Inferum). They called the Adriatic "the upper sea" (Mare Superum).] The distance between this island and Sardina is 20 miles; although Pliny says not more than 9 miles. In the time of Strabo, this island (as he writes) was badly constituted, and in many regions it was unsafe for travel. For in the mountains lived people who sustained themselves by murder and exceeded wild animals in cruelty.[Almost all of Corsica is occupied by a range of lofty and rugged mountains extending from one extremity of the island to the other, rendering it one of the wildest and least civilized portions of southern Europe. Strabo speaks of the inhabitants of the mountain district as "wilder than the very beasts," and of a character so untamable that when brought to Rome as slaves it was impossible to make any use of them, or to accustom them to domestic habits. Seneca was banished to Corsica in 41 CE, and there he lived for eight years in exile. Other political offenders were exiled there indicating that the island had a bad reputation among the ancients.] When the Romans afterwards gained dominion over the island, they found in it many fertile regions and good pasturage; so they built many cities there. At present there are six cities of no mean repute. In the time of Charles the Great the island became subject to the power of the Genoese; but later it passed under Pisan rule; and there it remained for a short time while the affairs of the Pisans prospered. For a time also it was subject to the Church of Rome. When the Pisans were defeated, the island was again brought under Genoese dominion; and there it has remained. In addition to producing the best wine it also grows the sweetest fruits. It is rich in oxen, mountain goats, sheep, and other animals; and it produces the best-dispositioned dogs.

Crete is also an island of the above-mentioned sea, and in it Cres, or Orion, Demogorgonis’s son, reigned (according to Eusebius) as the first king[Cres was the son of Zeus by a nymph of Mount Ida, from whom the island of Crete was believed to have derived its name. According to Diodorus, Cres was an Eteocretan, that is, a Cretan autochthon, or one sprung form the earth itself. Orion was a famous hunter, of giant stature, beloved by the goddess Artemis, with whom he lived on the island of Crete until the time of his death, after which he was transformed into a constellation.]. After him the island was named Crete. But at first it was called Aeria (which means ‘airy’), because of the good air that it derives from the heavens. Thereafter the Greeks called it Macoroneson (that is), the blessed island. Some say the island derived its name from Creta (Crete), the daughter of Hesperiadis. But there are others who say it is so called because of its loamy soil, which the word creta signifies. This island is now subject to the Venetians. It once belonged to Greece and has a lovely location. It stands out very brilliantly in the sea. At one time (as Isidorus writes) it was graced with one hundred prominent cities. Item: The inhabitants of the island built temples to the mother of the gods in the cities of Cnossus and Cybelis. The island was also first in the art of navigation and the use of arms. The teaching of music began there. Snakes and other noxious animals are not found there; nor the night owls. However, when a night owl is taken there it soon dies. The island is not far distant from Peloponnesus, or Arcadia (and, as it is said), in the middle of the world. The Aegean Sea[ The Aegean Sea (Aegaeum Mare) is that part of the Mediterranean bounded on the north by Macedonia and Thrace, on the west by Greece, and on the east by Asia Minor. At its northeast corner it is connected with the Propontis by the Hellespont. Its extent is differently estimated by the ancient writers, but the name is generally applied to the whole sea as far south as the island of Crete. The Aegaean Sea was divided into the following: ] is to the north, and the Ionian or Myrtoan Sea to the west, both of which belong to Europe. To the east is the Icarian and the Egyptian Sea[Egyptian Sea, portion of the Mediterranean off Egypt.], which both extend into Asia. Then also, it is bounded on the south and west by the African Sea[Libyan Sea, also called African Sea, being the portion of the Mediterranean between Crete and Africa.].

Sicilia (Sicily) is an island in the sea mentioned. There Siculus, the son of Neptune, who came there after Sicano his brother, reigned, and after him the island was called Sicily. But at first it was called Tinacria (Trinacria) and thereafter Sicania[The pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Sicily were called Sicani or Siculi, variant names of kindred tribes who migrated from northern Africa. It is convenient to retain the two names, applying the term Sicanian to the stone age and to reserve Siculan for the Chalcolithic and the bronze and iron ages, the first Siculan period being Chalcolithic, the second Siculan being the bronze age, while the beginnings of the iron, or third Siculan period, will be 900 to 700 BCE, and the beginning of the fourth Siculan may be placed at 700 BCE, when the native civilization is hybridized with the Greek.], and it is part of Italy. But now, through an earthquake (as Pliny states) it is separated from it by turbulent waves of the sea. The island is triangular, and in each of the three corners are opposing mountains. The one is Pachinus (Pachynus, now Passero); the second is Pelorus (Pelorum, now Faro) and the third is called Lylibeus (Lilybaeum, now Boeo). The first stretches to the south, while the second extends toward the north and is but 1500 paces away from Italy. The third extends westerly in the direction of Libya, and can be seen from Carthage. It is not more than 120,00 paces from Africa. The ancient Romans called the island a storehouse or granary, and it is more esteemed than any other region in Italy. It is noted for its fodder, saffron, honey and many other fruits, as well as for its cattle hides, wool and cheese, &c.[ This is to some extent a repetition of Folio XIX recto where Sicily is mentioned in the text.]

Cyprus, the island, was named Cetina after Cethin (Kittim), who was the third son of Javan, and Japheth’s grandson; for this same Kittim was the first to take possession. Among islands it is the most celebrated; for it has an abundance of everything. It is adorned with the treasures of the ancients, and a spirit of voluptuousness prevails; for which reason the island was dedicated to Venus, the goddess. After the decline of Rome, Cyprus was for some time under the power of the Greeks, who ruled after the Emperor Constantine of Constantinople. King Richard of England once sailed with a large navy against Jerusalem, but stormy weather carried him to this island. However, the inhabitants did not desire the king to land. And he was angry; and the weapons he had intended to use against the Saracens he now turned against the Greeks, took the island from them, plundered it, and left a large garrison in possession. Not long thereafter he gave possession of it to a Gaul, named Guido Lusunanus (Guy Lusignan), who was

FOLIO XXXVIII verso

warring for the kingdom of Jerusalem. This Lusignan having received the island from the said English king, held it for some time for himself and his descendants.

After the division of the Roman Empire in 395 CE, Cyprus passed into the hands of the eastern emperors, to whom it continued to be subject, with brief intervals, for more than seven centuries. It was administered as a pro-consulship by an official appointed from Antioch, the capital being transferred from Paphos to Salamis (then known as Constantis). Until 632 the island was exceedingly prosperous, but in that year began the period of Arab invasions that continued intermittently for the next three centuries. In 647 the Arabs mastered the island and destroyed Salamis; but they were driven out by the emperor only two years later. In 802 it was again conquered by the Arabs, and it was not restored to the Byzantine empire until 963. Its princes became practically independent, and tyrannized the island until, in 1191, Isaac Commenus, who in 1184 had assumed the title of Despot of Cyprus, provoked the wrath of Richard I of England, by wantonly ill-treating the crusaders. Richard therefore wrested the island from Isaac, whom he took captive. He sold Cyprus to the Knights of the Templars, who resold it to Guy Lusignan, titular king of Jerusalem.

Guy ruled from 1192 until his death in 1194, his brother Amaury succeeding him as king. This dynasty ruled for 300 years. In 1372, after a quarrel between the Venetian and Genoese consuls, the Genoese took Famagusta, the chief commercial city in Cyprus, and held it until 1464. It was however, recovered by James II, and the whole island was reunited under his rule. His marriage with Caterina Cornaro, a Venetian lady of rank, was designed to secure the support of the powerful Republic of Venice; but after his own death and that of his son James II, the sovereignty of the island passed to his new allies. Caterina, unable to contend alone with the Turks, abdicated in favor of the Venetian republic, which took possession in 1489, just four years before the publication of the Chronicle.

After various changes the island came to two brothers. One of them, called Peter, with the assistance of the Catelanians and Gauls, made war upon the city of Alexandria in Egypt. He gained possession of the city and destroyed half of it; but the Egyptians in large numbers came to the assistance and rescue of the city, and he was obliged to flee. However, he took a rich and substantial booty with him. Not long thereafter he was killed by his brother; for one finds no pious company in sovereignty. And so his brother stained with blood was elected king; but remorse was not long postponed. After this the island of Cyprus suffered a great invasion and much strife; but now it is under Venetian rule.

Euboea (Euboya) is a renowned island that we now call Negroponte (Nigropont)[Euboea or Negroponte is the largest island in the Greek archipelago. The Greeks believed the island to have been torn from the mainland by an earthquake. It lies off the coasts of Attica, Boeotia, Locris, and southern Thessaly, from which countries it is separated by the Euboean Sea, called the Euripus in its narrowest part. In Homer the inhabitants are called Abantes. In the Middle Ages the island was called Egripo or Evripo, a corruption of ‘Euripus.’ The first bridge from the island to the mainland was built by the Boeotians when Euboea revolted from Athens in 411 BCE, making it "an island to all but themselves," and impeding shipments of gold and corn from Thrace, timber from Macedon, and horses from Thessaly. In the partition of the Eastern Empire among the Latins, the island was divided into three fiefs, but all soon became dependencies of Venice. When the Venetians took possession, observing the "black bridge," they called it Negroponte.]. In it lies the city of Chalcis that was built by Cecrops the Athenian[ Cecrops is the same who founded Athens and after whom the Acropolis was named. He had three daughters to whom Phrygia, a fourth, was added in Euboea.], or (as Cicero says) by Alabando. But Plato says that Amasis[Amasis was the king of Egypt 570-526 BCE. During his long and prosperous reign close intercourse existed between Egyptians and Greeks, and he sent gifts to several Greek cities.], the Egyptian king, constructed it. This city is the capital of the island, very celebrated, warlike and equipped for defense. Nevertheless it was taken from the Venetians by Mohammed Ottoman, the Turkish sultan. In this island Cecrops, the king, first recognized Apollo as a god, invented graven images, built temples, and made sacrifices. There also he added a fourth to his three daughters; and he called her Phrygia. She migrated to another country, lived there and named it Phrygia after herself. In the summer of the year 1471 CE, through the treachery of one Thomas, an evil-disposed Liburnian[Liburnia was a district of Illyricum, on the Adriatic.], Mohammed, the Turkish sultan, took Chalcis with great damage to the Christians, particularly the Venetians; and he commanded that all Italians who had become of age be impaled, and the Greeks sold at public auction.[Chalcis was captured by Mohammed II in 1470, and the whole island fell to the Turks. After the Greek War of Independence, the island was included, in 1830, in the new Greek state. ]

[The Latin edition follows with three more paragraphs, not translated here (except for the second paragraph); the first is on more islands (e.g., the Balearics); the second is a single linking sentence ("After the description of famous and other islands of the Mediterranean Sea, we should add a few things about the latitude of the Earth."), and the third, not surprisingly, is on latitude (and, to a lesser extend, longitude and climate). The final sentence of this third paragraph translates as follows: "Now we leave this investigation, following the history of the times."]

FOLIO XXXIX recto

Paris, the royal and highly renowned city of Gallia, lying in the land of the Senones[The Senones were a powerful people dwelling along the upper course of the Sequana (Seine) in Gallia Lugdunensis, a country situated in the confluence of the Arar (Saone) and the Rhodanus (Rhone), with Lugdunum as their chief city, corresponding to the city of Lyons. Lutetia, commonly called ‘Lutetia Parisiorum’ (Paris), was the capital of the Parisii in Gallia Lugdunensis, and was situated on an island in the Seine. Under the emperors it became a place of importance. Here Julian (the Apostate) was proclaimed emperor in 360 CE.], had its beginning after the fall of Troy. For at that time Paris, the Trojan, and Aenaeas, together with Franco, the son of Hector, fled to Gallia, and settled on the banks of the river called the Sequana (Seine). There he made a people; and after him they called it Paris. So the French are of Trojan origin. After the destruction of Troy, these people under the leadership of Priamus, grandson of the great Priam, came through the Euxine Sea and the swamps or sea of Maeotis into Scythia. And there they built a city that they called Sicambria; and they became a great people. They paid tribute to the Romans, like other Scythians, up to the time of Valentinian the emperor. At that time the Alani began their attack upon the Roman Empire. In order to silence the cruelties of the Alani the emperor promised those who would oppose the Alani ten years of freedom. By this offer the Sicambrians were encouraged to oppose the Alani with force of arms, to defeat them in war, and to exterminate them[The Alani were a great Asiatic people, included among the Scythians, but probably a branch of Massagetae. They are first found about the eastern part of the Caucasus in the country called Albania, apparently just another form of the same name. In the reign of Vespasian they made incursions into Media and Armenia, and at a later time advanced into Europe as far as the Lower Danube, where, toward the end of the 5th century CE, they were routed by the Huns, who then compelled them to become their allies. In 406 CE some of the Alani took part with the Vandals in their expedition into Gaul and Spain, where they gradually disappear form history.]. By this action the Sicambrians earned their freedom; and they changed their name to Franks, which according to the Attic tongue means free, terrible, or noble, and according to the Italian tongue, free. After the expiration of the ten-year period the Romans again demanded tribute; but the Franks, because of the freedoms that they had enjoyed, were now opposed to the demand, and refused to comply. Now as the Franks went out of Scythia and came into Germany and there lived for a long time, they became Germans. As the Roman Empire increased, so did France, until all of Gallia and a large part of Germany, from the Pyrenees Mountains to the extremity of Pannonia, was called France. And it was divided into two parts: Gallia, which was called the occidental or western Frankish or German kingdom, and Germany the oriental or eastern part. Under Charles the Great this people merited the Roman Empire and were comforted by the Papal Chair, which was for a long time involved in the Lampertian War. There are many who insist that only those who live in and around Paris are French, and that the Roman Empire was given to them, but these are more properly called Francigenas than Frenchmen born in France. In this city the kings held court and had their residence for a long time, and thereby they made it great and mighty. Charles the Great, after receiving his imperial crown, established there because of its excellent location, a public high school for the whole empire; and from Dionysus Areopagiticus

Dionysius Areopagiticus, called "The Areopagite," is named in Acts 17:34 as one of the Athenians who believed when they heard Paul preach on the Areopagus (‘The Hill of Ares [Roman ‘Mars’]’). Beyond this our only knowledge of him is the statement of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, recorded by Eusebius, that this same Dionysius was the first "bishop" of Athens. Some hundred years afterwards his name was attached to a number of theological writings of unknown origin. These were destined to exert a great influence over medieval thought. The writings of the Pseudo-Areopagite are: (1) Concerning the Celestial Hierarchy; (2) Concerning the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy; (3) Concerning Divine Names; (4) Concerning Mystic Theology, and (5) ten letters addressed to various worthies of great interest, first as a striking presentation of the heterogeneous elements that might unite the mind of a gifted man in the fifth century, and secondly because of their enormous influence upon subsequent Christian theology and art. Their ingredients—Christian, Greek, Persian and Jewish—are united into an organic system, not crudely mingled. Perhaps theological philosophic fantasy has never constructed anything more remarkable.

The writer owed his constructive principles to Hellenism in its last great philosophical creation, Neo-Platonism, since the general principle of the transmission of life form the ultimate Source downward through orders of mediating beings unto men might readily be adapted to the Christian God and his ministering angels. Pseudo-Dionysius had lofty thoughts of the sublime transcendence of the ultimate divine Source. That Source was not remote or inert; but a veritable Source from which life streamed to all lower order of existence—in part directly, and in part indirectly as power and guidance through the higher orders to the lower. Life, creation, every good gift, is from God directly; but his flaming ministers also intervene to guide and aid the life of man; and the life which through love floods forth from God has its counter flow whereby it draws its own creations to itself. God is at once absolutely transcendent and universally immanent. To live is to be united with God; evil is the non-existent, that is, severance from God.

The transcendent Source, as well as the universal immanence, is the Triune God. Between that and men are ranged the three triads of the celestial hierarchy: Seraphim, Cherubim and Thrones; Dominations, Virtues, Powers; Principalities, Archangels, Angels. Collectively their general office is to raise mankind to God through purification, illumination and perfection; and to all may be applied the term angel. The highest triad, which is nearest God, contemplates the divine effulgence, and reflects it onward to the second; the third, and more specifically angelic triad, immediately ministers to men. The sources of these names are evident: seraphim and cherubim are from the Old Testament; later Jewish writings gave names to archangels and angels, who also fill important functions in the New Testament. The other names are from Paul (Eph. 1:21; Col. 1:16).

Such is the system of Pseudo-Dionysius, as presented mainly in The Celestial Hierarchy. That work is followed by The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, its counterpart on earth. What the primal Triune Godhead is to the former, Jesus is to the latter. The ecclesiastical hierarchy likewise is composed of triads. The first includes the symbolic sacraments: Baptism, Communion, Consecration of the Holy Chrism. Baptism signifies purification; Communion signifies enlightening; the Holy Chrism signifies perfecting. The second is made up of three orders of Bishops, Presbyters and Deacons, or rather, as the Areopagite names them, Hierarchs, who are in a state of perfection, the initiated laity, who are in a state of illumination, and the catechumens, in a state of purification. All worship, in this treatise, is a celebration of mysteries, and the pagan mysteries are continually suggested.

Concerning the Divine Names is a discussion of the qualities that may be predicated of God, according to the warrant of the terms applied to him in Scripture. Concerning Mystic Theology explains the function of symbols, and shows that he who would know God truly must rise above them.

The fifteenth chapter of The Celestial Hierarchy constituted the canon of symbolical angelic lore for the literature and art of the Middle Ages.

, the bishop, who was sent there by the apostles, because of their preaching, it received the holy gospels of Christ. There also Saint Dionysus earned his crown of martyrdom. This city is adorned with the holiness of Bathildis, the queen, and Aurea the virgin, and many other martyrs.

ILLUSTRATION
CITY OF PARIS

7.5" x 8-3/4"

The City of Paris, or as the ancients knew it, ‘Lutetia Parisiorum,’ is represented by a woodcut here used for the first time. In the earlier part of the Chronicle it was suggested that rulers were in the habit of setting up statues of themselves in the public squares of the cities that they founded. And since this is the City of Paris, we may assume that the warrior we see on the high pedestal towering over the city in the public square is none other than the beautiful Trojan shepherd lad who favored Venus and who later left his utterly destroyed home town to found a city of his own liking and of his own name. True, he had gotten beyond the shepherd boy stage, and now appears in the high place, accoutered cap-a-pie, a lance with flowing pennant in his right hand, his left grasping his trusty sword, and his visor fully drawn. If he was beaten at Troy, he does not look the worse for the wear, and he is still too active for the confines of a pedestal.

Yes, this must be Paris, for in the foreground is the Seine, which the ancients called the Sequana. And resting on its marcelled waves is a sturdy bulging galleon. And there is activity on board. A crew of three men is working on the sails. Apparently the ship is ready to dock, and out of the city gate comes a lone inhabitant to bid the craft and crew a welcome.

The town is well protected by walls, turrets and battlements. The citadel appears in the elevated background. In a way, as one follows the course of the water about the walls, it does seem that this must be the Île de la Cité, the natural stronghold upon which ancient Lutetia sprang up. Paris was at first a fortified town of the Gallic tribe of the Parisii. During the first century CE we hear of it as a Roman town. The island was originally half its present size. It was not a normal site for a town, and could only have been selected for defensive reasons. The old town of Lutetia was destroyed by the barbarian invasions of the third century, but reappeared toward the end of the century on its original site. The stronghold was built for protection against the dangers of the time, for it lay on the route followed by barbarians on their way from the north to the south.

In the fifth century the Franks made themselves masters of Paris. Under Clovis they were converted to Christianity. He established his capital at Paris and built a church or two. Many more churches were built in the following centuries. They were particularly numerous in the Île de la Cité. And so we suppose the artist was justified in dominating his landscape with an imposing Gothic cathedral, and not far from it another church of the same type. According to the usual trend of the times private dwellings are clustered about these religious establishments, while in the distance we see patches of land, possibly cultivated areas, vineyards and meadows, amidst a setting of barren rock and a few clumps of trees.

FOLIO XXXIX verso

Mainz (Maguncia), a city and archbishopric of Germany, was begun at the time of the destruction of Troy, by Maguntius, a Trojan, after whom the city was named. So Carinus states in his Chronicles. It is located on the river Rhine. Drusus Nero, who is called Germanicus after the German nation, greatly enhanced the reputation of this city and the praise bestowed upon it during the time he was conducting a war against the German states beyond the Rhine. A horse fell upon him and broke his leg, and he died thirty days later. Nero Claudius having heard of his brother’s illness, came at once; and he took his corpse to Rome. It was laid in the grave of Julius, the emperor. The great deeds performed by Drusus Nero on the Rhine are mentioned by Tacitus and other historians.[Nero Claudius Drusus was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, and he was the stepson of Augustus, and the younger brother of the emperor Tiberius. From youth he was liked by the people. His manners were affable, his conduct beyond reproach. He was greatly trusted by Augustus, who employed him in important offices. He carried on the war against the Germans and penetrated far into the interior. In the year 12 CE he drove the Sicambri and their allies out of Gaul, crossed the Rhine, followed the river down to the ocean, and subdued the Frisians. Three succeeding campaigns brought him to the river Elbe. He resolved to cross it but is said to have been deterred by the apparition of a woman of unusual stature, who, speaking to him in Latin, said: "Where are you going, insatiable Drusus? The fates forbid you to advance. Away! The end of your deeds and of your life is near." On the return of the army to the Rhine, Drusus died of a fractured leg, which happened through a fall from his horse. Upon receiving news of the serious illness of Drusus, Tiberius immediately crossed the Alps, and after traveling with extraordinary speed, arrived in time to close the eyes of his brother. He brought the body to Italy where it was burned in the field of Mars, and the ashes deposited in the tomb of Augustus. Germanicus Caesar, the Roman general and provincial governor, was his son. The name Germanicus, the only one by which he was known in history, he inherited form his father. He was adopted by his uncle Tiberius, with whom he fought against the Germans.] At Mainz are to be found good specimens of antiquity. Some say that this city was completed by Paulinus Pompeius, the Roman commander of the forces in Germany under Nero, the emperor. The archbishop of this city aids in the election of the Roman emperor[Paulinus Pompeius had command of the Roman forces in Germany in 58 CE. Seneca dedicated to him his treatise .]. The city has in it (the body of) the most holy man, Albanus the martyr. Not far removed from Mainz is Frankfurt, the noble industrial center, where the upper and lower Germans meet twice a year. And there also the emperor is elected according to ancient custom. The river Main flows by it. Ptolemy calls it the Obrigma. He states that this river separates the High Germans from the Low Germans, and there is no other river that makes such a division. Even today the Low Germans extend to Mainz, while beyond this point the inhabitants are called High Germans. The river has its source in the mountains near Bohemia, and from the region of Mainz it flows into the Rhine. Some believe that Mainz was named after the river. In this city are to be seen large open courts and buildings in the Roman style as well as many other ruins and relics of war.

Mainz was a pre-Roman settlement, and there Drusus, the stepson of Augustus, erected a fortified camp about 13 BCE. The castellum Mattiacorum (the modern Castel) on the opposite bank, was afterwards added to it, the two being connected with a bridge at the opening of the Christian era. The earlier name became latinized as Maguntiacum, Moguntiacum, Maguncia and Maguntia, and a town gradually arose around the camp, which became the capital of Germania Superior. At certain times Mainz suffered severely, being destroyed on different occasions by the Alamanni, the Vandals and the Huns. Charlemagne, who had a palace in the neighborhood, gave privileges to Mainz, which rose rapidly in wealth and importance.

In 1244 certain rights of self-government were given to the citizens of Mainz; and in 1254 it was the center and mainspring of a powerful league of Rhenish towns. According to legend the first bishop of Mainz was a disciple of the Apostle Paul. He preached among the Roman battalions about the year 82 while they were stationed here, and here he died a martyr. In 1462 there was warfare between two rival archbishops. The citizens, having espoused the losing cause, were deprived of their privileges. Many were driven into exile, and these carried into other lands knowledge of the art of printing which had been invented at Mainz by Johann Gutenberg in 1450. Mainz still retains many relics of the Roman period, notably the Eigelstein, believed to have been erected by Roman legions to Drusus.

ILLUSTRATION
CITY OF MAINZ (MAGUNCIA)

7-3/4" x 8-3/4"

This landscape, representing the ancient city of Mainz, is here used for the first time. We are on the river Main, which appears to have a very strong current at this point. A delicate young lad is ferrying three passengers across the river in a rather fantastic boat. Other and larger craft appear in the background.

Christianity was introduced into Mainz in the middle of the eighth century under Boniface. The city became an archbishopric, and to this the primacy of Germany was soon annexed. Considering its ecclesiastical distinction, it is only fair and just that this ancient archepiscopal city should be well supplied with cathedrals and churches. Of these, two appear behind the battlements, occupying the greater part of the town. In the year 1160 the citizens of Mainz revolted against their archbishop and three years later the walls of the city were pulled down by order of Frederick I. But here we see them restored, tightly girding the city about. From the farther side of the walls roads lead into the hills and rocky country in the distance.

Along the river runs a road or natural wharf, and there lie nine barrels awaiting shipment. These barrels or casks were of much importance to merchants in the days when the Chronicle was written. One of the most serious difficulties with which shippers had to contend was inclement weather. Although the roads were not always passable, commerce encountered little difficulty on the main highways. The most serious problem was to keep merchandise dry and free from weather damage, for it had to be carted great distances on wagons that did not give sufficient protection against the elements. For instance, carters required five weeks to make the journey from Nuremberg to Basle and return, sometimes longer, depending on the season of the year and weather conditions. It was necessary to wrap each piece of merchandise separately.

Anton Koberger, publisher of the Chronicle, carried on an extensive book business. Shipping cases were not suitable for this class of merchandise, as they did not keep out rain and moisture. On the other hand, barrels were readily obtainable, were generally well made and water proof. They were easy to open, without damage to the container, and could therefore be used again and again, unless, perhaps, they were broken open by highwaymen.

It is not difficult to imagine that some of these barrels lying on the wharf may have come from or were destined to Nuremberg; for in such containers it was the custom of the Kobergers to ship their wares, and in such containers the Chronicle itself was no doubt originally distributed to its first purchasers all over the continent of Europe by wagons.

It was in the city of Mainz that Johann Gutenberg was born in the year 1397, almost a century before the advent of the great picture book of the late Middle Ages, the Nuremberg Chronicle. Here he invented the art of printing by moveable type in the year 1450, and here he died in 1458, thirty-five years before the Chronicle was published.

FOLIO XL recto

Here sprang up the kingdom of the Lacedaemonians, and there Eurystheus (Euristeus) first reigned for 42 years.

Boaz (Boos), the son of Salmon, was born in the 48th year of his father, and in the 3775th year of the world.

Here began the kingdom of the Corinthians, and there first reigned Aletes (Atlethes), a warlike man and conqueror. As he was a powerful man, and saw that by force or counsel he could sway the people as he wished, he took it upon himself to become their ruler.

It is to be noted that in the Gospels a gap occurs between Boaz and Obed (Obeth), for between them elapsed 272 years, which cannot be covered by but one person. Therefore Boaz occurs five times. Nicholas de Lyra says that in truth there were three Boaz’s who followed one after the other, for such a situation is not to be found in credible and orderly history. However, it is certain that between the beginning of the judgeship of Joshuah, when Salmon espoused Rahab who bore Boaz, up to the time of David’s birth 367 years elapsed, during which time three generations are mentioned by the evangelists.[See remarks on the Illustrations following.]

Ruth was of the tribe of the Moabites. She took for her husband a man named Mahlon (Maalon). He was a Jew and native of Bethlehem. His father was named Elimelech and his mother Naomi (Noemi). Because of a famine in her country, Naomi with her two sons, wandered into the land of the Moabites. Her son Chilion (Chelion) married Orpah (Orpbam), and her son Mahlon married Ruth. After the lapse of seventeen years Elimelech and his two sons died. In bitter sorrow over her misfortune, Naomi decided to return to Judah, her native land. But her daughters-in-law were not willing to have her leave them. But as Ruth was not willing to remain, Naomi took her along to Judah. And as they came into Bethlehem, Boaz, the friend of Elimelech, took them into his house. Now as Boaz, after a time learned that Ruth was the widow of his departed friend, and as he himself had no wife, he took her to wife according to the laws of Moses. A year thereafter she bore him a son. And Naomi took him and named him Obed, because she became his nurse in her old age. And to Obed was afterward born Jesse, from whom was born David.[See Book of Ruth 1-4. In the German edition of the this paragraph and the preceding one are switched.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) EURYSTHEUS AND ALETES

Eurystheus (Euristeus) is here represented in a small woodcut, with crown, orb and scepter. It is the same woodcut that represents Baleus at Folio XXXVII recto, in the Lineage of the Assyrian Kings. For earlier remarks on Eurystheus, see Lacedaemonia (Folio XXVIII verso, and notes).

Aletes, son of Hippotes, and a descendant of Hercules, is said to have taken possession of Corinth.

(B) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (CONT.)

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio XXXIIII verso. It is a narrow vertical panel 2½" x 12½", of five portraits, extending the full distance of the text page. Each portrait bears the name Booz (Boaz). The first is undated; the second is dated 3825; the third 3875; the fourth 3925; and the fifth 3975. Note that these dates are exactly 50 years apart, indicating a purely arbitrary and imaginative scheme, apparently intended to bear out the observations of the Chronicler in the text above. Each portrait is a separate woodcut.

(C) GENEALOGY OF RUTH

The Genealogy of Ruth begins with Elimelech and his spouse Naomi, and proceeds downward to their two sons, Chilion and Mahlon, beside whom is his wife Ruth. To the right of Ruth is her second husband, Boaz. The group is represented by a single woodcut 7½" x 3¼".

FOLIO XL verso

These four (referring to the opposite portraits of Zerahiah (Zaraya), Meraioth (Meyraioth), Amariah (Amarias), and Ahitub (Achitob)), placed in the Priestly Lineage, were not high priests or bishops, but Zadok (Sadoch) descended from them, and was placed in the priestly office by Solomon after the previous deposition of Yathar (Ithamar?) from the priesthood; and therefore he was the last of the line of Ithamar (Ythamar).


The Priestly Lineage, as portrayed and set forth in the Chronicle is based on the text of Ezra 7:1-6:

Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkaiah, the son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub, the son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth, the son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki, the son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the high priest; this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses,
etc.

Reversing the order and beginning with Aaron, we have the following: Aaron and Eleazar at Folio XXIX verso; Phinehas (Phinees), Abishua (Abysue), Bukki (Booz or Buuzz), and Uzzi (Ozy) at Folio XXXVII verso; Zerahiah (Zeraya), Meraioth (Meyraioth), Azariah (whom the chronicler omits), Amariah (Amarias) and Ahitub (Achitob), at Folio XL verso. This leaves out of account the initial series of priestly portraits shown at Folio XXV verso, covering Levi and his three sons Merari, Gershon and Kohath.

It will also be noted that the name of Azariah occurs twice in the biblical text; which, however, is not an error or inconsistency, as a succeeding descendant often bore the same name as one of his ancestors. It must therefore be assumed that this is an omission on the part of the chronicler in providing no portrait or text for Azariah.

Jephthah (Iepte), an illegitimate prince of murderers, was made a captain by the Gileadites to fight the Ammonites. So to begin with, Jephthah sent his messengers to the Ammonite king to ascertain why he was coming into the land of the Israelites, which land had been given them by God. But the king would not hearken unto Jephthah. And Jephthah made a vow that whosoever should come forth from his house to meet him in the event of his victorious return, him he would sacrifice (to the Lord). Then he went forth against the Ammonites, and defeated them. When he returned, his virgin daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and dances. But to keep his oath he sacrificed her, acting unkindly and as a fool in the matter of the vow. Jephthah was the seventh judge of Israel, and he judged for six years.[ This is the story of Jephthah as recorded in Judges 11:1-40. He is spoken of simply as "the Gileadite," and as being "a man of mighty valor." He is said to have been "the son of a harlot," for which cause he was driven from his home in Gilead by his brethren. Thereupon he gathered a band of followers and led the life of a freebooter in the land of Tob. When Gilead was threatened by the Ammonites, the people begged him to return and defend his country. This he engaged to do upon condition that he be made a chief or king of the people should he return victorious. And to this the Gileadites agreed. And the "spirit of the Lord" came upon Jephthah, and on his way to battle he made the vow that should he return victorious, he would offer up to the Lord as a thanksgiving, whomsoever should come out of his house to welcome him. Upon his return his daughter came forth to meet him with timbrels and dances. She was his only child. And he was seized with horror and grief, and rent his clothes, for he could not forego his vow. When she learned of this she begged for a respite of two months in order to go into the mountains and ‘bewail her virginity.’ When she returned, Jephthah fulfilled his vow. The story is of interest because it may give some evidence of at least one undeniably repugnant aspect of the ancient religion among the Israelites— the sacrifice of human beings in times of special stress. The words ‘bewailing her virginity,’ are added to the story to lay stress upon the fact that if Jephthah’s daughter had had a husband, or had been a mother, her father would have had no control over her; since in the one case her husband would have been her sole possessor, and, in the other, she could have claimed protection from the father of the child, whether the latter was alive or not.] Thereafter Abesson (Ibzan) of Bethlehem, judged for seven years, and he was the eighth judge; and he had thirty sons and many daughters. Thereafter Abialon (Elon), the 9th judge, was judge for ten years; and after him Abdon for eight years. He had forty sons and was the tenth judge.[This is the Lineage of the Judges according to Judges 12:7-14: And after him Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel. And he had 30 sons, and 30 daughters, whom he sent abroad and took in 30 daughters from abroad for his sons. And he judged Israel 7 years. Then died Ibzan and was buried at Bethlehem. And after him Elon, a Zebulonite, judged Israel; and he judged Israel 10 years. . . . And after him Abdon, the son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, judged Israel. And he had 40 sons and 30 nephews that rode on threescore and ten ass colts: And he judged Israel 8 years. ]

Carthage, the greatly renowned city in Africa, derived its name from a little town called Cartha. And among the Greeks it is written ΚΑΡΧΗΔΩΝ. It was first built by Dido Beli (generally known as Queen Dido), daughter of (Belus) the king of Tyre, 73 years before Rome was built. Prior to that time the city was called Byrsa, which signifies bull’s hide. For the said Dido purchased from King Hiarbas for the purpose of building the city as much ground as might be covered by the hide of a bull. As Virgil states, she caused this hide to be cut up into the narrowest strips possible, and with them she enclosed a large area of land. And so this city derived its name Byrsa from this hide. However, later it was called Carthage. Cicero writes that the city was named after a woman whose name was Carthago. Pliny states that the city was at war with Rome for 120 years, and often destroyed and built up again. Because of its antiquity, greatness and splendor, this renowned city is highly regarded among all the cities of Africa and Spain.[ Spain is undoubtedly injected into the text of the at this point in deference to Carthago Nova (New Carthage), a city on the eastern coast of Hispania Terraconensis, founded by Carthaginians under Hasdrubal in 243 BCE, and subsequently conquered by the Romans. It was situated on a promontory extending out into the sea, and in ancient times New Carthage was one of the most important cities in all Spain. The city was most strongly fortified and had in its immediate vicinity the richest silver mines of Spain, employing 40,000 men. The city was one of Ptolemy’s points of recorded astronomical observation.] At the time of its first destruction, Scipio the Younger, stormed the city for six successive days and nights, and finally forced it to capitulate, and upon condition that the survivors might serve as slaves. In this war it is said 25,000 women and 30,000 men were slain. Hasdrubal the king threw his wife, himself and his children into the very midst of the flames, which raged for sixteen consecutive days. And the lamentations and misery were so great (as Livy states from observation) that even the enemy was moved to sympathy. And so was Carthage, together with its walls, destroyed 668 years after it was built. Twenty-two years later the Romans undertook to rebuild the city and many Roman citizens were sent there. But in a short time fire burst from Mount Aetna, and the city was burned by hot ashes. To replace the loss the Romans exempted the city from taxes for a period of ten years. In the course of a number of years, Carthage also suffered greatly at the hands of the Goths. Finally it fell into the hands of the Moors (Arabs), and until this time it has been a royal city. According to their tongue it is now called Tunis (Tunicium).[According to the old chroniclers Dido, or Elissa, the daughter of a king of Tyre, escaped from the power of her brother Pygmalion with the treasures for the sake of which he had murdered her husband, and with a band of noble Tyrians who shared her flight. Having touched at Cyprus, and carried from there eighty maidens to be the wives of her followers in their future home, she arrived at a spot on the coast of Africa marked out by nature for the site of a mighty city. She entered into a treaty with the natives, and purchased from them for an annual tribute as much land as could be covered with a bull’s hide, but craftily cut the hide into the narrowest strips possible, and so enclosed the area on which she built the city, which afterwards as the place grew, became a citadel, and retained in its name Byrsa, the memory of a bargain, which, however mythical, has many a counterpart for deceitfulness in later times. And Carthage grew by the influx of colonists from the surrounding country. Its growing prosperity excited the envy of Hiarbas (Virgil calls him Iarbas), king of the Libyans, who offered Dido the choice of war or marriage. Debarred from the latter alternative by her vow of fidelity to her late husband, but urged to embrace it by the importunities of her people, she stabbed herself to death before their eyes on a funeral pyre that she had erected to her husband’s honor. In Virgil’s (especially books 2, 4, and 6), Dido commits suicide in he same way, but only after being betrayed by Aeneas. Immediately after her death the Carthaginians enrolled her among their deities.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (Cont.)

By a narrow vertical panel four portraits of minor priests or bishops are added to the Priestly Lineage, concerning whom the text has nothing to offer except that they are the lineal bridge to Zadok, of whom we are to hear in the future.

(B) CARTHAGO (CARTHAGE)

The City of Carthage is represented by a woodcut 4¾" x 6¾". True to actual location the city appears to be situated on a peninsula extending into the Mediterranean Sea. It is surrounded by a wall, whose main gateway is in the foreground. In the background, high up on a hill, is what we may suppose to be the original citadel, or Byrsa, about which the city was originally built in the days of Dido. A temple with a dome appears at the left (probably Roman), while at the right we observe a square church tower and minaret. May we not assume that this diversity in architecture is intended to reflect the succeeding hostile occupations to which Carthage was subjected in her long and unfortunate struggle with her rivals and invaders! In a war beginning in 149 BCE and lasting three years, Carthage was utterly destroyed by the Romans. For thirty years it remained in ruins until a colony was established on the old site by the Gracchi; but this remained in feeble condition until the time of Julius and Augustus, under whom a new city was built south of the former on the southeasterly side of the peninsula, with the name of Colonia Carthago. It rapidly grew in extent and covered a great part (if not the whole) of the site of the ancient Tyrian city. It became the first city of Africa, and it occupied an important place in ecclesiastical as well as civil history. It was taken by the Vandals in 439 CE, retaken by Belisarius (Justinian’s military commander) in 533 CE, and destroyed by the Arab conquerors in 698 CE.

FOLIO XLI recto

Saul, the first king of the Jews, a son of Cis (Kish) out of the tribe of Benjamin, was chosen king by the Lord in the 12th year of Samuel; and with Samuel he reigned 26 years. Although he was a good man in the beginning, he later scorned God’s commandments. Originally a king, he afterward became a tyrant and oppressor of his subjects. Finally after many persecutions and pursuits against David, he fought with the Palestinians (Philistines) on Mount Gelboe (Gilboa), and there his army was defeated and he himself was severely wounded. He voluntarily fell upon his naked sword and died. Seeing this, his armor-bearer also killed himself.[Now the Philistines fought against Israel; and the men of Israel fled before the Philistines, and fell down slain on Mount Gilboa. And the Philistines followed hard upon Saul and upon his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Melchi-shua, Saul’s sons. And the battle went badly against Saul, and the archers hit him; and he was badly wounded by the archers. Then said Saul to his armor-bearer, Draw your sword and thrust me through with it lest these uncircumcised men come and thrust me through and abuse me. But his armor-bearer would not; for he was very afraid. Therefore Saul took a sword and fell upon it. And when his armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise upon his sword and died with him. (I Samuel 31:1-6)]

As David presented himself to Saul in the presence of his son Jonathan, Jonathan entered into a great friendship with David, and he gave him all his clothes to wear.[When David made an end of speaking to Saul, the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him. And Jonathan and David made a covenant. And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him and gave it to David and his garments, even to his sword, his bow, and his girdle. (I Samuel 18:1-4)] Now as Saul and David returned to Jerusalem, the maidens came to meet them, and they said, Saul has slain thousands, and David ten thousands. And Saul became sad with envy and was concerned that his kingdom might pass from him to David. So one day, when David was playing on his harp before Saul, Saul attempted to run him through with a javelin[I Samuel 18:6-11.]. But thereafter he made him a captain over his men of arms, and promised to give him his daughter Michal for wife, if he would bring him one hundred foreskins of the Philistines. But it was really Saul’s intention to have David slain by the Philistines. However, David agreed and he brought two hundred foreskins, and the two hundred he killed in a righteous war, for they were the enemies of the people of Israel.[I Samuel 18:12-27.] And now Jonathan reconciled David and Saul.[I Samuel 19:1-7.] But as David afterward defeated the Philistines with great loss, Saul again tried to kill him with his javelin; but David again escaped the thrust and fled to his house. Thereupon Saul sent his messengers to capture David and to slay him. But Michal, his wife, let him down through a window. When Saul learned that David was with Samuel at Aioth (Naioth) he three times sent many and various messengers to take David. And when they arrived and found the prophets with Samuel and David, they too prophesied with them and praised God. And finally Saul himself came there, and he prophesied with them, stripping himself naked.[I Samuel 19:8-24.]

During the judgments of Abesson (Ibzan), Abylon (Elon), and Abdon times were peaceful and nothing of note occurred in Israel. But mark you that although the 70 interpreters say nothing of this Abylon, nor of the time when there were no judges, they add to the time of Joshua those whose judgeships were uneventful according to the Hebrew truth; and so you should keep the years closely in mind, or you will err.

When Ulysses (As Augustine and Boethius write) returned from the Trojan War, he sailed the seas aimlessly for ten years. Finally he came to an island near Italy with a single ship. And on the island lived Circe, the sorceress, a very beautiful woman. She was called a daughter of the Sun. By means of her magic arts she prepared a potion by means of which she at will metamorphosed those who drank it from human beings into beasts. And she handed the drink to the companions of Ulysses, and metamorphosed one into a wild boar, another into a lion, and another into a deer. But Mercury had given Ulysses a flower to counteract the sprits of sorcery. And as they did not harm him, he forced Circe with drawn sword to reconvert his companions into their former state. Solinus writes that Ulysses built the city of Ulixbonam[Lisbon.] in Spain, which was named for him.[Ulysses, Ulyxes or Ulises, as the Latin writers call him (Odysseus in Greek), was one of the principal Greek heroes of the Trojan War. His career is well known through the classics. However, no part of his adventures are so celebrated in ancient story as his wanderings after the destruction of Troy, and his ultimate return to Ithaca, which form the subject of the Homeric poem called after him the . After the taking of Troy one portion of the Greeks sailed away, and another with Agamemnon remained behind on the Trojan coast. Odysseus at first joined the former, but when he had sailed as far as Tenedos, he returned to Agamemnon. Afterwards, however, he determined to sail home, and in the course of that voyage he had many experiences and adventures. At one time he arrived at the island of Aeolus, probably in the south of Sicily, where he stayed one month. On his departure Aeolus provided him with a bag of winds, which were to carry him home, but his companions opened the bag, and the winds escaped; immediately after which the ships were driven back to the island of Aeolus, who was indignant, and refused all further assistance. After a voyage of six days he arrived at the city of Lamus, in which Antiphates ruled over a sort of cannibals. Odysseus escaped from them with one ship, and his fate now carried him to a western island, Aeaea, inhabited by the sorceress Circe. A part of his people was sent to explore the island, but Circe changed them into swine. Eurylochus alone escaped, and brought the sad news to Odysseus, who, when he was hastening to the assistance of his friends, was instructed by Hermes by what means he could resist the magic powers of Circe. He succeeded in liberating his companions, who were again changed into men, and were most hospitably treated by the sorceress, with whom he and his men spent one year.]

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) LINEAGE OF THE JUDGES

To the Lineage of the Judges which began at Folio XXX recto, with Joshua, and continued with Deborah at Folio XXXVII verso, is now added a third panel (2-1/4" x 9-7/8") consisting of four additional portraits. Although the last three figures on the panel are mentioned in the text on the same page, all four are specifically treated on the verso of the opposite folio.

(B) SAUL, FIRST KING OF ISRAEL

Saul, the first king of Israel, is honored in a full-length portrait (2" x 6½"). The doughty king is confined to a rather restricted area. He wears an ornate foliated crown, which has a diameter equal to the length of his shinbone. He is attired in an embroidered medieval coat. His head is large, and his flowing mane and heavy beard remind one of the classic conception of Jupiter. But looking again we see that one eye is wide upon, the other almost closed—and we think of the one-eyed Wotan. In his right hand he carries his trusty javelin that David had so much difficulty in dodging. Suspended from his belt is a scimitar. The king does not take a very firm stand, and his knotty extremities would seem to have some difficulty in sustaining the royal dignity. Although otherwise well accoutered, the subject appears to be unshod.

(C) CIRCE AND ULYSSES

Ulysses, looking rather wearied and troubled, is seated in the last ship that has survived the tribulations of his navy on the homeward voyage after the siege of Troy. He is off the coast of the magic island of Aeaea, abode of Circe, the sorceress. The lady herself is seated at the table on the beach. Although a meal seems to be in progress we see only one plate, a knife, and salt and pepper shakers to entice the guests. Circe herself, in high medieval headdress, holds in her left hand, probably to indicate her calling, a wand, to which she points with her right hand to make sure that you will take note of that powerful instrument. A younger woman, probably a maid or attendant, is walking to the water’s edge, carrying the potion which brought about the transformation in the companions of Ulysses; for in the hold of the ship, we see not mariners but a cargo of animals (an ass, a lion, a ram, etc.). Although the drink is just being offered, and one of the crew is reaching out for it, the metamorphosis is already complete; and so the artist has anticipated the effect of the draught. But Ulysses, quietly seated on the upper deck, has not been affected; and in his hand he holds the flower given him by the kindly Mercury to counteract the evil arts of Circe.

FOLIO XLI verso

Eli (Heli), the priest and judge, had two sons, Hophni (Ophni) and Phinehas (Phinees); and because he was negligent in the discipline and punishment of his sons, he himself was punished by the Lord; for when he learned of the defeat of both his sons, and the capture of the ark, he fell from his seat, broke his neck, and died of pain at the age of ninety-eight years.[Eli was a descendant of Ithamar the fourth son of Aaron, and successor of Abdon as high priest and judge of Israel. His two sons, Hophni and Phinehas were temple priests in name, but at heart "sons of Belial;" for they knew not the Lord. The meat offerings brought by the people they appropriated to themselves for the gratification of their own appetites. In consequence of his negligence and injudicious management of his sons, Eli suffered punishment at the hands of the Lord. The judgments to be visited upon him were disclosed to him by Samuel, and they came to pass twenty-seven years later. His sons were slain in battle with the Philistines, into whose hands the ark of God also fell at the same time. The aged priest, then in his 98th year, was overwhelmed when these calamities were made known to him, and he fell backward from his seat and broke his neck (I Samuel 2:12-17; 3:13-14; 4:12-18).]

Samson, the twelfth and last judge of Israel, judged for twenty years. Among the Hebrews he was the strongest. His birth was prophesied to Manoah, his father, through an angel,[The circumstances attending the annunciation of Samson’s birth are to be found in Judges 13:3-24: "And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman and said to her, Behold, now you are barren, and bear not; but you shall conceive, and bear a son. Now therefore, beware, I pray you, and drink not wine or strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing; For see, you shall conceive and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head, for the child shall be a Nazarite to God from the womb, and he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistines . . . And the woman bore a son, and called his name Samson."] and he was given a wife out of the city of Timnath (Thamna).[This woman was a daughter of the Philistines, the uncircumcised; and such marriages were prohibited among the Israelites. Samson married her against the customary law and over the objections of his parents.] There he gave thirty youths a riddle to solve, which through the secret information given them by the cunning of this woman, they were able to do. He burned the fruit trees of the enemy with torches attached to the tails of foxes. He slew a thousand men with the jawbone of an ass, out of which the Lord caused water to flow to satisfy his thirst.

On his way to Timnath to fetch his bride, Samson slew a lion, and afterward found in its carcass a swarm of bees, and he ate of the honey and took some to his parents. This occurrence gave rise to a riddle that he propounded at his marriage feast: "Out of the eater came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetness." Unable to solve the riddle within the three days allotted, Samson’s thirty companions resorted to his wife who, by the most urgent entreaties had obtained from him the solution. By cruel threats they extorted the secret from her, and gave him the answer. Although he kept his word and awarded the prizes he had offered, it was at the expense of the lives of thirty of their countrymen. He also forsook the wife who had been false to him. (Judges 14:5-20)

Samson returned to Timnath for reconciliation with his wife; but she had married again and he was not permitted to see her. Immediately he caught 300 foxes, joined their tales together in pairs, with firebrands between, and let them loose in the fields and vineyards of the Philistines, spreading fire and desolation over the country. To avenge themselves they set fire to the house where his former wife lived, and she and her father were burned in it. This again drew Samson’s vengeance. Finding a new jawbone of an ass, he slew 1,000 Philistines with it. "And he was very thirsty and called on the Lord, and said, You have given this great deliverance into the hand of your servant; and now shall I die of thirst, and fall into the hands of the uncircumcised? But God split open a hollow place that was in the jaw, and water came out from it; and when he had drunk, his spirit came again." (Judges 15:1-8).

Finally, his hair, in which his strength was lodged, was cut off through the cunning of Delilah. He was taken prisoner by the Philistines and robbed of his eyesight. However, as his hair grew again and his strength was restored, he broke down the pillars of the house in which the princes and many people were assembled; and the house fell upon the princes and upon himself, and three thousand people were killed as a result of that; and there were more dead than living. And he was buried in his father’s grave.[Samson attached himself to Delilah, a mercenary woman who discovered that the secret of his strength lay in his hair. And the Philistines came upon Samson while he was asleep, cut off his hair, put out his eyes, carried him to Gaza and imprisoned him. They were having a feast, and, to add to the merriment, had Samson brought in and seated between the two main pillars of the house, where the nobles and many people were assembled. He laid hold of the pillars and pushed with all his might. The entire structure thus collapsed, burying both Samson and the Philistines. (Judges 16:1-31).]

Ahitub (Achitob) the son of Phinehas, was the father of Ahimelech. Saul slew him, together with his entire house, because of David.[Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub, and his successor in the priesthood, gave David some of the show-bread and the sword of Goliath, when he fled from Saul. For this offense he and all the priest of Nob were slain by Saul.]

Eli (Hely) was a judge after Samson, and also a priest. Because of the more worthy office of priest, he was not called a judge, but a priest. When the priesthood was diverted from the sons of Eleazar, Eli, first of the sons of Ithamar, attained the priesthood; and as he was a judge, he may have passed on the office to himself. However, he began to judge in the 356th year from the time of exodus from Egypt; being the year 861 in the third age of Abraham, and of the age of the world the 2,809th; and he judged forty years. During this time occurred the story of Ruth, as previously related.

Samuel, the holiest prophet of the Lord, a priest and judge of the Hebrews, ruled the people of the Lord forty years after Eli. He was the son of the man called Elkanah (Helcane) and Hannah (Anna), his wife. Elkanah had two wives, Hannah and Peninnah (Phenena). Hannah was barren, but was loved most by her husband. Peninnah gave birth, and therefore she scorned Hannah because of her barrenness. This greatly saddened Hannah; and she went into the temple and made a vow and prayed God to give her a son. And as she prayed as one intoxicated, Eli the priest thought she was drunk and upbraided her. But she meekly excused herself, making her great sorrow known to him. And the Lord listened to her prayer and gave her a son, Samuel the prophet. At the suggestion of the Lord she dedicated him to the tabernacle and allowed him to serve there. And from childhood to maturity he served the Lord worthily.

Samuel, the son of Elkanah and Hannah, was a celebrated Hebrew prophet, and the last of their judges. While a child he officiated in some form in the temple, and was favored with revelations of the divine will respecting the family of Eli, the high priest, under whose care and training his mother had placed him (I Samuel 3:4-14).

After the death of Eli, Samuel was acknowledged as a prophet, and soon commenced a work of reformation. Idolatry was banished, the worship of the true God was restored, and Samuel was publicly recognized as a judge of Israel. Residing on his patrimonial estate in Ramah he made annual circuits throughout the country to administer justice until his infirmities forbade it, and then he deputed to his sons to execute this duty. They proved unworthy of the trust and the dissatisfied people wanted a change of government. They applied to Samuel, who, under divine direction, anointed Saul to be their king, and Samuel resigned his authority to him. After Saul was rejected, Samuel was instructed to anoint David; after which he returned to Ramah, where he died. (I Samuel 12; I Samuel 25:1).

And after having also officiated as a judge of Israel for forty years he died, two years before the passing of Saul. And Israel mourned him as its own father and his body was buried in Ramah (Kamatha).

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (Cont.).

To get our bearings in the Priestly Lineage, let us review: (1) At Folio XXIX verso we began with Aaron, who branched off to Ithamar, whose two sons were consumed by fire. So the office of high priest descended upon Eleazar, his remaining son. At Folio XXXVII verso the lineage was continued through Phinehas, Abishua, Bukki and Uzzi; and at Folio XL verso, Uzzi’s descendats, Zeraiah, Meraioth (Azariah was skipped), Amariah and Ahitub were added. Following the text of Ezra 7:1-6, we should now proceed with Zadok, Shallum, Hilkiah, Azariah, Seraiah, finally coming to Ezra. But we do not, and Zadok will not appear until Folio XLVIII recto is reached.

In this new panel (XLI verso) we begin with Eli, who, according to the text, followed the collateral line of Ithamar, when the priesthood was diverted from the sons of Eleazar:

  1. Eli (Heli) appears in his high pontificals, with the crescent upon his mitre. He is followed by
  2. Phinehas (Phinees), who was already incorporated in the Priestly Line at Folio XXXVII verso, though there represented by a different woodcut. Both portraits give the subject the indicia of a high priest. And so with
  3. Ahitub (Achitob), who already appeared in the Priestly Line at Folio XL verso, although represented by an entirely different portrait and not as a high priest, as at present. He is followed by his son
  4. Ahimelech, also in his high priestly robes. He has a square bejeweled plate on his mitre, set with gems. His hands are placed together in an attitude of prayer. It was he and his house who were slain by Saul for giving assistance to the hunted David.
  5. Abiathar (Abyathar), the last in the panel, holds an open book with both hands. Like Ahimelech, he too has a square bejeweled plate on his mitre, set with gems. He is not mentioned in the text. Abiathar was a son of Ahimelech, who was head of the family of priests in charge of the sanctuary at Nob (I Samuel 21:1). All except Abiathar were massacred by Saul (I Samuel 22:20). When the rest obeyed the king’s summons, he may have remained at home to officiate. On hearing of the slaughter he took refuge with David, carrying with him the oracular Ephod. Abiathar and Zadok accompanied the outlaw in his wanderings. During Absalom’s rebellion they and their sons rendered yeoman’s service to the old king (II Samuel 15:17). Abiathar’s adhesion to Adonijah was of great importance, not only because of his position as priest, but also owing to his friendship with king David. Solomon, therefore, as soon as he could safely do it, deposed Abiathar from the priesthood and relegated him to the seclusion of Anathoth. His sons lost the priestly office along with their father.

(B) LINEAGE OF THE JUDGES (Cont.).
  1. SAMSON
  2. ELI
  3. SAMUEL
  4. ELKANAH, PENINNAH AND HANNAH

The Lineage of the Judges which ended at Folio XLI recto, with Abdon, the last of the minor judges of Israel according to Judges 12:13-15, is here resumed with Samson, whose record occupies several succeeding chapters of the book of Judges.

  1. Samson, having failed in his first matrimonial venture (which began with his Philistine courtship at Timnath, and ended with the slaughter of a thousand of his wife’s kinsmen with the jawbone of an ass), soon thereafter went to Gaza, and saw there a prostitute; and he went in to her. As soon as the Gazites learned that Samson was among them, they encompassed him, and laid in wait for him all night "in the gate of the city." And Samson lay till midnight, when he arose and took the doors of the gate of the city, and the two posts, and went away with them, bar and all, and put them upon his shoulders, and carried them to the top of a hill (Judges 16:1-3). So here the artist and woodcutter have caught him in his triumphant march. In embroidered and intricate robes, including a great coat, but bareheaded, he gallantly (note the pose that he strikes) steps forward, with the gates on his shoulders. Taken in connection with the biblical text, this is one of the most comical woodcuts in the Chronicle.
  2. Eli, who appeared at the head of the priestly line on this page, is now repeated in the Lineage of the Judges, for it will be remembered, he was both priest and judge. Here he appears as "Hely," just below the doughty Samson. He wears a medieval cap and gown, and according to his gestures, is engaged in the argument of some legal question. Below him is
  3. Samuel, who is clothed in the same manner as Eli, and engaged in the same pursuit. He branches off from a triple portrait of
  4. Elkanah (Helcana) and his two wives: Peninnah (Phenena) and Hannah (Anna). Peninnah is by far the younger of the two women. Both wear voluminous head-dresses, that of the younger woman the more pretentious. Peninnah has her hands folded in prayer, while Hannah holds the genealogical branch that proceeds to her beloved son Samuel. Elkanah is an elderly man and does not seem to feel particularly happy in his dual role of husband. But then, very few people in the Chronicle ever laugh, or even smile. He loved Hannah more than the scoffing Peninnah who bore him a number of children.
FOLIO XLII recto

Naples (Neapolis) is an old and highly celebrated city of the land of Campania. It was at one time called Parthenope. The city’s origin and age are noted by Titus Livius, who writes that the city of Palaepolis was not far from the present site of Naples, and that the same people lived in both places. The city of Palaepolis, which was then in the hands of the Greeks, was conquered by Publius Plautius, the Roman. He occupied a convenient site between that city and Naples, and so prevented them from assisting one another against the enemy. But some write that this royal city was built by Diomedes, the king, in the maritime region, and that after it was subjugated by the Romans, it remained loyal and true to them and to other princes and lords. Yet Livy says that Naples was taken by the Romans with the assistance of the Nolanians;[Nola (Nolannus) was one of the most ancient towns in Campania, 21 miles southeast of Capua. In 327 BCE Nola was sufficiently powerful to send 2000 men to the assistance of Neapolis. In 313 it was taken by the Romans. It remained faithful to the Romans even after the battle of Cannae, when the other Campanian cities revolted to Hannibal, and it was allowed in consequence to retain its own constitution as an ally of the Romans. In the Social War it fell into the hands of the confederates, and when taken by Sulla it was burned to the ground by the Samnite garrison. It was afterward rebuilt and made a Roman colony by Vespasian. According to the ecclesiastical traditions, church bells were invented at Nola, and were for that reason called Campanae.] but that thereafter the Neapolitans nevertheless remained loyal toward the Romans and other lords at all times; for when the Romans were in distress, and the Neapolitans were their enemies, and their assistance was sought by Hannibal, they nevertheless stood by Rome. And afterward the city flourished during all the time that the Roman order of councilors and emperors continued to exist. By reason of its peaceful condition, many brave men sought relief there from their cares, and devoted themselves to luxury and frivolity. Suetonius states that when Nero came from Greece to Naples, he there first introduced the art of music; and that he rode through a breach in the walls with white horses. There also lived learned writers, namely Virgil, Livy, Oratius, and others. Bonifacius VIII and John XXIII, both popes, were born there. For the past 300 years this city has been graced by royalty, and magnificently adorned with many praiseworthy churches and large public buildings, houses, and other structures equal to those of other Italian cities. There is the cloister of Saint Clara, built by a queen, the wife of King Robert of Aragon, and it excels all the cloisters of Italy. Item: A beautiful, well-built Carthusian cloister, named after St. Martin, is located outside the walls. There also is a citadel, called "New Castle," a praiseworthy and memorable work, with its new structures, and which is to be prized over and above the older structures in Italy. I will be silent as to the height, thickness, beauty, breadth and adornment of the gates, walls, palaces, chambers and other structures there. Mount Vesuvius of the land of Campana, which is removed from all other mountains, lies within a thousand paces of this city. It abounds in wines, which are called Greek wines. This same mountain at times has cast out upon itself ashes and sparks, covering the fields to the treetops. In the time of Trajan, Pliny the Second, who wished to view this marvel near at hand, was suffocated by flames.

Naples (Neapolis or Napoli) is located on the western slope of Mt. Vesuvius and was founded by the Chalcidians of Cumae (colonists from the city of Chalchis, on the island of Euboea, in Greece), on the site of an ancient placed called Parthenope, after the siren of that name. For that reason we find the town so called by Vergil and Ovid. The year of the foundation of Neapolis is not recorded. It was called the "New City," because it was regarded as a new quarter of the city of Cumae. When the town is first mentioned in Roman history, it consisted of two parts divided from each other by a wall, and called respectively Palaeopolis ("Old City") and Neapolis. This division probably arose after the capture of Cumae by the Samnites, when a large number of the Cumaeans took refuge in the city they had founded. Immediately after which the old quarter was called Palaeopolis, and the new quarter, built to accommodate the new inhabitants, was called Neapolis.

In the year 290 BCE the town passed into the hands of the Romans, who allowed it to retain its Greek constitution. At a later date it became a municipium , and finally a Roman colony. Under the Romans the two quarters of the city were united and the name of Palaeopolis disappeared. It continued prosperous and flourishing until the time of the empire; and its beautiful scenery, and the luxurious life of its Greek population, made it a favorite of residence with many of the Romans. In the reign of Titus it was destroyed by an earthquake, but he rebuilt it in the Roman style. The modern city of Naples does not stand on exactly the same site as Neapolis. The ancient city extended further east. The modern city, on the other hand, extends farther north and west.

ILLUSTRATION
CITY OF NAPLES

The Latin edition of the Chronicle has a city image representing Naples that appears for the first time. In the German edition, however, the woodcut that appeared at Folio XXXIX verso, as representative of the city of Mainz, is here repeated.

FOLIO XLII verso

In the reign of this man (referring to the opposite portrait of Thautanes (Thatanes), a king in the Assyrian Lineage) Troy was destroyed, probably for the first, but not for the second time.

And at this time began the most important period of Greek history and accomplishments. From this point on they wrote their histories, beginning in the first or second year after the defeat and destruction of Troy; and it was in the third year of Abdon, the judge of Israel.

In the Year of the World 4025

In the reign of this Athanis (referring to the opposite portrait of the second king of this branch of the Assyrian Lineage), the Trojan wars are said to have been fought; during which time Mnestheus ruled the Athenians, and Polisides the Sicyonians.

Thineus (referring to the third portrait opposite) was the twenty-eighth king of the Assyrians, and during his reign the kingdom of Sicyonia came to an end, which was also in the time of Eli, the priest; and this kingdom endured 939 years. Thereafter priests, called Carni, were instituted.

In the Year of the World 4075

Jesse, or Isay, had seven sons and two daughters, whose names are here written (referring to the inscriptions on the portraits).

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) Lineage of Assyrian Kings (Cont.)

The Lineage of Assyrian Kings is here continued from Folio XXXIIII recto:

  1. All three kings are conventionally portrayed. Of interest here is that two of the three portraits differ between the Latin and German editions. In the German edition Thautanes is represented by a woodcut that at Folio XXVIII recto represents King Baleus in the Assyrian line.
  2. Athanis is represented by the same woodcut that at Folio XXVI recto represents King Aegialeus in the Assyrian line.
  3. In the German edition Thineus is represented by the same woodcut that at Folio XXV recto represents King Ninyas in the Assyrian line.

(B) Lineage of Christ (Cont.)

The Lineage of Christ was carried to Boaz at Folio XL recto, and is now resumed with his son Obed, born to him by Ruth. To Obed Jesse was born, and it is with the latter’s issue that we are here largely concerned.

Jesse was married to a woman who has been previously married to one Nahash, or had been his concubine. Of this relationship two daughters were born, Abigail and Zeruiah. Abigail married Jether, the Ishmaelite, and bore him a son, Amasa. Zeruiah, the second daughter, also married and begot three sons, Abishai, Asahel and Joab.

To her second husband, Jesse, this same woman, according to I Chronicles 2:12-17, bore seven sons: Eliab, Abinadab, Shammah (Shimma), Nethaneel, Raddai, Ozem and David. It seems there was another, or eighth son, but his name is not given in the Bible.

  1. Obed (Obeth), son of Boaz and Ruth, begins this branch of the Lineage of Christ, but is not mentioned in the text. He stands in the cup of a flower as do nearly all the genealogical characters, and from him a branch runs to his son.
  2. Jesse (Jessent, also called Abysay), "that Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah" and man of wealth and position. Jesse was, through David, the ancestor of the Judaic kings, and thus of Christ, and is shown in a dual portrait with his wife. The text speaks of him as "Jessent or Isay." The name "Abysay" appears above the portrait of his wife, but is not intended as her name. The portraits of Obed and Jesse and wife constitute a single woodcut. From Jesse’s wife a branch runs to
  3. Jether "the Ishmaelite" and Abigail, his wife, a dual portrait, but the branch proceeds to him in stead of her; for Abigail was the daughter of Jesse’s wife by a former marriage, as already explained. The pair are printed by a single woodcut. From Abigail a branch proceeds to their son Amasa; also shown by a single woodcut. The connecting branch was printed from an independent block. Another branch from the main trunk of Jesse and his wife proceeds to six of the children born of Jesse.
  4. Eliab (Heliab, Abidadab (Aminadab), Shammah (Samaa), Nethaneel (Nata), Raddai (Redda) and Ozem (Asan). The seventh son, David, is not shown, but is reserved to begin the next branch of the genealogy at Folio XLVI verso.
  5. Zeruiah (Saruia), the second daughter of Jesse’s wife by a former husband, and her husband are shown in a dual portrait, from which the foliage branches off to their three sons, Abishai (Abisay), Asahel, and Joab.
FOLIO XLIII recto

Homer, the Asiatic poet, of all Greeks the most celebrated (and of whose time and life there is no definite information), flourished in the time of Saul, the king of Israel. The Athenians considered him nonsensical because he said that the gods quarreled among themselves; although the historians say that because of his power and age, the Greeks considered him not only the prince of poets, but of natural philosophers as well; that above all others he was open in his views, and produced more real and genuine poetry than any others did. Yet Polycrates records of him this folly: that because he was unable to solve simple questions put to him by the mariners and fishermen, and was laughed to scorn by them, he gave up the ghost, pierced through by the poisoned shafts of shame. Once upon a time Homer took a stroll by the sea and he lifted up his countenance toward the heavens as though enamored of them. Then he saw a group of fishermen laughing and talking together, and engaged in removing vermin from their clothes. And he asked them what they had. And they answered and said, What we caught we do not have, and what we have not caught we still have. Although the fishermen referred to the vermin or lice in their clothes, Homer thought only of the fish; and he pondered how it could be that the fish they had not caught they still had. Some say this problem so embittered Homer that he hanged himself. According to the Greeks, Homer wrote twenty-four books on the defeat and capture of Troy, and as many books on the aimless voyages of Ulysses. Homer lived 108 years in a continued state of blindness.

Anchises, a son of Capys the Trojan, was warned by the Sibyl Phrygia that Troy would be wiped out. So he went out into the wilderness of the world and lived in the solitude as a hermit, and engaged in the herding of cattle, of which the wealth of the ancients often consisted. And as he was tending his herd by the river Symeantem (Symaethus?) he was loved by Venus the goddess, and as a result of their intercourse a son, Aeneas, was born, who reigned in Italy. This (tale) was invented by the betrayers of the barbarous people, who thus covered up their own adulteries and the seduction of virgins.[Compare text and illustration with Folio XXXVI recto, and see footnote there.]

Aeneas, the son of Anchises, came to Italy in the sixth year of Labdon. In figure and speech he was noble and praiseworthy above all others. He and his father, and his son Ascanius, and his nurse Cayeta[The German edition records the name of Aeneas’ nurse as Creta.], had become associated with the Trojans, and after the destruction of Troy they were driven forth into exile by the Greeks. And they sailed to Italy with twenty ships and stirred up much war. It is said he had as wife a daughter of Priam.[The German edition states (uncharacteristically in its absurdity) that the wife of Aeneas was Helen. Actually, Aeneas had two wives: Creusa, daughter of Priam (mentioned in the last paragraph on this page in reference to her son, Ascanius), who dies during the capture of Troy, and Lavinia, his wife in Italy.] Through the ignorance of the rabble he was looked upon as a god.[See biographical note to Folio XXXVI verso.]

Codrus, the son of Melanthus, a king, was the last king of Athens. His reign began in the twenty-seventh year of Samuel’s rule, and he reigned twenty-one years. With his death the kingship of the Athenians came to an end. This king did not dress in royal robes, but went about in scant cast-off clothes, in which he was not recognized. He willingly went to his death in order that his people might be relieved of their enemies. Although by this act he set a worthy example for the princes and lords, yet very few, or none at all, followed him. By reason of his great fidelity he is often mentioned by the holy writers as though with him an image of Christ had passed away. For though he knew that the Peloponnesians had received an answer from the gods to the effect that his forces would be victorious but that he would be killed, he placed himself foremost against the enemy and allowed himself to be slain. When the Peloponnesians learned of this, they soon gave up the battle, and thus the Athenians were relieved. And so this king chose to die rather than have his people defeated, and himself live in honor afterwards. After his death the city of Athens was governed by a council until Solon the great lawgiver was elected a duke. The Athenian kings reigned 487 years, from the remotest time of the Hebrew bondage up to the time of Codrus.[Codrus was the son of Melanthus, and last (mythological) king of Athens. According to the mythical chronology, when the Dorians invaded Attica from the Peloponnessus, c. 1068 BCE, an oracle declared that they should be victorious if the life of the Attic king was spared. Codrus, therefore, immediately resolved to sacrifice himself for his country. He entered the camp of the enemy in disguise, commenced quarreling with the soldiers, and was slain in the dispute. When the Dorians discovered the death of the Attic king, they returned home. Tradition adds that as no one was thought worthy to succeed such a patriotic king, the kingly dignity was abolished, and Medon, son of Codrus, was appointed archon for life instead.]

Ascanius, a son of Aeneas by Creusa, the daughter of King Priam, was the second Latin king. He built the city of Alban (Alba Longa) and there he himself reigned. He is called a king of the Albanians and so his successors were also called.

Ascanius was son of Aeneas by Creusa. According to some traditions, Ascanius remained in Asia after the fall of Troy, and reigned either at Troy itself, or at some other place in the neighborhood. According to other accounts he accompanied his father to Italy. Other traditions give the name of Ascanius to the son of Aeneas and Lavinia. Livy states that on the death of his father Ascanius was too young to undertake the government, and that after he had attained the age of manhood, he left Lavinium in the hands of his mother, and migrated to Alba Longa. Here he was succeeded by his son Silvius. Some writers relate that Ascanius was also called Ilus, or Julus. The gens Julia (whose members included, among others, Julius Caesar) at Rome traced its origin from Julus, or Ascanius.

Alba Longa, the most ancient town in Latium, is said to have been built by Ascanius, and to have founded Rome. It was called Longa because it stretched in a long line down the Alban Mount toward the Alban Lake. It was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, and was never rebuilt. Its inhabitants were removed to Rome. At a later time the surrounding country which was highly cultivated and covered with vineyards, was studded with splendid villas of the Roman aristocracy and emperors, each of which was called Albanum, and out of which a new town at length grew, also called Albanum, on the Appian way, ruins of which are still extant.

ILLUSTRATIONS
(A) HOMER.

Homer (Homerus) is represented by a very small woodcut. The portrait is, with the exception of the beard, out of tune with classical versions of the blind bard. His eyes are wide open and he is gesturing with both hands. Somewhat surprisingly, the German edition employs a portrait of Homer that is clean-shaven.

(B) LINEAGE OF THE ITALIAN KINGS.

The Lineage of the Kings of Italy is here continued from Folio XXXV recto, where it had its inception:

  1. Latinus is represented by a woodcut that would appear to be here used for the first time. It is the usual king-picture—crown, orb and scepter. He is not mentioned in the text.
  2. Aeneas appears below Latinus. In the German edition a different image is used, one that also served for Saturn at Folio XXXV recto.
  3. Ascanius appears below Aeneas. In the German edition a different image is used, one that did service as Thautanes on the opposite page (Folio XLII verso), and previously as Baleus (Folio XXVIII recto) in that edition.
  4. Anchises and Venus, of whose union Aeneas was born, are shown in a dual portrait outside of the pale of the regular lineage. A branch proceeds from them to their son.

(C) CODRUS.

Codrus is represented by a miniature portrait, with crown, orb and scepter.

FOLIO XLIII verso

Venice, in our time the most renowned city, a noble industrial center of Italy, and the mightiest by land and sea, had its beginning with Aeneti, or Veneti (Heneti), the Trojan. For after the destruction of Troy, Antenor[See Note on Antenor at Folio XXXVI verso.] came there across the Adriatic Sea in ships. And there came with him a great number, called Veneti, who had been drive out of Paphlagonia[Paphlagonia is a district on the north side of Asia Minor, between Bithnynia on the west and Pontus on the east, being separated from the former by the river Parthenius, and from the latter by the Halys; on the south it is divided by the chain of Mount Olympus (according to others by Oglassys) from Phrygia, in the earliest times, but from Galatia afterwards. And on the north it is bordered by the Euxine. It appears to have been known to the Greeks in the mythical period. The Argonautic legends mentioned Paphlagon, the son of Phineus, as the hero eponymous of the country. In the Homeric catalogue Pylaemenes leads the Paphlagonians, as allies of the Trojans, from the land of the Heneti, about the river Parthenius, a region famed for its mules and horses; and from their leader, the later princes of Paphlagonia claimed descent, and after him the country itself is sometimes called Pylaemenia. These people were first subdued by Croesus; then they fell under Persian sway, but they made themselves independent, and so maintained their condition until their conquest by Mithridates. In the end the country became Roman and Augustus made it a part of Galatia. It was made a separate province under Constantine. The eastern portion, however, was assigned to Pontus, under the name of Hellespontus.], and were seeking a region in which to live. From these same Veneti the country was called Venetia, which comprehends in length the country of Histria (or Istria) and extends from there to the river Padua (Po). In breadth it reaches from the same river to the mountains that separate Italy from Germany. It has had the name Venetia for fifteen hundred years. It was often invaded by its neighbors, and also the Gauls and the Germans, and was most cruelly attacked and laid waste by the ruthless and bloody Attila, king of the Huns. And Attila himself came there with great armies and attacked the city. He caused many to be burned and some to be destroyed in the ground, and as he captured and burned Padua, and the cities of Aquileia and Altinus were destroyed, the foremost Venetians with their wives and children, and their goods and chattels, fled to the nearest islands to escape this ruthless destroyer; and they named their new location after the land of Venetia. The city people who escaped to there erected buildings of many kinds and established a city. And as the inhabitants of Altinum[Altinum was a wealthy municipium in the land of the Veneti in the north of Italy, at the mouth of the river Silis and on the road from Patavium to Aquileia. It was a wealthy manufacturing town and the chief emporium for all the goods that were sent from southern Italy to the countries of the north. Goods could be brought from Ravenna to Altinum through the Lagoons and the numerous canals of the Po, safe from storms and pirates. There were many beautiful villas around the town.] had divided their state into six parts, so they built six cities in the islands of the sea, namely Torcellum, Maiorbum, Burianum, Amoriacum, Constanciacum, and Ainianum (Anneianum). Because the richest and most powerful Venetians lived there, the city of Venice increased and expanded from the time it was built. At first the ducal seat was at Heracleia; then at Methamaucum, and finally at Rialto by common consent; for this region was more secure against the enemy, and offered greater opportunities for the enlargement of the city. After the destruction of the cities,

FOLIO XLIIII recto

the country changed its name, and was no longer called Venetia. It then became a part of Lombary, Tervisermarck (March of Treviso) Floriaul, and of Histria (Istria); but the islands retained the name of the country. This city was built in A.D. 461, in which year Attila[Attila in 434 CE, with his brother Belda, attained to the sovereignty of all the northern tribes between the frontier of Gaul and the frontier of China. He gradually concentrated upon himself the awe and fear of the entire ancient world, which ultimately expressed itself by affixing to his name the well-known epithet of "the Scourge of God." His career divides itself into two parts. The first (445-450 CE) consists of the ravage of the Eastern empire between the Euxine and the Adriatic, and the negotiations with Theodosius II which followed upon it. They were ended by treaty ceding to Attila a large territory south of the Danube and an annual tribute. The second part of his career was the invasion of the Western empire (450-452). He crossed the Rhine at Strasbourg, but was defeated at Chalons in 451. He then crossed the Alps, took Aquileia, but did not attack Rome. He recrossed the Alps, but died in 453.] destroyed the city of Aquileia; but since then the city was built up again; and with larger and more costly buildings and houses of worship. Item: In the year A.D. 827 the body of St. Mark was brought to Venice from Asia, and in the following year the church of St. Mark was built in the most aristocratic part of the city; and there costly and irreplaceable valuables are kept. For the Venetian power and riches increased daily and miraculously.[St. Mark’s was originally the private chapel of the doge, an elective chief magistrate, holding princely rank in the Venetian republic. The Venetian dogate dated from 697 to 1797 when it was abolished. The Church of St. Mark’s was adorned with the spoils of other buildings, both in the East and on the Italian mainland. A law of the republic required every merchant trading in the East to bring back some material for the adornment of the church. In fact, the building is a museum of sculpture of the most varied kind, nearly every century from the 4th down to the latest Renaissance is represented. The present church is the third one on this site. Soon after the concentration at Rialto, a small wooden church was erected about the year 828 for the reception of the relics of St. Mark, brought from Alexandria. The chronicler speaks of Asia in this connection because Egypt was at that time considered a part of that continent. From that moment St. Mark became the patron saint of Venice, supplanting St. Theodore. The church was destroyed with the ducal palace in the insurrection against Doge Candiano IV. But it was later rebuilt on a larger scale and Byzantine architects had a large share in the work; but Lombards were also employed, giving birth to a new style, peculiar to the district. In plan St. Mark’s is a Greek cross of equal arms, covered by a dome in the center, 42 feet in diameter, and by a dome over each of the arms. The addition of a narthex before the main front and a vestibule on the northern side brings the whole western arm of the cross to a square. The exterior façade is enriched with marble columns from Alexandria and other eastern cities. The top of the narthex forms a wide gallery, in the center of which stand the famous four bronze horses.] As we reach the year 1204 the Venetians joined the French in a war, and in that war obtained control over Constantinople. And thereafter they built the Rialto.[The Rialto was the ancient city of Venice, and derived its name from Rivo-alto (‘deep stream’). The Ponte di Rialto is the famous bridge over the Grand Canal, built in 1591, connecting the old Rialto with the island of San Marco.] But in this city, and of its location, there is more to be wondered at than spoken of or written about. It is surrounded by the sea, so that all manner of merchandise and necessaries of life are not only brought to it by the sea, but also by other waters which flow there from the surrounding country. So it seems a contradiction to say that in this city in which nothing grows, everything is to be found necessary to sustain life, and even a surplus of it. I will be silent about the wide houses, the high towers, the adornment of houses of worship, the buildings erected in the midst of the waters, a thing which may seem incredible to those who have not seen it. And what is to be said of the large and numerous ships and their equipment, and of the great number of councilors, the order, the commendable customs, existent for over a thousand years; its kindness and open hospitality to all who choose to come there!

Venetia was a district in northern Italy originally included under the general name of Gallia Cisalpina. It was bounded on the west by the river Athesis (Adige), which separated it from Gallia Cisalpina; on the north by the Carnic Alps; on the east by the river Timavus, which separated it from Istria, and on the south by the Adriatic. Its inhabitants, the Veneti, called Heneti by the Greeks, were said to be descendants of the Paphalgonian Heneti, whom Antenor led into the country after the Trojan War, as it is said. There are many speculations as to who these people were, and from where they came, but all writers are agreed that they did not belong to the original population of Italy. To protect themselves against neighboring Celtic tribes, they formed an alliance with Rome; and the Romans defended them. They are almost the only people in Italy who became Roman subjects without offering resistance. They continued to enjoy great prosperity down to the time of the Marcomannic wars, in the reign of Aurelius. But from this time their country was frequently devastated by the barbarians who invaded Italy. In the fifth century many of its inhabitants, to escape the ravages of Attila, took refuge in the islands off their coast, on which now stands the city of Venice. In fact, the origin of Venice is attributed to these invasions, for it was founded by the refugees from the mainland cities who sought escape from the Huns in the impregnable shallows and mud banks of the lagoons. Venice, like Rome and other famous cities, was an asylum. But it is nearly certain that long before the Huns swept down on the Venetian plain in the middle of the fifth century, the little islands of the lagoon already had a population of poor fisherfolk, living in quasi-independence, thanks to their poverty and inaccessible site. This population was augmented from time to time by refugees from the mainland cities, such as Aquileia, Altinum and Patavium. With each movement of people, some of the refugees, no doubt, remained in the islands, and gradually built and peopled the 12 lagoon townships, which formed the germ of the State of Venice, and were subsequently concentrated at Rialto, or in the city we now know as Venice. These twelve townships were Grado, Bibione, Caorle, Jesolo, Heraclea, Torcello, Murano, Rialto, Malamocco, Poveglia, Chioggia, and Sottomarina.

In 466, 14 years after the fall of Aquileia, the population of the 12 lagoon township met at Grado to elect one tribune from each island for the better government of the separate communities, and to put an end to rivalries which had begun to play a disintegrating part. But with the influx of additional people, the jealousies increased and the individual tribunes were unable to control the situation. In this crisis the people suppressed their 12 tribunes and chose a single head of the State, and in 697 Venice elected her first doge.

The whole site of Venice is dominated by the Grand Canal that winds through the city and was at one time probably the bed of a river flowing into the lagoons near the Mestre. The smaller canals all serve as arteries to the Grand Canal. The alleys (calli) number 3227, with a total length of over 89 miles. The canals number 177 and measure 28 miles.

The soil of Venice is oozy mud, which can only be made capable of carrying buildings by the use of piles. There is no land fit for agriculture or the raising of cattle; the sole food supply is fish from the lagoon, and there is no drinking water save such as could be stored from rainfall.

The characteristic conveyances were the gondolas, flat-bottomed boats some 30 feet long by 4 to 5 feet wide, curving out of the water at the ends, with ornamental bow and stern pieces, and an iron beak resembling a halberd, which is the highest part of the boat. Gondolas are mentioned as far back as 1094, and prior to a sumptuary edict passed by the great council in 1562 making black their compulsory color, they were very different in appearance from now. The old boats had awnings of rich materials, supported on an arched frame open at both ends.

Fine examples of Venetian Byzantine palaces – at least of the facades – are still to be seen on the Grand Canal and on some of the smaller canals; but the interiors have been modified past recognition. The palaces seem to have had twin angle-towers, and the facades presented continuous colonnades on each floor with semi-circular high stilted arches, leaving a very small amount of wall space. The buildings are usually battlemented in fantastic form.

FOLIO XLIII verso and XLIIII recto
ILLUSTRATION
THE CITY OF VENICE

The scenic illustrations of the Chronicle are of two kings: (1) Those of a general nature, used to represent a number of cities, and (2) those designed to represent a particular city, and therefore not repeated. We are here concerned with the second class. The first specific illustration was of Jerusalem (at Folio XVII recto); and now we have the second one, the city of Venice.

In the foreground is the favorite mode of Venetian conveyance, the gondola. Three couples are about to take passage.

As the eye scans the waterfront we note two columns. They are of Egyptian granite, and were brought to Venice as trophies by Doge Domenico Michieli in 1126. In 1180 they were set up with their present fine capitals and bases. One is surmounted with a bronze lion (the symbol of St. Mark), cast in Venice about 1178. In 1329 a marble statue of St. Theodore, standing on a crocodile (dragon), was placed on the other column. Both are shown in the woodcut. St. Theodore is regarded as one of the chief patron saints of Venice. His body was brought from Constantinople in 1260. In art he appears as a warrior in armor, generally trampling on the dragon.

And as we look about the city we see Venetian gothic architecture, both ecclesiastical and domestic. Also visible are the campanili (‘bell towers’), one of the most striking features of Venice. These were at one time even more numerous. Earthquakes and the settling of foundations have brought many of them down, the latest to fall being the great tower of San Marco itself, which collapsed in 1902. Its reconstruction was undertaken at once, and completed ten years later. These towers are almost invariably square, as we see them on the woodcut. The campanile is usually a plain brick shaft with shallow pilasters running up the faces. It has small angle windows to light the interior staircase and is not broken into stories with grouped windows. Above the shaft comes the arcaded bell chamber, frequently built of Istrian stone, and carrying either a cone, cupola, or pyramid.

The ordinary Venetian house was built like a courtyard, and was one story high. On the roof was an open loggia for drying clothes; but apparently this is not washday on the Rialto. In front, between he houses and the water, ran the quay or wharf, as we see it in the woodcut before us.

As early as 1339 Venice had already established a hold on the mainland, and ceased to be purely an island empire.

FOLIO XLIIII verso

Padua, a very celebrated old city of Italy, according to Virgil and Livy, was built by Antenor[Antenor, according to Homer, was one of the wisest among the elders at Troy. He received Menelaus and Ulysses into his house when they came to Troy as ambassadors, and advised his fellow citizens to restore Helen to Menelaus. Thus he is represented as a traitor to his country, and when sent to Agamemnon, just before the taking of Troy, to negotiate peace, he devised a plan for delivering the city, and even the palladium into the hands of the Greeks. His history after the capture of Troy varies. According to one account he went with the Heneti to Thrace, and from there to the western coast of the Adriatic, where the foundation of Patavium (Padua) and several towns is said to have been laid.] and his fellow fugitives from Troy. He proceeded directly through Argos to the Illyrian shores. He came into the dominion of the Liburnians, and finally reached the Adriatic Sea. He drove out the Euganei[The Euganei were a people who formerly inhabited Venetia in the Adriatic Sea, and were driven toward the Alps by the Heneti, or Veneti. According to some traditions they founded Patavium (Padua) and Verona. They possessed numerous flocks of sheep, the wool of which was celebrated.], who were in possession of this country, and there he built the city of Padua. Cicero states that the Paduans were very friendly with the Romans and in trying times assisted them with arms and money. Later, during its most prosperous times, Padua was within the Roman jurisdiction, although not as a dependency, for it participated in the election of Roman consuls. We hold that in beauty of its public buildings Padua is without a peer in Italy. However, the buildings in general, and some in particular, are modern, for Attila, king of the Huns, devastated the city. Although it was rebuilt by Narses Eunochus[Narses was a eunuch, and hence this appellation. He was a celebrated general and statesman during the reign of Emperor Justinian. Narses put an end to the Gothic dominion in Italy by two brilliant campaigns, one in 552 CE, the other in 553, and again annexed Italy to the Byzantine empire. He was rewarded by Justinian with the government of the country which he held for many years. He was deprived of this office by Justin, the successor of Justinian; whereupon he invited the Longobards to invade Italy. This invitation was eagerly accepted by Alboin. However, it is said that Narses soon thereafter repented, and died of grief at Rome shortly after the Longobards had crossed the Alps. He attained the age of ninety-five years.] and by those from Ravenna, it was burned and destroyed by the Lombards. In later times, however, in the reign of Charlemagne, and of his sons and grandsons, and up to the time of Frederick I, the city developed wonderfully. Ezzelino, the most cruel of tyrants, subjugated Padua, and at the same time began to slay or expel its citizens.[Ezzelino da Romano (Ezelin or Ecelinus) was the head of the Ghibellines in Italy in the time of Emperor Frederick II. He was the son of Ezzelino II, the monk, of noble lineage, whose ancestors migrated to Italy from Germany under Conrad II. He was podesta, or chief magistrate of Verona in 1226. These magistrates were elected annually and entrusted with arbitrary power. He lost jurisdiction over the city in 1227, regained it in 1230, and allied himself two years later with his former antagonist Frederick II in his war with the Lombards. In 1236 the emperor made him lord of Vicenza, in 1237 of Padua and Treviso. In 1238 the emperor gave him his natural daughter, Selvaggia, as wife. From this time on Ezzelino restlessly pursued the goal to make his house supreme in his controversy with the Guelphs, a princely family that opposed the authority of the German emperors in Italy. He hoped to enlarge his jurisdiction so as to comprehend the entire March of Treviso. He held his conquests firmly and with the most gruesome tyranny. He set up a tyrannical rule in the subjugated regions that has made his name one of despicable memory in the history of Italy. He was generally hated and despised, oppressing open enemies by force and keeping secret ones at bay through great watchfulness. He also attempted to subjugate Milan, but a confederacy was organized against him. On September 27, 1259 he was defeated at Soncino, was taken prisoner and died a few days later. It is said that more than 50,000 people went to the hangman, or died in prison under his orders. His brother Alberich, in 1260, was compelled to give up his castle unconditionally, by starvation, and thereafter his sons and daughters were cruelly martyred and slain before his eyes. Alberich himself was tied to the tail of a horse and dragged to death. With him the house of Romano came to an end.] Thereafter the Carrarians exercised authority over Padua, and maintained possession for a century, making it more habitable and beautiful. By their labors the Carrarians raised up towers and fortified the city with triple walls.[ At the Diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (828) the duchy and march of Friuli, in which Padua lay, was divided into four counties, one of which took its title from the city. At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a constitution composed of a general council or legislative assembly and a credenza or executive; and during the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of waterway on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta, so that the city, on the one hand, grew in power and self-reliance, while on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D’Este, and Da Romano began to emerge and divide the Paduan district between them. The citizens, in order to protect their liberties, were obliged to elect a podesta, and their choice fell on one of the D’Este family (c. 1175); but in 1237 Frederick II established his vicar Ezzelino da Romano in Padua and the neighboring cities. When Ezzelino met his death, in 1256, Padua enjoyed a brief period of rest and prosperity; the university flourished; the basilica of the saint was begun; the Paduans became masters of Vicenza. But the advance brought them into dangerous proximity to Can Grande della Scala, lord of Verona, to whom they had to yield in 1311. As a reward for freeing the city from the Scalas, Jacopo da Carrara was elected lord of Padua in 1318. From that date until 1405, with the exception of two years, nine members of the Carrara family succeeded each other as lords of the city. Padua then (1405) passed under Venetian rule.] And although Tymanus entered through them, yet many and various moats and drains were built through the great industry of the Carrarians, which brought water to various parts of the city. In this city is a very strong fortress, and also a palace of first rank in Italy. Its buildings are various. Emperor Henry IV, a German, built the cathedral. There also was a courthouse, the most beautiful in the world. It was later destroyed by fire; but a more costly one was built by the Venetians. They laid the remains of Titus Livy in a more public place. There also is the much praised Church of St. Anthony, whose like is not often found in Italy;[The basilica dedicated to Saint Anthony in the most famous of the Paduan churches, and in a chapel there the bones of the saint are said to rest. The basilica was begun in 1231 and completed in the following century. It is covered by seven cupolas, and in the piazza in front of the church is Donatello’s magnificent equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni, the Venetian general.] and the temple of St. Justina, the virgin, in which are preserved the remains of St. Luke, the Evangelist, and of Prosdoanni[Probably St. Prosdocimo.], together with the relics of St. Justina.[Justina, a saint famous in the Paduan and Venetian territories, was according to legend, a virgin of royal birth, who dwelt in the city of Padua. King Vitalicino, her father, having been baptized by a disciple of St. Paul, brought up his daughter in the Christian faith. After his death she was accused before the emperor Maximian of being a Christian. He therefore commanded that she be slain by the sword. Opening her arms to receive the stroke of the executioner, she was pierced through the chest and fell dead. In the year 453, a citizen of Padua founded in her honor the church that bears her name. Having fallen into ruin, it was sumptuously restored by the Benedictine Order in the beginning of the sixteenth century. The collection made for this purpose throughout northern Italy awakened the enthusiasm of the neighboring states, and it is from this time that we find her represented in the pictures of the Paduan and Venetian schools, and most frequently in the paintings of Veronese.] And it is said the same churches were once upon a time temples of Jove. But now there is in the same place a large monastery of the order of St. Benedict. In this city is also the most celebrated university of Italy. In addition to Livy, other brilliant and learned men were born at Padua, namely Paulus[ Paulus Julius was one of the most distinguished Roman jurists. He was in the auditorium of Papinian, and consequently was acting as a jurist in the reign of Septimius Severus. He was exiled by Elagabalus, but recalled by Severus when the latter became emperor, and was made a member of his consilium. Paulus also held the office of praefectus praetorio. He survived his contemporary Ulpian. Paulus was perhaps the most fertile of all the Roman law writers, and there is more excerpted from him in the than from any other jurist, except Ulpian. Upwards of seventy separate works by Paulus are quoted in the . Of these his greatest work was , in eighty books. The industry of Paulus must have been unremitting, and the extent of his legal learning is proved by the variety of his labors. Perhaps no legal writer, ancient or modern, has handled so many subjects. It is said that there are 2462 excerpts from Ulpian in the , and 2083 from Paulus, which make about one-sixth of the whole .], the jurist, and Peter de Aponodess, whose excellent writings and teachings for the common good of mankind are held in great esteem. Item: Albertus[Probably Albertus Magnus.], of the hermit order, a highly renowned teacher and preacher of the Holy Scriptures. Item: Stella[Arruntius Stella.], Flaccus[There are many persons by the name of Flaccus in Roman history and literature, but the here probably intends C. Flaccus, a native of Padua, was a poet who lived in the time of Vespasian. He is the author of the , an unfinished epic poem in eight books, on the Argonautic expedition, in which he follows the general plan and arrangment of Apollonius Rhodius. The eighth book terminates abruptly at the point where Medea is urging Jason to take her with him back to Greece.], Volusius[This probably refers to Volusius Maecianus, a jurist, who was in the consilium of Antoninus Pius, and was one of the teachers of M. Aurelius. He wrote several works, and there are forty-four excerpts from his writings in the .], and many others, exceptional men in all the arts. From the sea upward this city has navigation on the river Brenta, which flows by it. From Lucafusina (Lucia fusina) it is possible to sail for six miles to Padua on an artificial canal.

ILLUSTRATION
THE CITY OF PADUA

Illustrated by the same woodcut that has already been used for Trier (Folio XXIII recto)

Padua (Patavium, Italian Padova), an ancient town of the Veneti on the river Bacchiglione, twenty-five miles west of Venice and eighteen miles southeast of Vicenza, is said to have been founded by the Trojan Antenor. It became a flourishing town in early times and was powerful enough in 302 BCE to drive back the Spartan king Cleomenes with great loss when he attempted to plunder the surrounding country. Under the Romans it was the most important city in Northern Italy. According to Strabo it possessed 500 citizens whose fortunes entitled them to equestrian rank. It was plundered by Attila, and in consequence of a revolt of its citizens, it was subsequently destroyed by Agilulf, king of the Lombards, and razed to the ground; for this reason the modern town contains few remains of antiquity. It is celebrated as the birthplace of the historian Livy.

The most famous of the Paduan churches is the basilica dedicated to St. Anthony, commonly called Il Santo. There rest the bones of the saint in a richly ornamented chapel. The basilica was begun after his death in 1231 and was completed in the following century. It is covered by seven cupolas. In the piazza in front of the church is Donatello’s magnificent equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni, the Venetian general, who died in 1443.

At the Diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (828) the duchy and march of Friuli, in which Padua lay, was divided into four counties, one of which was named after the city. At the beginning of the eleventh century the citizens established a constitution. During the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of waterway on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta—so that, on the one hand, the city grew in power and self reliance, while on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D’Este, and Da Romano began to emerge and to divide the Paduan district between them. The citizens, to protect their liberties, elected a podesta , and their choice fell first on one of the D’Este family (c. 1175); but in 1237 Frederick II established his vicar Ezzelino da Romano in Padua and the neighboring cities.

When Ezzelino met his death in 1256, Padua enjoyed a brief period of rest and prosperity. The university flourished; the basilica of the saint was begun. But this advance brought them into dangerous proximity to Can Grande Della Scala, lord of Verona, to whom they had to yield in 1311. As a reward for freeing the city from the Scalas, Jacopo da Carrara was elected lord of Padua in 1318. From that date until 1405 (with the exception of two years, when Gian Galeazzo Visconti held the town), nine members of the Carrara family succeeded one another as lords of the city. Padua passed under Venetian rule in 1405, and so remained, with a brief interval, till the fall of the republic in 1797.

It is strange that the chronicler, Doctor Schedel, a graduate of the University of Padua, and undoubtedly familiar with the city, had so little to say about his alma mater and this interesting town.

FOLIO XLV recto
OF THE KINGDOM OF THE LATINS AND OF ITALY

The country which is now called Campania was at one time the Latin kingdom, and, as Virgil and Livy state, it is one of eighteen regions which has many places that were visited by the others. But as more damage occurred here than in other countries or regions, and as it is not now built up, the visitors are fewer here than in any of the other regions. This land or province is called the Latin province because Saturn, the king of Crete, fled from the weapons of his son Jove and lived there in hiding; for such secret and concealed residence is expressed in the Latin by the word latino [The Latin word for ‘hidden’ or ‘concealed’ is lateo, not latino.] (as those learned in the Latin know). And thus Virgil has written and indicated in eight Latin verses. This province was at first small in area; but Servius writes that those are called Latins who live in the inner towns of the Alban Mountains. This province begins at the sea in the region of the Tiber and reaches to the city of Caieta[A town in Latium on the borders of Campania, situated on a promontory of the same name, and on a bay of the sea called after it Sinus Caietanus.]; and here some cities were still in evidence, although others were destroyed. In this region and province were aboriginal peoples, called Rutuli[The Rutuli were an ancient people in Italy who inhabited a narrow slip of country on the coast of Latium a little to the south of the Tiber. Their chief town was Ardea, which was the residence of Turnus. They were subdued by the Romans, and disappear from history.], Volsci[,The Volsci, an ancient people in Latium, but originally distinct from the Latins, dwelt on both sides of the river Liris, and extended down to the Tyrrhene sea. Their language was nearly allied to the Umbrian. They were from an early period engaged in almost unceasing hostilities with the Romans, and were not completely subdued by the latter till 338 BCE, from which time they disappear from history.] Hernici[Hernici, a people in Latium, belonged to the Sabine race, and are said to have derived their name from the Marsic (Sabine) word herna ("rock"). According to this etymology their name would signify "mountaineers." They inhabited the mountains of the Apennines between the lake Fucinus and the river Trerus, and were bounded on the north by the Marsi and Aequi, and on the south by the Volsci. Their chief town was Anagnia. They were a brave and warlike people, and long offered resistance to the Romans. The Romans formed a league with them on equal terms in the 3rd consulship of Sp. Cassius in 486 BCE. They were finally subdued by the Romans in 306 BCE.], Aequiocoli[The Aequi (also called Aequicoli, Aequicolae, and Aequiculani) were an ancient warlike people of Italy, dwelling in the upper valley of the Anio in the mountains forming the eastern boundary of Latium, between the Latini, Sabini, Hernici, and Marsi. In conjunction with the Volsci, who were of the same race, they carried on constant hostilities with Rome, but were finally subdued in 302 BCE. One of their chief seats was Mount Algidus, from which they were accustomed to make their marauding expeditions.] and Marsi

Marsi was the name of a people of the Sabellian race, who dwelt in the center of Italy in the high land surrounded by the mountains of the Apennines, in which Lake Fucinus is situated. Along with their neighbors the Peligini, Marrucini, etc., they concluded a peace with Rome in 304 BCE. Their bravery was proverbial, and they were the prime movers of the celebrated war waged against Rome by the Socii (Italian "allies") in order to obtain the Roman franchise, and which is known by the name of the Marsic or Social War. Their chief town was Marruvium. The Marsi appear to have been acquainted with the medicinal properties of several of the plants growing upon their mountains, and to have employed them as remedies against the bites of serpents, and in other cases. For this reason they were regarded as magicians, and were said to be descended from a son of Circe. Others again derived their origin from the Phrygian Marsyas, simply on account of the resemblance of the name.

Another people called Marsi inhabited Germany, and appear to have dwelt on both sides of the river Ems, and to have been only a tribe of the Cherusci, although Tacitus makes them one of the most ancient peoples in Germany. They joined the Cherusci in the war against the Romans, which terminated in the defeat of the Roman general Varus in 9 CE at the famous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, but they were subsequently driven into the interior of the country by Germanicus.

; for this region has a large area. Janus, a father and god of the gods, admittedly a gracious and good man and lover of domesticity and hospitality, who came from the East, was the first to reign in Italy. In addition to other acts of virtue, he not only extended hospitality to Saturn, but divided his kingdom with him.

Such is the chronicler’s story of Latium, which he does not specifically name, except as the Latin Kingdom. Latium was inhabited by the Latini, one of the oldest of Italian tribes. Most of the ancients derived the name from a king, Latinus, who was supposed to have been a contemporary of Aeneas; but undoubtedly the name of the people was transferred to this fictitious king. Other ancient writers connected the name with the verb latere ("to hide"), either because Saturn had hidden in the country, or because Italy was hidden between the Alps and the Apennines. The story is that the god Saturn came to Italy in the reign of Janus, by whom he was hospitably received, and that he formed a settlement there. Saturn was suddenly removed from the earth to the abode of the gods; whereupon Janus erected an altar to him in the forum. It is related that Latium received its name from this disappearance of Saturn. According to the Chronicle "This land is called the Latin province because Saturn, the king of Crete, fled from the weapons of Jupiter, and lived there in hiding, for such secret and concealed residence is expressed in the Latin by the word latino."

In very ancient times Latium reached only from the Tiber on the north to the Numicus and the town of Ardea on the south, and from the seacoast on the west to the Alban Mountains on the east. It was considerably extended even before the Roman conquest, and substantially enlarged by the Romans. The new accessions of territory were called Latium novum or adjectum. In its widest extent Latium was bounded by Etruria on the north, from which it was separated by the Tiber; by Campania on the south, from which it was separated by the Livis; by the Tyrrhene sea on the west, and by the Sabine and Samnite tribes on the east. The Latini formed a league of which the town of Alba Longa was the capital. Although Rome was originally one of Alba’s colonies, she became powerful enough in the reign of her third king, Tullus Hostilius, to take Alba and raze it to the ground. Under Servius Tullius Rome was admitted to the Latin League; and his successor Tarquinius Superbus compelled the other Latin towns to acknowledge Rome as the head of the League, and to become dependent on the latter city. In 340 BCE the Latins were defeated by the Romans at the battle of Vesuvius. The Latin League was dissolved, and the Latins became subjects of Rome.

Italy is a region of Europe, and of all the regions of the whole world the most renowned, distinguished and excellent. It derived its name from the bull; and for that reason Plato in the Timaeus called the Italians by the name Tauri; and their country, by reason of its great beauty and productiveness, he called Italia. This country is in the form of a leg, and lies between the Adriatic and the Tuscan Sea. It reaches from the mountains, and rises more and more toward the Apennines until it comes to the Reginian peak; and it stretches out to the Bruttian peninsula. At its extremity it divides itself into two points of which one extends into the Ionian and the other into the Sicilian Sea. In this region is the city called Rhegium. In length this country stretches from the city of Augusta Praetoria, lying at the foot of the mountains, through Rome and Capua, to the city of Rhegium, and (as Solinus states) is ten times one hundred and twenty thousand paces long, four hundred and ten wide at its broadest point, and one hundred and thirty-six wide at its narrowest part. In the region of Rheate it has a navel, and it ends in the river Rubicon which flows out of the side of the upper Adriatic. Formerly this country was called Hesperia, after Hesperus, the brother of Atlantis. Later it was called Oenotria, after the best wine, which grows there. Finally it was named Italia, after Italo, the king of the Sicilians, who came to these parts and lived and reigned there. This region is second to none either in the fertility of its soil, or in the reputation of its arms; and it has many excellent cities.

Italia, from the time of Augustus, signified the country we call Italy, although the name was originally applied to a more limited extent of country. Most of the ancients, according to their usual custom, derived the name from an ancient king Italus; but others connected it with the old Italian word Italus (in Oscan vitlu or vitelu), an ox, because the country was rich in oxen. But there can be no doubt that Italia (or Vitalia, as it was also called) was the land of the Itali, Vitali, Vitelli, or Vituli, an ancient race, who are better known under the name Siculi. This race was widely spread over the southern half of the peninsula. Augustus was the first to extend the name of Italia so as to comprehend the entire basin of the Po, and the southern part of the Alps, from the Maritime Alps to Pola in Istria, both inclusive. The country was called by various other names, especially by the poets. These were Hesperia, a name which the Greeks gave to it, because it lay to the west of Greece, or Hesperia Magna, to distinguish it from Spain (Hesperia), and Saturnia, because Saturn was said to have once reigned in Latium. The names of separate parts of Italy were also applied by the poets to the whole country. Thus it was called Oenotria, originally the land of the Oenotri, in the country afterwards called Bruttium and Lucania.

Italy was never occupied by a single ethnic group, but contained a number of peoples who had migrated into it at very early periods. When Roman history begins, Italy was inhabited by the Estruscans, Umbrians, Sacrani, Casci or Prisci, and Oscan tribes; also the Opici, to whom belong the Volsci, Sidicini, Saticuli, and Aequi, as well as the Oenotrians, the Sabellians or Sabines, the Peligni, Marsi, Marrucini, Vestini, Hernici, and the Daunians or Apulians, Peucetii, Messapii, and Sallentini. They were all eventually subdued by the Romans, who became the masters of the whole peninsula.

NAMES AND ORDER OF THE KINGS OF THE LATINS AND OF ITALY
1. JanusThe first five ruled 200 years
2. Saturn
3. Picus
4. Faunus
5. Latinus
6. Aeneas3 years
7. Ascanius38 years
8. Silvius29 years
9. Aeneas Silvius31 years
10. Latinus50 years
11. Alba Silvius39 years
12. Egyptus Silvius24 years
13. Capis28 years
14. Carpentus13 years
15. Liberinus8 years
16. Agrippa40 years
17. Aromulus19 years
18. Aventius38 years
19. Procas23 years
20. Amulius44 years
21. Numitor1 year
FOLIO XLV verso

Pisa, a noteworthy city of Etruria, originated at this time, according to Strabo, through the Greeks, who came there from Pisa[Pisa, the capital of Pisatis, is in the middle portion of the province of Elis in the Peloponnesus. Elis was bounded by Achaia from the north, Arcadia on the east, Messina on the south, and the Ionian sea on the west. In very ancient times Pisatis was a union of eight states. Pisa itself was situated north of the Alpheus, at a very short distance east of Olympia. The history of the Pisatae consists of their struggle with the Eleans, with whom they contended for the presidency of the Olympic Games. Finally the struggle was brought to a close by the conquest and destruction of Pisa by the Eleans. So complete was the devastation of the city that not a trace of it was left in later times.] in Elis; and they built this city in Italy, naming it after the former town. Virgil says that this celebrated and accomplished old town originated with the Alphearians; while Pliny states that it originated with the Greek people between the rivers Auser (Auxeris) and the Arno. However, Justinus claims it was built and augmented by the Ligurians and others. Lucan also has something to say concerning the city of Pisa. Although Pisa is now considered unfortunate because it is greatly oppressed by the Florentines, it was formerly mighty and powerful. We find that in the period when Rome flourished Pisa was powerless. But after Lima (Limnae) and Populonia, maritime cities, were destroyed, and the affairs of Italy under Charlemagne and his sons were in a state of peace, Pisa became powerful and mighty. It then possessed many excellent men, learned and experienced in naval affairs. In consequence of its virtue, strength and distinction, Pisa grew and increased, and finally became a principality. It possessed many islands, and subjugated the city of Jerusalem. But seventy years later, having come under the Florentines, Pisa declined in population and wealth. Under Pope Eugene III it was greatly beautified, and it is now adorned with tall buildings and with bridges over the Arno. A church was dedicated there to the Most Blessed Virgin Mary; also a cloister, called the Holy Field, the most celebrated in the world, as well as a wonderful campanile. All these things are so wonderful that one can hardly believe them without having seen them. Among others who were born at Pisa were Raynerius and Bartholomew, teachers of the Holy Scriptures and of the canon law, of the Preaching Order; also Uguicionus, the grammarian, and many others.

Pisa (Pisae, Pisanus) is one of the most ancient and important cities of Etruria, and was situated at the confluence of the Arno and the Auser (Serchio), about six miles from the sea. But the latter river altered its course in the twelfth century, and now flows into the sea by a separate channel. According to some traditions Pisa was founded by the companions of Nestor, the inhabitants of Pisa in Elis, who were driven upon the coast of Italy on their return from Troy; for this reason the Roman poets give the Etruscan town the name of Alphea. This legend, however, like many others, probably arose from the accidental similarity of the names of the two cities. It would seem that Pisa was originally a Pelasgic town, that it afterward passed into the hands of the Ligyae, and from them to the Etruscans. It then became one of the twelve cities of Etruria, and was, down to the time of Augustus, the most northerly city in the country. It is frequently mentioned in the Ligurian wars as the headquarters of the Roman legions. In 180 BCE it was a Latin colony, and appears to have been colonized again in the time of Augustus, since we find it called Colonia Julia Pisana. There is scarcely a vestige of the ancient city in the modern Pisa.

Little is known of Pisa during the barbarian invasions. It was one of the first towns to assert its independence of Byzantine rule. During the first years of the Lombard rule the necessity of defending the Italian coast from the attacks of the Byzantines was favorable to the development of the Pisan navy. The military development and real importance of Pisa in the eleventh century must be attributed to the continuous and desperate struggle it maintained against the tide of Arab invasion from Sicily. Meanwhile the Pisans increasingly flourished. In 1062 their ships returned from Palermo laden with spoils. In 1099 the Pisans joined in the first crusade, where they helped capture Jerusalem, from which they derived many commercial advantages. Later, wars arose with Florence, and eventually Pisa surrendered to its more powerful neighbor to the north in 1509.

ILLUSTRATION
CITY OF PISA

Same woodcut as was used for Troy (Folio XXXVI recto). We miss the Leaning Tower, which was begun in 1174 and completed in 1350.

FOLIO XLVI recto

England is an island, which the ancients, because of the white cliffs that mariners sailing there saw, called Albion. Some call it Brittania after Brutus Silvius, son of the Latin king, who conquered the island of Albion in which the giants lived; and so he called it Brittania after himself. It was called Great Britain to distinguish it from Little Britain which borders on Gaul. But now it is called England after a mighty English king. The island is triangular, and lies to the north and to the west. It is separated from all the neighboring countries. It begins at lower Germany and extends to Gaul, or France, and Spain, in the west. As Brutus, the Roman, chose to live in England, he built the fortified city of Trimoantem on the river Tamesis (Thames). The region was productive of all necessaries of life and the city was comparable to Troy, of ancient memory. Brutus, as they say, had three sons, Lotrinus, Albenatus, and Cambrius. They divided the island among themselves. Lotrino, being the elder, received half of it, and it was called Lothria after him. And it is said that in Lothria lies the city of Londinum, which is much visited by merchants and receives shipments of merchandise. There also the kings and princes of England, and the councilors of the people, as well as merchants often meet. Albenetus received one fourth of the island, which was called Albion after him. This is now called Scotland, and it is the upper part of the island, toward the north. It has small rivers, and is separated from England by mountains. Cambria fell to the lot of the third son, Cambri. It is now called Tyle, and is an island that lies to the north and west. It was the last with which the Romans made acquaintance. When in the summer the sun changes its course, there is no light there, and during the winter solstice, there is no day there. The greater part of this island is fertile, and possesses cattle, gold, silver, and iron. From it are shipped raw material, cattle and good hunting dogs. The island is surrounded by other islands. One of these is Hibernia, which approaches England in size. It is separated from England by a small sea. Thereabout are also the Orkneys. The holy Pope Gregory II sent worthy men there to convert the people to the faith; and thereafter many kings appeared, illustrious for their miracles. In this land are also many rivers, as well as a variety of metals. Bede describes their histories best.

Bede (673-735), was a Benedictine monk from England whose most famous work, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum ("The Ecclesiastical History of the English People") has gained him the title "The father of English history." Britannia comprehended the island of England and Scotland, which was also called Albion, while Hibernia, or Ireland, was usually spoken of as a separate island. However, it is sometimes included under the general name of the Insulae Britannicae, or British Isles, which included the smaller islands around the coast of Great Britain. The etymology of the word Britannia is uncertain, but most writers derive it from the Celtic word brith or brit ("painted"), with reference to the custom of the inhabitants in staining their bodies with a blue color; whatever may be the etymology of the word, it is certain that it was used by the inhabitants themselves, since in the Gaelic the inhabitants are called Brython and their language Brythoneg. The name Albion (albus in Latin is "white") is probably derived from the white cliffs of the island; but writers, who derived the names of all lands and people from a mythical ancestor, connected the name with one Albion, the son of Neptune.

It was not until a late period that the Greeks and Romans obtained any knowledge of Britain. The first certain knowledge was from the merchants of Massilia (Marseilles) in the late fourth century BCE. From this time it was generally believed that the island was in the form of a triangle, an error that continued to prevail, even at a later period. Another important mistake was with reference to the position of Britain in relation to Gaul and Spain. As the northwest coast of Spain was supposed to extend too far to the north, and the west coast of Gaul to run northwest, the lower part of Britain was believed to lie between Spain and Gaul. The Romans first became acquainted with the island through Caesar’s invasions in 55 and 54 BCE.

ILLUSTRATION
ENGLAND

This illustration is ostensibly designed to represent England (Anglie Provincia). We have before us, as usual, a fortified medieval city, located on an unusually steep mountainside, and divided by a river, probably the Thames, which flows along with a strong current. All is towers, turrets, walls and battlements of varying shapes and sizes. There are no churches, except for one structure that slightly resembles a house of worship. There are no spires or crosses.