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First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
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The ancient historians have written very little about Germany, as though this nation lay beyond the circumference of the earth, and have said fanciful things about it. In reading of ancient times we learn that at one time the Germans lived according to coarse barbarian customs, wearing inferior and dilapidated raiment, and sustaining themselves by the capture of wild game, and by the fruits of the earth. They were a free and warlike people, but lacked gold, and used no wine. Germany, called Germania in the Latin, at one time embraced the territory from the sea to the Danube, and from the Rhine to the river Elbe, or Albis. Just how far the Germans overstepped their boundary is not known to us; but in addition to the territory they originally occupied, they also extended themselves into Gaul, Upper Rhaetia, Nordgau (Noricum), Lechfeld, and toward Poland. As we look upon the noble, highly renowned, and illustrious cities, the magnificent houses of God, the mighty and powerful princes and prelates of the German nation, we note that all things considered, no country excels Germany; so that, should one of the Germans living In the time of Emperor Augustus arise and make a pilgrimage through Germany (like Ariovistus), he would say that it is not the same soil which he once knew, and he would not recognize as his fatherland this country with its vineyards and fruit trees, the dress of the people, the hospitality of the burghers, the brilliance of the cities, the neatness of the police, and the general administration of the government. This change is to be attributed to nothing other than the acceptance of the Christian faith; for by it the Germans were relieved of their barbarian coarseness and became so refined that now the Greeks are considered coarse, while the Germans are regarded as Latins (in refinement). As we consider the new, or recollect the old, it appears that of all the nations fitted for war none are more capable or zealous than the Germans; for in this German nation are to be found horses, weapons, and money; many illustrious princes, many highborn nobles, many sturdy knights and courtiers; many mighty cities, much wealth, much gold, much silver, much iron ore; a large population, a great army, as well as great courage, power and strength. Although the boundaries of Germany, (as the ancients state), at one time were the Vistula on the east, the Rhine on the west, the Danube on the south, and the Prussian Sea on the north, we see how far the German nation has now expanded itself. The Germans conquered England after the Britons were driven out. They also secured the Netherlands and the Swiss or Alsatian countries after the Gauls or French had been ejected; and they overran Upper Rhaetia and Noricum, and extended their dominions into Italy. The Germans also withdrew the people called the Hulmigeros, or Prussians, from the grip of idolatry. The Bohemians, a mighty and noble people, are the only foreigners located in the German domain; but they call themselves subjects of the German empire. Among the electors of the Empire their king is the most distinguished. The Germans are great, strong, warlike, and acceptable to God; and thus they have enlarged their dominions. They resisted the Roman power and might more than any other nation; for although Julius Caesar, the oppressor of the entire world, and the people within its circumference, after fighting and crushing the Gauls and French, led a number of expeditions across the Rhine, performing great feats in Germany, yet he was obliged to leave unconquered and untamed the free, warlike, and courageous Swabian people. Augustus Octavius, who above all Roman emperors was considered the most fortunate and universally favored, and whom the kings of Parthia and those of India sent gifts and presents, was never defeated in battle except by the Germans. It would require too much space to describe here all the mischief, the losses, and the distress which the Germans inflicted upon the Romans; for although the Germans were at times obliged to retreat in the face of Roman successes, they later frequently gave battle to the Romans, Gauls, French, Spaniards, Hungarians, and various other peoples, and triumphed over them. The Romans also after attaining great power, performed notable deeds with the help and assistance of the Germans, who proved themselves very fit in military matters, and so trustworthy and faithful in private affairs that they were selected from among many as the body guard of the emperor. We also know that Godfrey of Lorraine, with only the Rhenish Germans, a number of Gauls and a few Italians, defeated the Hungarians, forced his way through Greece, marched through Hellespontus, traversed Asia, relieved Jerusalem from the power of the infidels; and, although the Turks and Saracens opposed him in great number, he subjugated all the people on his way. His army is said to have consisted of 200,000 warriors; but Germany can collect a much larger body of men; for during the reign of King Conrad the Swabian, when Pope Eugenius incited the Christians against the Saracens for the succor of the Holy Land, and the Prussians with other people of the hinterland worshipped idolatrous gods, and the Saxons and their neighbors overran the Christians, King Conrad left the Saxons and their neighbors, and the Prussians and other unbelievers behind; and he proceeded to Jerusalem with the Rhinelanders, Swabians, Franks and Bavarians. How long and how broad this country; how devout, how truthful, how righteous, how loyal, and how rich in people and possessions is this German nation; how noble, how strong, how versed and experienced in war; how elegant its churches, and how celebrated and distinguished its clergy; how magnanimous its princes; how illustrious and brilliant its cities; how beautiful its skies, how fertile its soil, and how neat the countryside,- all these we would rather marvel at than relate. But since this work, entitled the book of histories, is now about to go forth in the imperial city of Nuremberg, which is located in the very heart of Germany, we will, in conclusion, make a few brief references to Germany and, in connection therewith, to the history (of Europe) by Aeness Silvius (Pope Pius II) and of the times of Emperor Frederick III comprehended therein, and which we have drawn upon and condensed, not giving the text as fully as the Latin from which it is taken; for in various parts of this book matters have already been related whereof the history of Aeneas makes mention. Moreover, the German text could not proceed beyond the scope of the Latin.

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A narration of the historical events transpiring throughout Germany and Europe under Emperor Frederick III, together with a description of the places, written by the most worthy in God, Aeneas Piccolomini, cardinal of St. Sabine, to Cardinal Antonio of Hilerda.

To Antonio, priest of the holy Roman Church, Cardinal of Hilerda, his most beloved father, Aeneas, Cardinal of Sienna, of the same order though not as worthy, wishes much happiness. The other night, although suffering from gout and rheumatism, I was at work as is my custom; and a German book dealer or collector submitted to me a booklet, giving the names and histories of the Roman emperors, as well as certain customs, up to the time of Wenceslaus, son of Charles IV. And as in this same booklet four emperors were omitted because Benevenustus Himolensis, the author of the booklet, died under Wenceslaus, the German asked me to extend the work by supplying what it lacked. Not wishing to disappoint the man, I completed the emperors down to our own time, following the abbreviated style of my predecessor. But when I realized how many great historical events occurred among the Christians from the time of the Roman rule of Emperor Frederick down to our own day, I determined to write a separate book, briefly preserving for posterity certain memorable things that occurred in this period. And so I have written a short history, and have inscribed it to you. And as you too are laboring, though subject to the same ailment as I, I hope that while you are down with the gout you will leisurely read and judge my writing. It would have been more fitting, I admit, to have written a history of events from the beginning of our time to the present, a task which I of ten felt inclined to undertake, but it did not appear possible, in view of my gout, and particularly because of the forty days’ fast and the approaching nightly vigils. The gout loves our houses. It frequently disappears, and often reappears. Yet it may prove serviceable to this undertaking. Fare you well, and if you find that I have written anything provocative, or too severe, against any one, you may attribute it to my nature and the pangs of the gout, and with your pen delete what is incorrect, improper, and incongruous. From Rome, March 29, A.D. 1458.

OF HUNGARY AND THE HISTORY THEREOF.

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We begin our history with Hungary which adjoins and lies to the east of Austria, the fatherland of Emperor Frederick. Some call this country Pannonia. But Hungary does not reach the regions of Pannonia; nor was it as extensive as in our time. Hungary was limited to the Danube and the river Inn, and by the mountains toward Italy, and bordered on the Adriatic Sea. Pannonia was bounded on the west by Noricum and the Inn; on the east by the Moesians and the Triballi, and by the river Save (or Sau). Within this region is comprehended a large part of Austria, whlch is inhabited by Germans. Within this area Styria (once called Valeria) is also included. And although Hungary embraces lower Pannonia, from the river Leitha as far as the Save, yet it extended over the Danube and reached into Poland, and into the territory which the Gepidae once possessed, and which is now occupied by the Dacians. The power and dominion of the Hungarians is more extensive than Hungary itself, for under their rule are the Dalmatians, or Wends, the Bosnians, the Triballi, or Moesians, or Rascians, and the Getae, who in part are called Wallachians, Transylvanians and Siebenburghers; although, in our own time, some of these have been driven out by the Turks. The Romans under Emperor Octavian conquered these provinces as far as the Danube, and fought Bachonus, the Pannonian king, and the Armantiners between the Save and the Drave. But Trajan, the emperor, subjugated Dacia on the farther side of the Danube, which is a part of Hungary, and made a province of this barbarian territory. After Galienus lost the province it was recovered by Aurelian. Thereafter the land was warred upon and taken by the Huni, a Scythian people. At times it was overrun by the Goths from the islands in the Baltic or Prussian Sea; thereafter by the Saxons from Germany, who came through Pannonia. Finally the Hungarians gained the ascendency over the Scythians, and have maintained a kingdom to this day, extending their rule to both sides of the Danube. Not far from the source of the river Thanai lies another Hungary, the mother of the present province, and like it in language and custom; although this Hungary, being a more devout Christian land, is more civil and disciplined than the other, where the people live in idolatry and observe rude barbarian customs. In Hungary, through which the Danube flows,

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Emperor Sigismund, son of Charles IV, a native Bohemian, but of German ancestry, reigned for fifty years with varying fortune; and he espoused his daughter Elizabeth to Albert, the duke of Austria, to whom he gave his entire sovereignty (as heretofore stated in this book where each man is considered at length according to his title and other matters; wherefore repetition is avoided). Once when Albert was at Ofen (Budapest) this occurred: The Judge of the city, a German, drowned a Hungarian for an offense. This angered the Hungarians who already hated the Germans very much; and a revolt ensued in which the Hungarians took up arms, slaying the Germans wherever they met them. Then followed a flight to the king at his castle. The houses of the merchants, most of whom were Germans, were destroyed. At this time there preached at Ofen one Jacobus Marchianus, a lecturer of the Franciscan Order, renowned for his scriptural wisdom and the piety of his life. In order to silence and squelch the revolt, he ran forth, crucifix in hand, to encounter the raging and armed people in order to deter them from murder and robbery. In tears he exhorted them to lay down their arms. Not understanding his words, but thinking that Christ had become their leader, they raised Jacobus and the crucifix on high, and raged through the city, plundering this house and that. However, through the opposition of Brother Jacobus they refrained from murder, for with pleadings and lamentations he sought to pacify the cruelties of the excited people. Not long thereafter King Albert passed away in death, leaving Elizabeth, his pregnant widow. The Hungarians considered it improper and dangerous that such a large kingdom should be subject to the rule and decisions of a woman; wherefore they strongly urged the queen to marry Wladislaus, the Polish king. She agreed, on condition however, that the step should not prejudice her son, should she bear one. Thereupon the prelates of the kingdom, and the foremost princes by birth and faith were sent to Poland. While on their way, Ladislaus was born, baptized at Stuhlweissenburg, invested with the girdle of knighthood, and crowned with the Hungarian crown, all on the same day. Thereafter his mother placed him and the Hungarian crown in the custody and care of Emperor Frederick; and Frederick kept Ladislaus for twelve years.

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But the Hungarians, contrary to the queen's wishes, nevertheless sent their embassy to King Wladislaus in Poland. By much encouragement and flattery they induced him to come to Hungary, where they placed a diadem upon his head and saluted him as king. After the mother of Ladislaus had fought said Wladislaus in various engagements, Count Ulrich of Cilli, who had protected the kingdom of Ladislaus all too well through the course of the Hungarian dissensions, was captured by the Poles and imprisoned for a long time. Dionysius, archbishop of Gran, thereafter invested with the dignity of cardinal, and by ancestry and culture an illustrious man, had placed the royal diadem upon the head of every king, at times willingly, at times under compulsion. And although, in response to summons, and upon public assurances of safe conduct, he came to Ofen, he was not released until he had crowned Wiadislaus at Stuhlweissenburg. However, as soon as he returned home he employed his greatest zeal in opposing the Poles. Although Cardinal St. Angelus, who was sent to Hungary by Pope Eugenius, brought about a suspension of hostilities for a certain length of time, he was not able to effect peace between Wladislaus and Elizabeth. On the queen’s death almost all the best and foremost of the Hungarian kingdom turned to the Poles, except Giskra, the Bohemian, an experienced warrior, who remained in Hungary and took the part of Ladislaus. Frequently, but with a few men, he triumphed over great numbers of Hungarians and Poles, dispersing or destroying them. On two occasions he surrounded Janos Hunyadi and his army, depriving him of his wagon-forts. Janos was a Wallachian, and although not of high birth, was a good man, resourceful, highly intelligent, and a lover of virtue. With great success he fought many engagements with the Turks, enriching the houses of God with the booty taken from the enemy. He was the first to show the Hungarians that the Turkish lances could be broken and overcome. This also encouraged Wladislaus to undertake a war against Amurate, the Turkish sultan. Through Julianus the cardinal, an alliance was formed between Emperor Frederick and Wladislaus, who called himself King of Hungary, with the understanding that the emperor might punish the Hungarians for any losses they might inflict on Austria or Styria, and that Wladislaus, on the other hand, might punish the subjects of the emperor for all depredations in Hungary. A small village, Güntz, on the border of Styria and Austria, in Hungary, together with several castles in the vicinity, was in the possession of robbers, who proceeded from thence into Austria, carrying off people and cattle. Emperor Frederick speedily collected an army with which he proceeded into Hungary, captured the wagon-forts and defenses of the robbers, and hanged eighty of their number. When Wladislaus fell in the war with the Turks, Ladislaus, King Albert’s son, was elected king by common consent of the lords; and Janos Hunyadi was installed as governor of the Hungarian kingdom. He ruled (as it is said) with an iron rod in the absence of the king, but even in his presence was considered not less than the king himself. Janos died of an illness shortly after the defeat of the Turks at Stuhlweissenburg; and it is said that during his illness he would not permit the body of Christ (Sacrament) to be brought to him, saying that it is unseemly that the king should be brought into the house of his servant. And so, in his weakened condition he caused himself to be carried to the church, where he made his confession according to the Christian custom. Thereupon he received the sacrament; and while in the hands of the priests he gave up his soul to the Lord God,- truly a blessed spirit that on its own accord brought to heaven news of its great deeds at Stuhlweissenburg. Thereafter the Count of Cilli was slain by Ladislaus, the elder son of Hunyadi; wherefore, on the order of King Ladislaus, he was beheaded at Ofen, and his brother Matthias was imprisoned. And said King Ladislaus died at Prague as heretofore stated in this book. Thereupon the Hungarians assembled at Ofen to elect another king. Among other landed lords came Michael Zylagi (Milhaly Sczilagy) with a retinue of 13,000 horse and 7,000 foot. He was the brother of Hunyadi’s wife and uncle of Matthias. He was hostile to many Hungarian lords because of the execution of Ladislaus, the son of his sister. His power and might caused the Hungarians no small amount of concern, and they feared that no free election of a king could be held. Thereupon Michael appeared before the assembly, stating that he had not brought these armed men with him in order to bring force to bear at the election, but to intimidate those who might attempt to interfere with the freedom of the princes and the people in the election of a king; and merely to remind them of the good deeds of Janos Hunyadi, who alone drove the Turkish arms from the kingdom of Hungary, and gave the honor of victory to the Hungarian people; against which, be was unworthily and unjustly compensated by the cruel death of one of his sons and by the imprisonment of the other in Bohemia; wherefore the lords should deservedly raise up the memory of Janos Hunyadi and liberate his son Matthias from imprisonment and elevate him to the kingship of Hungary, which his father had held through his power and virtue;

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for it is not to be tolerated that this regal power should pass to strangers. This done, he would spare all those who were opposed to Matthias, the son of his sister. And although the matter was in doubt for some time as each lord weighed the consequences, yet Matthias, a youth of 18 years, was on the 24th day of January, while impatiently awaiting the result of the election with 40,000 men, icebound in the middle of the Danube, proclaimed king. And here we must marvel at the surprising uncertainty of human affairs. Of two youths of the same age and culture, one (King Ladislaus) was carried from the royal palace just after his marriage, to his grave; while another (Matthias), although imprisoned and fearing death, was called from his cell to the sovereignty. It is a wonder that such a sudden and unexpected joy did not strengthen the mother, as with so much grief and care, she would rather have heard her son called a king than be liberated from prison(?). In the Hungarian marches on the further side of the Danube, toward the north, now called Sepusium (which the people, called the Gepide, once occupied), was a noted robber, called Examites, a Bohemian and Hussite heretic, who hospitably received robbers wherever they came from, and called them brothers. And he made the same region tributary to himself by building and erecting a number of fortifications and wagon-forts, from which be sallied forth hither and thither, attacking the people. Every month he distributed the loot from person to person, a full brother receiving no more than one who had served but a few days. He said he was commanded to do this by the Gospels; for the Lord had promised all those who worked in his Father the same reward whether they come in the first hour or in the eleventh. Now when this organization had committed robbery far and wide, and had reached the number of 5,000, and was increasing daily, they could not be dispersed in any other manner than by enrolling its chief, Examites, in the pay of King Ladislaus. The region called Siebenbürgen is situated on the other side of the Danube, in which lived a number of Dacians, the free people, who has. been victorious against the Romans. In our own time three classes of people live there - the Germans, Siculi, and Wallachians. The Germans came from Saxony, and are strong and experienced warriors, and are called Siebenbürgers because of the seven cities in which they live. The Siculi are the Hungarians, the first to come into this region from ancient Hungary. Although they till the fields with their hands and live in the country tending their cattle, they are nevertheless called noble; and when they meet they greet one another as high born lords. They pay tribute to no one except when a king of Hungary is crowned, when they give the king as many oxen as there are householders, the number of whom exceeds 60,000. But when they are summoned to go to wars and do not obey, they are punished by death and their estates are forfeited to the public treasury. The Wallachians are an Italian people, as we will soon relate; but among the Siebenbürgers few men are to be found not versed in the Hungarian tongue. In this region was a little city, called Bistricum, subject to the royal crown, which King Ladislaus, while at Vienna, gave to Janos Hunyadi for his own. To this the inhabitants were opposed, but they were compelled to submit. But after the death of Hunyadi and the death of his son Ladislaus at Ofen, they scornfully ejected Michael Zylagi, who desired the kingdom for Matthias, the other son of Hunyadi. But as soon as he learned of the death or King Ladislaus, he returned with an army and attacked the little city; and he tore out the eyes of some of the hostile burghers; some he deprived of their hands; and others he beheaded. He destroyed the little city by fire. Not long thereafter about 3000 Turks came into this region and carried off a great amount of booty. The Sabinians and the Germans pursued them, slew many, and triumphantly returned home with the plunder they had taken. They had hardly returned to the city when Michael appeared with no mean force on the opposite side of the city, planning the destruction of Bistricum which had given aid against him. But as the Sabinians remained within their well fortified city, he was checked in his undertaking, and departed from hence with great threats.

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WALLACHIA

WALLACHIA is a very extensive country, beginning at Siebenburgen and extending to the Euxine Sea. It is a level land and in need of water. To the south is the Danube, to the north are the Russians, and across the river Tyrus (Dniester) are the nomadic Scythians, called the Tartars. In this land at one time lived the Getae, who reduced Darius, the son of Hystaspis to flight, and subjugated the country of Thrace through many victories. Finally they were crushed and wiped out by the Romans, who, through their general, Flaccus, established a residential city there, by which the Dacians were overcome. The city was named Flaccia after the general. After the lapse of a long time the name was corrupted to Wallachia. The language of this people is still Roman, although greatly changed, and hardly intelligible to an Italian. In our own times two revolts occurred among the Wallachians, one by the Dacians, the other by the Dragulari. But after the Dragulari found themselves unequal to the Dacians and were oppressed by them in various ways, they called the Turks to their aid and wiped out the Dacians. But Janos Hunyadi, wielding the power of Hungary, gave aid to the Dacians, not only restoring them to their country, but earning renown and riches for himself thereby. The Wallachians also inhabit the islands of the Danube, among which is the island of Peuceni, which I note is mentioned by the ancient historians. They also have habitations in Thrace. One part of Wallachia is subject to the Turks, another to the Hungarians. It is apparent to me that it is difficult to de scribe the provinces, inasmuch as the historians, whom one must follow, not only have various versions, but contradict each other and, are not clear. They frequently confuse the location of the provinces; for some that were extensive in former times are now small,

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while others which were small now appear large and flourishing. Lombardy, Romandiola, Insubria, Lemilia, and Flamina, the Italian regions, being unrenowned, were not recognized. And so also Macedonia, once under a king called Aemathione, and by him named Aemathia, was insignificant; but later it expanded through the power of its rulers and the skill of its people, and by the attraction of its neighbors. Therefore, if those who read my account do not here find them in the order to which they are accustomed, or in which they find them among other writers, I hope they will not blame me, but keep in mind the reason above mentioned, namely, the changing character of these regions.

THRACE

THRACE (Thracia), as many distinguished writers state, is a vast province or country. To the East is the Euxine Sea, to the South the Aegean, the river Strymon and the Macedonian plains; to the North is the Danube, and to the West the Paeonian Mountains, Hungary and the Save. So said the historians, Pliny and Strabo, who stated that Mt. Remus divides Thrace through the middle, and that the Dardani, Tribaili, and Moesians live in Thrace; that the Triballi lived in the plains, now inhabited by the Rascini or Haiti, or Servi; but the Moesians, after the Triballi, spread out to the East as far as the Euxine, between the Danube and Mt. Hemus, and these we now call the Bulgarians. Beyond this, to the South, and as far as Hellespontum lies Roumania, a Greek nation, though somewhat barbarian; and in our time, after the destruction of the Greek Empire, they again became barbarian under the rule of the Turks. The principal city of this country is Constantinople, formerly called Agios. This city was built by the Lacedaemonians under their leader Pausanius. Of this city, its origin, name and existence, sufficient mention has already been made in this book in the form in which these were described by Aeneas; wherefore his writings have not been repeated here.

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In this city many general councils were held under the emperors, and many heresies which arose against the Christian faith were discovered and suppressed. Of these heresies the one that endured the longest was that concerning the exit of the Holy Ghost, which was condemned and rejected under Pope Eugenius IV in the Council at Florence, not only by the Latin, but also by the Greek Church. And although John the patriarch of Constantinople and John the Greek emperor were in unison with the Latin Church on the articles of faith, yet the Church at Constantinople would not accept them. The patriarch who acceded thereto died at Florence, and the emperor did not live long after his home journey. Constantius, the emperor who succeeded him, was either misled or wilfully refused to accede thereto, and he expelled Gregory the patriarch because he followed the true faith. Therefore Pope Nicholas V sent there Isidorus, the Sabinian cardinal, a very excellent man who had for a long time ruled the Hussian church, to ascertain why the Greeks disregarded the agreements which their legates had made with the Latins in the council of Florence. This cardinal influenced the emperor of Constantinople and his advisers to the right course, when the war of Mohammed suddenly threatened them. I see that many in our time, not only credible teachers and poets, but also historians, commit the error of calling the Turks Teucros, due, I believe, to the fact that the Turks are in possession of Troy, which was once occupied by the Teucros; but their origin is of Crete or Candia and Italy. The Turks are from Scythia, and have so expanded that they flow possess Asia and Greece, to the dismay of the Latin and Christian name. Of this mention will be made later.

OF THE TURKS

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If we would follow the order observed by Aeneas Pius in his history of Europe, it would now behoove us to tell about the Turkish people and to relate their history, as well as the attack upon Constantinople by the Turks and its loss in the time of Aeneas; but since the capture of the city has already been recorded in this book at Folio CCXLIX (recto), together with a special illustration; and as in many other parts of this book the invasions, violence and oppressions frequently visited upon the Christians by the Turks, within our own memory, as well as theretofore, not only in Hungary but also in other countries, have already been noted and related, it is best not to repeat those matters at this time, as such repetition is not only useless and unnecessary, but might distress the reader.

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THE SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE

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MACEDONIA

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MACEDONIA, the country that once ruled the world, borders on Thrace from the west and south, and extends from the Aegean Sea to the Adriatic. To the south, at its back, are Thessaly and Magnesia; and to the north Paeonia and Paphiagonia. These regions were later added to Macedonia. Epirus and Illyricum also border on Macedonia, one on the south, the other on the north. On the shores of the Adriatic lies the ancient city of Dyrrachium (now Durazzo) of the Cheronese (Peniscola) in which it is located, and from whence it derived its name. It was formerly called Epidamnus, and was first built by those of Corcyra (Corfu). Not far below was the city of Apollonia (Polina), established under good laws, and memorable for the fact that the emperor Augus tus studied Greek there. On the other shore is Thessalonica, once a mighty city, celebrated through the epistles of St. Paul, and by the devastations and irreconcilable wrath of Theodosius the Great; for, although at times he was a most kind emperor, he was so enraged by the slaying of the judges in the city that he ordered all the inhabitants put to death; and thus about 11,000 men perished. St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, would not permit such an inhuman deed to pass unpunished; and he forbade the emperor’s entry into the churches, and compelled him to do penance. From henceforth a law was enforced that a sentence of death should not be carried out for thirty days. Pliny states that this was a free city. Strabo says that Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, built it. Both ascribe this city to Macedonia. Andronicus, son of Emanuel, the Constantinopolitan emperor, acquired this city as a portion of his inheritance, but later, through hatred of his brother John, who succeeded his father as emperor, he surrendered it to the Venetians, from whom it was taken by the Turkish sultan Amurate. This sultan also brought under his sway the remaining Macedonian districts as far as the Paeonian mountains, a region now called Albania. O what wonderful changes have taken place in worldly affairs, and how transitory man's authority has been! At one time this Macedonian region, while under the two kings, Philip and Alexander, (and after the subjection of Greece and Thrace), extended into Asia, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Cappodocia, Syria, Egypt, and as far as Mount Taurus and the Caucasus, and over the Bactrians, Medes and Persians. But in our time it is unfortunately subject to the vile Turks, to whom it has become tributary and subservient.

MAGNESIA AND THESSALY

Magnesia and Thessaly were overrun by the Turks in our time. The most noble mountains, Olympus, Pieris, Pindus, Ossa and Othrys, once belonging to the Lapithae, are now subject to the power of the Turks. Here, Pliny states there were once upon a time seventy cities. The Justeagoniphus is the most celebrated river of Thessaly. It arises between mounts Ossa and Olympus in a wooded valley, and is navigable in various places. Through this region, also flows in the same direction the river Peneus, passing through a green swamp. Grass is abundant on its banks and there the sweet notes of birds are heard. It approaches the rivulet of Orchon, but does not reach it. Once upon a time there lived in Thessaly a king named Grecus from whom Greece derived its name; also king called Helenus, after whom Helen was named. Homer, the poet and historian, called this land by three names - Mirmidona, Helena and Achaia. And although these people withstood the might of Persia, they were unable to hinder the Turks from passing through the Philarian narrows.

BOEOTIA

After Thessaly comes Boeotia, extending from east to west, touching the Euboean Sea (on the east), and the Crissaean Gulf (on the west). Boeotia is renowned among historians, and was the native land of Pater Liber and of Hercules. Therein lay a city called Epaminundum, of no less renown than Athens; but in our time it is just a small citadel and, together with other Boeotian districts, in the possession of the Turks.

HELLAS OR ATTICA

Hellas, by us called Greece, was called Acte by our forefathers, and later the name was changed to Atice. Homer called all the inhabitants of Attica Athenians; for at that time the city of Megara had not yet been built. Attica extended from Boeotia to the mountains, where there is a district called Megaris. By these same Corinthian mountains was a column, and on the side thereof toward the Peloponnesus were inscribed the words: This is Peloponnesus and not Ionia; while on the side toward Megara were the words: This is not Peloponnesus, but Ionia. The Atticans and the Ionians are one people; and as they very often quarreled with the Peloponnesians as to the extent of their lands, they finally reached a common accord and erected this column. Although Attica is mountainous, rocky, and unproductive, many have praised it and have called it a household god. In this region was the once most celebrated city of Athens, lacking neither in praise nor renown; but in our own time it has the appearance of a small insignificant village. On the elevation on which the ancient temple of Minerva stood, is now a castle or fortress, celebrated throughout Greece for its dimensions, structure, and defenses against attack. This city was surrendered to the Turks by a Florentine after his calls for assistance were ignored by the Latins; wherefore he was given several villages in which to spend his time ignobly.

THE PELOPONNESUS

The Peloponnesus lies in the vicinity of Attica, once the citadel of all Greece; for in addition to the nobility and might of its people, the location of its towns and regions prove it a principality and. sovereignty. There are many valleys and mountains in this country. It has a breadth from east to west of 1400 stadia, and a circumference of 4,000. Two seas, the Ionian and the Aegaean, adjoin it. According to Anthemidorus, in this region lay the noble city of Corinth. At present the Latins call this region Morea; and therein lie Achaia, Messinia, Laconia, Argolis, and, in the midst of these, Arcadia. After making war on Thessalonica, Boeotia, and Attica, Somirates proceeded as far as the city of Examilium, whose walls he destroyed;

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and when the Peloponnesians surrendered, he subjected them to an annual tribute. When the Hungarians, at the instigation of Cardinal Julianus, took up arms against the Turks, and for a time were successful, the Greek emperor Constantine was slain there. The despot of these provinces refused to pay the tribute demanded by the Turks; and he built the city of Examilium. In consequence he was later fined a huge sum of money.

ACHAIA

Achaia, as Ptolemy writes, has Epirus to the west; Macedonia to the north; and a portion of the Aegaean Sea toward the east, on whose shores it extends to the highest mountains. To the south is the Adriatic; and if this is true, then Achaia

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includes Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, Thessaly, Magnesia, Aetolia, and Acarnania. But in another place Ptolemy states that the cities of Elix (Helice), Bura, Helena, and Pherecia are in Achaia. The district of Acarnania, between Epirus and Boeotia, is now absorbed in Aetolia, at present a duchy. John Vintimilius, a native of Sicily, espoused his daughter to the despot of Acarnania. Later, when the Turks brought distress upon Arcanania and besieged the son-in-law, John came over the sea with a small expeditionary force, pursued the besiegers, and secured a memorable victory over the Turks, thus relieving his son-in-law, who however, was later taken prisoner by the Turks through treachery and deprived of his sovereignty.

EPIRUS

This region begins at the Acroceraunii, the mountains on the west, and extends eastward to the Ambracian valley for a distance of 1300 stadia. It borders on Macedonia on the north, and on Achaia on the east to the river Achelous. On the west it extends to the Ionian Sea. Theopompus writes that there were 24 tribes in this region, and historians state that this land sea was prosperous and productive, and once possessed many secure cities and castles. However, because of the enmity of these people against the Romans, the province was destroyed. And as Polybius states, 20 cities of Epirus were leveled to the ground by the emperor Aemilius Paulus, after the defeat of the Macedonians and the king of Persia. In this region occurred the widely celebrated naval battle of Actium, wherein the emperor Augustus triumphed over Mark Anthony and Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt. In commemoration thereof Augustus built in the Ambracian valley the city of Nicopolus, which name signifies victory.

ALBANIA

Albania at one time belonged to and was part of Macedonia, wherein the two aforesaid cities of Dyrrachium and Apollonia were situated. The language of this people is understood neither by the Greeks nor the Wends. We believe that the people at one time came from the Albania near Chalcide, in Asiatic Scythia, when the barbarian nations overran Greece and Italy. In this country was the mighty Chamusa, who, though born of Christian parents, denied the Christian faith and turned to the Mohammedan folly. But just as readily as he forsook Christ, so he scorned the Moha mmedan idolatry and returned to the ancestral law. Although he ignored both beliefs, he preferred to die as a Christian rather than as a Turk. He died soon after the fall of Constantinople. George Skanderbeg, born of noble parents, and his successor, devoted all his days to arms and war in defense of Christianity. He defeated and destroyed vast hordes of Turks, and alone maintained this land in the Gospels of ChriSt. But it is said that the greater part of this region has now been devastated by hostile arms. King Alphonso often sent troops into Albania. He took the city of Kroja, and protected it against the Turks. The aforesaid Skanderbeg's brother’s son, who favored the Turks, was captured by his said uncle, sent to King Alphonso, and placed in a cell. Pope Calixtus gave Skanderbeg much financial assistance.

ILLYRIA OR THE WENDIC LAND

After Albania come the Illyrians, to the west and north. We now call these people Wends. Some are called Bosnians, some Dalmatians, some Croats, some Istrians, and some Carniolans. The Bosnians are in the interior, near Hungary, toward the north, while the others, situated on the sea, extend as far as the Timavian springs, facing Ansonia on one side and Hungary on the other. But the river Timavus runs into it as far as the innermost gulf of the Adriatic. Although King Stephen of Bosnia followed the Christian faith, he held himself aloof from the sacrament of baptism for a long time. Later he summoned John, Cardinal of St. Angelo, from whom he received holy baptism; and then he began a war against the Turks. In this region live many Manichaean heretics, who hold that there were two beginnings, one good, the other evil; and they have no regard for the supremacy of the Roman Church. Nor do they recognize that Christ is of the same nature as God, and coexistent with him. Their cloisters are in remote and secluded places between the mountains. When the women become ill, they obligate themselves to serve these same monks as holy men for a certain period. And when they are restored to health, they fulfill their vow, with the consent of their husbands, by living in promiscuity with the monks for a fixed period of time. Neither the laws of the Roman See nor Christian arms have been able to remove this blot; for the Almighty God permits this heresy to prevail for our discipline.

THE REGION OF DALMATIA

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In Dalmatia King Stephen harassed those of Ragusa with great battles; for he had a duchy between the Bosnians and the Dalmatians. He was tainted with the poison of the Manichaean heresy, and secretly kidnapped Christians and sold them to the Turks; yet he sent emissaries to Rome asking assistance from the papal see, thus seeking from Christians the funds he expended in making war against the Christians.

CROATIA

In the land of Croatia an Austrian woman of mean birth, but excellent morals and good standing, was recompensed in being espoused by a count. While riding from one castle to another, she was surprised by the rapid approach of the Turks; she was taken prisoner and detained by them for a long time. Her husband, becoming impatient, secured her release from imprisonment by the payment of a large sum of money. Now some one may ask where we have left the country of Liburnia; but the boundaries and extent of the lands, provinces and regions are so doubtful and confused that it is impossible to distinguish the modern regions from one another, and the possibility of distinguishing and locating the very ancient ones is still more remote. Pliny, the historian, says that Liburnia ends where Dalmatia begins.

ISTRIA OR HISTRIA

The ancient teachers say that Istria is a part of Italy, and in it are situated the cities of Parentium and Pola. Justantinopolis is the capital. It borders on Italy in a recess of the Adriatic, extending into the sea in the form of an island. This region is mountainous and rocky. The ancients call it Albania. Pliny said that Istria borders on Liburnia. In consequence it is apparent that the Croatians came into the land of the Liburnians. The Istrians are now Wendic, but the cities on the seacoast speak Italian, and know both languages. That part of the country which lies along the seacoast and is now subject to the Venetians, is the beSt. The interior is in the possession: of the Austrians. There also is the city of St. Veit, 1,000 stadia from Aquileia. In our times nothing memorable occurred in this country, although the Austrians and Venetians often warred with one another in consequence of boundary disputes. From time to time the emperor sent emissaries to settle these controversies, and although new truces were made, the wars never ceased entirely.

CARNIOLA

The Carniolans follow the Istrians. The Wends, whose language the country retains, divide the land into two parts. One is arid and in need of moisture, and therein, between Laibach and Triest live the Istrians and the Carsii, inhabiting the mountains as far as the river Timavus. The other is well watered by various rivers, particularly by the Save and the Laibach, from which the city took its name. While Emperor Frederick was on his way to be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, the city of Laibach was besieged and attacked by Count Ulrich of Cilli and Duke Albert, the emperor’s brother, and their allies; but the siege was finally raised by the knights of the emperor and many valuable weapons and implements of war were captured.

CARINTHIA (KARNTEN)

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CARINTHIA, also a mountainous country, borders on Carniola (Krain, or Crain). To the east and north is Styria; to the west and south, the Italian mountains and Friaul. The country has many valleys and hills, productive of grain; also many seas, rivers and brooks, of which the Drave (Drau) is the most important. It flows through Styria and Hungary into the Danube. The country is subject to the Austrian Duchy. Whenever a new prince is about to begin his reign, it is the custom to have a peasant mount a block of marble in a spacious valley not far from the city of St. Veit. The office is hereditary in him. To his right is placed a lean black ox, to his left a lean ill-favored horse. Round about stand the people and the entire peasantry. From the opposite side comes the prince and the nobility, the latter well clad and carrying the banner and coat of arms of the principality. The Count of Görtz, between 12 small banners, leads the procession, and the nobility follow. In this gathering no one is less conspicuous than the prince, who appears as a peasant, in coarse dress, hat and shoes, carrying the staff of a shepherd. When the peasant seated on the stone sees the prince approach, he cries out in the Wendic tongue (for the Carinthians are Wends), “Who is it that over yonder parades forth so proudly?" And the people standing about say, "The prince of the land is coming.” Then the peasant asks, “Is he also a just judge, a lover of our country’s welfare, and independent and worthy of honor? Is he also an augmenter and protector of the Christian faith?" And they all answer, "Yes, he is, and will be.” And again the peasant asks, "How, or by what right may he induce me to leave this seat?” Whereupon the Count of Görtz answers, “You will be bought off with sixty pennies, and the head of this ox and the head of this horse will be yours; and you may have the raiment of the prince, and your house shall be free and untaxable. Whereupon the peasant gives the prince a mild slap on the cheek, urging him to be a just judge. He then rises and carries off his cattle. And now the prince, his sword bared, mounts the stone, and turning hither and thither, vows fairness and impartial judgment to the people. It is also said that cold water is brought to the peasant, which he drinks out of a felt hat, as though he scorned the use of wine. Thereupon the prince proceeds to St. Peter’s church on a bill in the vicinity, and which was once a bishopric. When divine services have been completed he casts off his peasant dress and dons his princely raiment. After a brilliant entertainment with his nobles and knights, he rides back into the field, and there, seated on the judgment seat, he administers justice to those who desire it, and grants tenures to his vassals. It is said that in A.D. 790, in the time of Charlemagne, Igno, a duke of this country, provided a great entertainment for the peasantry. He caused the peasants to be seated near him, and to be served from dishes of gold and silver; but the nobles and foremost he seated far away, and they were served from earthenware. When asked what this signified, he answered, that those who live in costly palaces in large cities are not as clean as those who live in humble cottages in the country; that the peasants, after accepting the gospel and the purification of holy baptism, have beautiful souls, while the souls of the mighty are befouled and blackened with idolatry; and so he had arranged the entertainment according to the rank of the souls. Soon thereafter the nobles, in large numbers, accepted the Christian faith and received baptism from Virgilius and Arnonis, the bishops of Salzburg. Henceforth the honor of in stalling a prince was conceded to the peasantry. duke of Carinthia was game-warden of the empire, to whom were submitted the misdemeanors of the hunters; and when called upon to answer the complainants in court before the emperor, he was not obliged to do so except in the Wendic tongue. In. this country is a city called Clagenfurt (Klagenfurt), in. which hard usages were invoked against thieves; for when any man fell under the suspicion of theft, he was promptly arrested and hanged. After the expiration of three days, those of Clagenfurt investigated the theft, and if they found him guilty and deserving of death, they left the corpse of the thief hang until it was entirely wasted away; but if they found that injustice had been done to the person who was hanged, they took the corpse from the gallows, and gave the soul a public funeral. In this land lived Count Ulrich of Görtz, destroyer of men, for whom a woman awakened his immature daughter to drink with him at midnight. He had more dealings and associations with shepherds than nobles; although aged he played with the children on the ice, often lived with common women, and seldom took his meals at court. He went to the cook, and all by himself ate soup in the kitchen. He wore filthy clothes and spotted his bosom. His eyes always watered. At one time when Emperor Frederick saw the count approaching him, he asked me to come to him and said, “Aeneas, come and see this prince who is hurrying to us. If ever you have seen a cleaner and handsomer prince, say so." This count had a Hungarian wife whose greed brought him to prison. He was liberated by the help of Count Ulrich of Cilli, drove away his wife and left able sons as heirs. In good morals they resembled than their father.

STYRIA, A REGION OF GERMANY

STYRIA, at one time called Valeria, borders on Hun gary to the east, on Austria to the north, and on Carniola and Carinthia to the west and south. This region is also mountainous, although toward the east it is level to no small extent. The Drave (Drau) and the Mur, two noted rivers, water this re gion. The Mur flows into the Drave, and the Drave into the Danube. The people in the cities are usually German, while the peasants on this side of the Drave are Wendic. This region is subject to the Austrian house. Herein is a small town that some call Cilli, in which are many indications of antiquity, including marble tombs of Roman princes. Here ruled, in our own time, Count Frederick, who, fired with carnal passion for a concubine, with his own hand slew his lawful wife, a born countess of Croatia. Thereupon his father, in the exercise of that judgment which is the right of the mighty, drowned the concubine. And thereupon the son took wives away from their husbands, enticed the maidens to his court, reduced the country people to servitude, destroyed the estates of the church, and gathered about him counterfeiters, criminals, soothsayers and necromancers. And although, at the age of ninety, he proceeded to Rome in the year of the jubilee to obtain absolution, yet he showed no improvement after his return. When he was asked what advantage the pilgrimage to Rome had been to him, since he had not modified his old habits, he answered and said, “My cobbler, since his return from Rome, still makes boots." Upon his death he left as heir his son Ulrich, who resembled his father in some respects, but was of better address. When he was slain, 24 claimants to his estate appeared. And just as during his lifetime he had stirred up revolt and war on every hand,

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so by his death he aroused dissension and opposition. But the highest and foremost of the land decided to give up possession of the country to Emperor Frederick upon condition that according to custom, they would answer the claimants in court. The widow of Count Ulrich undertook to protect the inheritance. But Emperor Frederick, after taking many castles by force, was finally able to establish himself at Cilli through its surrender by a Bohemian, who was the count’s captain and received money from the emperor, and abandoned the countess. But he soon regretted this, undertaking to cover up one coarse misdeed by another. With a small force be undertook to surround the emperor during the night. A number of the burghers took to arms and admitted him with 800 horsemen. But divine goodness sustained Emperor Frederick, and, contrary to custom, he was thus advised to sleep in the upper castle on this night. His retainers, who remained in the city, were all taken prisoners, and John Ungnadius, the wealthiest man in Styria, together with his brother Jorgen and Ulrich, the Austrian chancellor, were carried off, although Ulrich was a bishop and had fled to the church. It is said that there was a nobleman in Styria to whom it often occurred to hang himself; therefore he sought the counsel of a learned man against these temptations; and he was advised to engage a certain priest to read mass to him daily. This advice the nobleman followed, and had the priest hold mass for him for an entire year, during which period he never thought of hanging himself. Finally this priest asked the nobleman to grant him the privilege of serving him as parish priest in a church to be consecrated in the vicinity. To this the nobleman assented, with the intention of following him there and of being present during the holy office. Although he was undecided for a long time, he left at noon, and in the forest he met a peasant, who told him that the divine office had been completed and all the people had gone away. This distressed the nobleman very much, and he said that he was unhappy because he had not seen the body of Christ on this day. Therefore he urged the peasant to sell him the benefit which the peasant had secured by his attendance upon the divine office; whereupon the peasant asked the nobleman to give him an humble garment. After this purchase the nobleman nevertheless went to the church and prayed. On his way home he found the peasant hanging on a tree; after which he no longer found himself troubled with distressing thoughts. In this country much salt is obtained, which is shipped to other countries; there are also many rich mines of iron and silver.

AUSTRIA

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We do not consider it necessary to describe Austria at this point, for we have already extensively written its history. However, we will here briefly explain its location. Austria, once called Upper Pannonia, has Hungary to the east, Bavaria to the west, Bohemia and Moravia to the south, and the Styrian mountains to the north. Austria is a three days’ journey or a little less, in breadth, and a six days’ journey in length. Its soil is rich, well watered, planted with vineyards, wealthy in timber, productive in farm products, teaming in fish, and its vineyards are so abundant that it adequately supplies Moravia, Bohemia, Silesia and Bavaria with wine, and receives large revenues and riches thereby. The Danube flows through the middle of this country. Vienna is its most distinguished city and the great merchandise mart of the Pannonians. It is surrounded by walls two thousand paces in length, and is adorned with moats, bow windows, towers and spacious suburbs. Upon the death of King Albert, the feudatory lords of the country chose Duke Frederick, thereafter Roman emperor, as their king, upon condition that should King Albert’s widow give birth to a boy, Frederick should be his guardian; but should she bring forth a girl, Frederick should be the country’s ruler. Now when the queen gave birth to Ladislaus, Frederick undertook his guardianship. The knights and men at arms who had served under King Albert and had not yet received their pay, seized the country, committing murder and arson; hut Frederick bought them off with 40,000 florins. The sister of the elder King Ladislaus was the spouse of Duke William of Saxony. Janos Hunyadi sought the crown of Hungary from Emperor Frederick; and when this was denied him, Hunyadi, with 12,000 horse overran all that part of Austria lying between Vienna and the Styrian mountains, destroying and burning it. And now such great discord and hostility arose between Emperor Frederick and the Hungarians and Bohemians, that a diet was called to settle the matter, to be held at Vienna. This was attended by the dukes, Ludwig of Bavaria, and William of Saxony, and the margraves, Albert of Brandenburg and Charles of Baden, and many barons from Hungary and Bohemia. And the emperor sent his emissaries, of which I was one; and although many and sundry matters of justice were considered, nothing was finally concluded. In the same assembly King Ladislaus elevated to princely honor Janos Hunyadi, who had saved his kingdom from the Turks; and although the Count of Cilli influenced the king to his own will, drawing all things unto himself, and ignoring one Eytzinger and those of Vienna, and elevated to honors becoming a queen, his concubine, whom he seduced after her husband was slain, yet he finally fell into disfavor with the king, and by the management of Eytzinger, was driven from the royal court. In order to avoid his stoning by the scornful people, the margrave, Albert of Brandenburg, accompanied him to the city gate, insuring his safety. But as mean and disgraceful as was his departure, so his return was magnificent, pompous and favorable; for more than. a year later, when the king of Bohemia came to Vienna, the count was recalled at the instigation of the Austrian lords, and proceeded to Vienna with 1,000 horse, where he was met at the gate by the king and the rejoicing nobles. Thereafter said Eytzinger lost the king's grace and favor, and returned home to his castle. He then became reconciled to the emperor, whom he had sorely offended. Ere long those adhering to King Ladislaus became so despotic and haughty that they undertook to seize and plunder the suburbs of Neustadt, where the empress lay in child-bed; and failing in this, to fire the city. Negotiations for peace between the emperor and the king were frequent, but futile. The Count of Cidas was of the opinion that the Austrian princes were not in harmony on his account. After his death said Eytzinger of Bohemia was sent to the emperor and peace was discussed on both sides; but meanwhile the king died, and the negotiations were not only disrupted, but all hope of great accomplishments as well as the welfare of all Christendom were postponed. The emperor and Duke Albert, his brother requested the Austrians to surrender and give up the sovereignty. They held a council of the lords, to which the emperor submitted the proposition that the country should descend to the elder prince of Austria; and so Duke Albert expressed the opinion that the royal inheritance should descend upon him and his cousin Duke Sigismund. And the lords answered, saying that if the two brothers would agree, they would be more tolerant and considerate. In the meantime robbers on the far side of the Danube, in Austria, took possession of a well fortified city on the banks of a river in Moravia, and began to distress the entire vicinity with plunder and arson. Against these devastators Duke Albert took up arms, captured them by force, slew many, carried off 650 as prisoners, and of these caused 80 to be hanged. By this course he obtained great favor and acclaim among the Austrians. Now after Ulrich von Eytzinger had visited the emperor, at Neustadt, and on his return came to Vienna, and unsuspectingly answered the summons of Duke Albert, the latter took him prisoner and confined him in a special cell. The burghers looked upon this action with disfavor and there was much murmuring; yet no one undertook to help the poor prisoner. The emperor was asked to go to Vienna, but having his suspicions, he delayed the journey for a long time. Meanwhile Duke Sigismund came down the Etsch to Vienna, and went first of all to Neustadt,

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where, according to ancient custom, and in the presence of Duke Albert, he received the fief from the emperor and took the oath of homage. Ere long Albert returned to Vienna with Sigismund, and they confederated against the emperor in order to bring Austria under their power. When the emperor noted these things he decided to go to Vienna, summoning to him Duke Ludwig of Bavaria, the great and renowned prince. He went to Vienna with the emperor and empress. The people came out of the city to meet them; and Dukes Albert and Sigismund also came with their nobles. Duke Albert had placed under arms about 3,000 horse, and these made themselves visible to the emperor on a bill not far from Vienna, causing the emperor great concern. Duke Albert increased the emperor’s suspicions by frequently riding to these troops and by holding secret conferences there. The captain of the troops is said to have remarked to Duke Albert, “If it pleases you, I can easily make you the master of Vienna and Austria on this day. No one can prevent it. I will capture the emperor and his retinue.” But Duke Albert hesitated, and later he said, "Had you done this without my knowledge, I might have overlooked it in you, but it does not become me to ask you to do it. Dukes Albert and Sigrnund were in a lodging called Praghof, while the emperor lodged in the houses of certain burghers; but the people guarded the castle. The dukes conspired together and took an oath to attack the castle by night and not to return home until they had taken it. This proposal became known to the burghers, who flew to arms and fortified the castle more strongly. Now a great battle took place with cruel slaughter, and the defeat of the dukes and the consequences might be conjectured. For a long time the outcome was in doubt. The burghers remained firm in their defense of the castle, while the princes would not give way to them in view of their oath not to return home until they had captured it. At last the matter was compromised so that the princes might enter the castle and tarry there until they had drunk their wine, whereupon they were to come out again. Three days later the lords of the country divided the castle into three parts, two to the dukes, the third to the emperor. A number of lords were chosen to arbitrate the differences between the brothers, and therein they were given full power and authority. But it is difficult to pass judgment against the mighty. The nobility and the princes of the church favored the emperor, but the common people adhered to Duke Albert.

MORAVIA (MÄHREN)

MORAVIA lies to the north of Austria, and therein, between Hungary and Bohemia, north of the Danube, lives a free and predatory people. In this country the cities and villages observe the customs of the Roman church, adhering to the true Christian faith. The nobility and the Estates are nearly all tainted with the Hussite heresy. While John Capistrano there preached the word of God and zealously refuted the Hussite follies, one Ezernaboram, a landed lord of no mean estate, together with 2,000 subjects, was converted from the heretical errors to the true faith of the Roman Church. Protasius, his son, a good man of scriptural wisdom and habits, soon thereafter secured the bishopric of Olmutz. This is the only episcopal city in Moravia. Once upon a time the sovereignty of Moravia was very mighty and extensive, and so remained until the time of the son of Snatocupi, of whose career and affairs we have spoken in the history of Bohemia. But when the son of Snatocupi began to scorn the churches of God, the government of these people was taken from them and by the Roman emperors thereafter transferred to Bohemia.

SILESIA (SCHLESINGEN)

SILESIA, which follows Moravia (Mähren) is not a mean region. The noted river, called the Oder, which has its source in the Hungarian mountains on the eastern boundary of Silesia, flows through this region, discharging into the Baltic or German Sea. The length of this region is about 80 stadia. The capital of this people is Breslau, situated on the Oder. The heirs and rulers of this land were numerous, and the country was divided into many parts; and in consequence thereof it suffered serious loss on number of occasions. Among its rulers was a duke, named Bulco, who had his seat at Glogau. He was so addicted to bodily pleasures and carnality that he thoughtlessly said that there are neither angels nor devils, and that the body and soul die and pass away together. He never, or at least infrequently, went to church, and withheld himself from the Christian sacrament. He abused the marriage status, leaving his wife, who was not agreeable to him, and taking another. The language of this people is chiefly German, although Polish is spoken to a greater extent on the further side of the Oder; wherefore some have not improperly said that the Oder is the boundary of the German nation.

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POLAND

We will now permit the regions of Germany to rest, and consider the Sarmatian or Polish people, to the East and North. Poland is a large extensive region, bordering on Silesia on the West, and also on Hungary, Lithuania, and Prussia. Therein lies Cracow, most distinguished city of the kingdom. With this exception the cities of Poland are not illustrious, nearly all the houses being built of wood and coated with lime; and there are other characteristics already noted in this book. The antecedent kings divided this country into four parts. The king makes the circuit of these four parts every year, holding court in each, free of expense to himself; but if he remains in one place more than three months, he does so at his own expense. When the Polish king died, before our time, he left a daughter who was espoused to Duke William of Austria; and this duke was made king. But the German king was not acceptable to the Poles, and they called in Ladislaus of Lithuania, ejected William, and gave his spouse and the kingdom to the new king. Ladislaus was a heathen and a worshipper of idolatrous gods, but he received baptism with the kingdom. After his conversion to Christ he conducted himself like a spiritual prince, drawing many Lithuanians to the Holy Gospel, erecting several episcopal churches, and conferring great honors on the bishops. If while out riding he saw a church steeple, he always removed his hat and bowed his head in honor of God. He success fully fought against the Tartars and other infidels, and won a great victory over the Prussians. By his second wife, who was almost ninety years of age, this Ladislaus begot two sons, Wladislaus and Casimir. Upon his death Wladislaus received the Polish kingdom, while Casimir secured the duchy of Lithuania. Before that time Ladislaus had been chosen king of Hungary. He was slain in the war against the Turks. The Estates of Poland called in as king, Frederick the margrave of Brandenburg, who had spent the days of his youth in the Polish kingdom, and knew the language and customs of the people. But it was asserted that since Casimir, duke of Lithuania, brother of the deceased king, had the first right as heir, it was only proper that he should be first consulted to ascertain his wishes and intentions; and should Casimir be willing to accept the kingdom as his brotherly and paternal inheritance, the margrave Frederick would not consider it proper to hinder him therein. The same prudence had been employed by Albert, duke of Bavaria, toward Ladislaus, in refusing the Bohemian kingdom whom offered to him. And so the emperor Frederick, when the Hungarians and Bohemians offered him the inheritance left by King Ladislaus, would hear no more of it. And although the Lithuanians were not willing to give up Casimir, he went to Poland, accepted the sovereignty, and ruled in peace. Ere long he espoused King Ladislaus’ sister, and he became involved in much strife with the Teutonic Knights.

LITHUANIA

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LITHUANIA is also an extensive region, with Poland on the east; and it has many lakes and forests; Vitoldus, a brother of Wladislaus, reigned there, and after giving up idolatry, he received the Sacrament of Christ, together with the kingdom of Poland. He attained to great fame. His subjects so greatly feared him that when he asked them to hang themselves, they preferred to appear obedient rather than incur his disfavor. Those who opposed him he caused to be sewed up in bear skins and to be thrown to the bears to be torn to pieces; and he persecuted them with other cruelties. Wherever he rode he carried a drawn bow, and when he encountered anyone who did not demean himself to his liking, he promptly shot him with an arrow; and by such sport this bloody tyrant slew many people. Sindrigal, his successor, maintained a she-bear that ate bread out of his hands. This bear often ran into the forest, but returned home; and when he was hungry, the bear would go to the prince’s chamber, scratching on every door, and knocking thereon with his paws. The prince opened to him and fed him. A number of young noblemen conspired against the prince; and having armed themselves, came to the door of his chamber, knocking thereon as the bear was accustomed to do. Thinking the bear was there, Sindrigal opened the door, and was promptly stabbed to death by the nobles. Thereupon the sovereignty devolved upon Casimir. In the summer Lithuania is not readily accessible because of the waters, but in the winter one may travel over the frozen lakes. The merchants travel over the ice and snow, and carry food supplies for many days. No roads have been laid out, and there are but few cities and villages. Among the Lithuanians most of the trade is in raw materials. The use of money is not known, and in its stead raw materials, sable, and the like are used. With the consent of their husbands the noble-women openly have paramours whom they call assistants in wedlock; however, it is unbecoming and disgraceful for the married men to have concubines; but they easily relieve themselves of wedlock and take another wife. Among the Lithuanians much wax and honey is available, which the bees gather in the forests. The Lithuanians seldom use wine, and their bread is very black. They obtain much milk from their animals. The language of these people is Wendic, a very extensive language, which is divided into many dialects. A number of Wends, for instance the Dalmatians, Croatians, Carniolians and Poles, adhere to the Roman Catholic Church; others to the Greek heresy, such as the Bulgarians, Russians and many from Lithuania. Some have invented certain heresies, such as the Bohemians, the Moravians, and the Bosnians, among whom the majority adhere to the Manichaean heresy. Some are still benighted by heathen blindness. This is true of many Lithuanians of whom a great number were converted to Christianity when Wladislaus, the Lithuanian, accepted the Polish sovereignty; for a number of Lithuanians before that time worshipped serpents, every household father having and maintaining a serpent in a niche. Some worshipped fire, some the sun, some an oversized hammer, and others the forests.

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From all these errors and superstitions they were converted to Christianity by Jerome, a native of Prague, who at the time that the Hussite heresy originated fled from Bohemia to Poland, and received from Wladislaus, the Polish king, a letter of recommendation to Vitoldus, the Lithuanian prince, and rooted out the aforesaid heresies among the people.

RUSSIA

The Russians border on the Lithuanians, and are a coarse and unskilled people. In this country lies the city of Novgorod, to which the German merchants travel under great difficulty. It is rich in possessions, and much silver, and costly raw material are bought and sold there. Silver is weighed and not used in minted form. There is a square stone in this market. He who succeeds in mounting it, and is not thrown off, is invested with the government of the city.

ESTONIA

Estonia (German Esthland, or Eifland) is the last region and province of the Christians. It borders on Russia to the north. The Tartars often sally into this region. The Teutonic Knights conquered this country with the sword and converted it to the Christian faith. Before then it was heathen and idolatrous. To the west the region borders on the Baltic Sea. Although this region was not known to the Greeks and Italians as it is now, the Christian faith opened this part of the world to our people, removing the coarseness of these barbarians and introducing morals into their lives.

OF THE PEOPLE CALLED THE MASSAGETAE.

Between Estonia and Prussia lies a small country, probably only a day’s journey in width, but very extensive from Prussia to Estonia. Therein live a people called the Massagetae. It is neither heathen nor really Christian; yet it is subject to the domination of Poland. From thence the Polish kingdom extends to the sea.

PRUSSIA

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After the Massagetae we encounter the Prussians. They live on both sides of the Vistula. It has its source in the mountains which separate Poland from Hungary, and waters a portion of the latter. It flows through Prussia from Dorn to Danzig, where it discharges into the sea. Inasmuch as the location of this country and the history of the wars between the Teutonic Knights and the Polish kings were noted at Folio CCX of this book, we will here avoid repetition of the same matters which were written at length by Aeneas.

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SAXONY

After the Prussians the Saxons loom up - an extensive people, whose possessions extend from the west to the river Weser, although some say as far as the Rhine, Saxony borders on Denmark to the north; Franconia, Bavaria and Bohemia to the south; Silesia and Prussia to the eaSt. In this terrain are included Thüringia, Lausitz, and Pomerania, although the Thüringians are said to have been in this country before the Saxons. For it is said that the Saxons were Greeks who were brought to this country in ships by the Macedonians, who distressed the Thüringians with many wars and drove them out of their homeland; which to me does not appear to be the truth. For the Saxon name is very ancient in Germany, and is mentioned by all the old historians; however, those who speak of the German people do not mention the Thüringians. I

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find the Thüringians mentioned in connection with the first advent of the Franks, who came to Germany in the time of the emperor Valentinian. Emperor Charlemagne conducted many wars against the Saxons before they were converted to Christianity, and defeated them in great battles. But when, upon the termination of his lineage, the Roman imperial sovereignty passed to the Germans of the East, the Saxon influence increased; and among them were many kings celebrated for their exceptional intelligence and noble achievements. In the land of Pomerania, which adjoins Saxony to the east are many distinguished and renowned cities, - Wismar, Smidis, Grisvold (Greifswald?), Stettin, and Rostock. A university is situated by the sea, and many wealthy merchants live here. In the Saxon division lies an episcopal city, Cammin, whose bishopric is very extensive and no smaller than that of Mainz. The bishop there is subject to the Roman See alone. Brandenburg is divided into two Marks, one the old (Altmark) the other the new (Neumark). The Elbe runs through Altmark, and therein lie the cities of Stendal, Gadoin (Gardelegen?), Salzwedel, and Osterburg. Neumark is divided by the river Oder, and in this Mark lies Frankfurt, a wealthy commercial city. This region is also watered by the Spree, on whose banks the city of Berlin is situated. Item: Another river, called the Hortel (Havel?), divides the city of Brandenburg, from which city the Mark took its name, into two parts, one called the old city, the other the new. And therein is an episcopal seat and the court of the margrave’s jurisdiction. On the banks of this river lies the episcopal city of Havelberg, surrounded by a terrain called Prignitz, containing a number of towns and a warlike population. Meissen is a capital city from which Meissen derived its name. The Elbe runs through this city, and here is a secure castle, and in it an episcopal church. There are many cities in this province, and many people skilled in arms. Of these we may name Merseburg, as well as Leipzig, an industrial city with a university. In Thüringia lies Erfurt, a noble capital city subject to the bishop of Mainz. It is adorned with a commendable university; also the city of Naumburg, which is subject to the duke of Saxony. They all avail themselves of Saxon laws, language and customs. The true Saxons are those of Magdeburg; also those of Bremen, Halberstadt, Hildesheim, Werden, Braunschweig, Hamburg, Lüneburg, and Lübeck. At Halberstadt is an episcopal church founded by Charlemagne. In this city, once a year, a person regarded as a great sinner, chosen from among the people, arrayed in wretched raiment, his head covered, is escorted to the church on the first day of Lent; and after the divine office has been performed, he is cast out again. Daily for the entire forty days of the fast he walks barefoot through the city and about the churches, but not into them. He speaks to no one, and, after midnight, sleeps in the streets. On holy Maundy Thursday, after the blessing of the oil, he is again escorted into the church, and, after prayer, is absolved of his sins and given money by the people; but this same money is left to the church. They call him Adam and now look upon him as freed of all sins. The soil in the vicinity of Halberstadt is very fertile, producing grain, whose stalks tower over a man on horseback. Braunschweig is a large city and renowned throughout Germany. It has a large population, and is fortified with battlements, moats, towers, and bow-windows.

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It also has elegant houses, beautiful streets, and well adorned church edifices; also five markets, five town-halls, and as many councils. From this city the dukes of Braunschweig obtained their name and title, the noblest throughout Germany. I am content to mention the daring deed of just one person from this place,- a man named Cuntz von Kauffen, born in a noble region of Saxony. He was experienced in military affairs, quick in action, and unafraid. He felt that he had been unjustly deprived of his paternal inheritance through Duke Frederick of Saxony, and on that account committed an unbelievable offense in this manner: There is a castle in the country of Meissen situated on a sharp and craggy rock, called Altenburg, and below it lies a beautiful and secure little town of many people. In this castle, Ernest and Albert, the two young sons of Duke Frederick, were being reared. Pursuant to information given him by the preceptor of the two young princes, Cuntz von Kauffen entered the castle during the night by means of ladders and seized the two youths while asleep; and when they awoke he threatened them with death should they cry out. He secured them with cords and led them away, confidant that once in Bohemia with them, he could sell them for a large sum of money and thus avenge himself. When he reached the Bohemian forest with the two lads, he believed himself beyond all danger. When the youngest of the two princes, weary and hungry, desired rest and food, the robber was so moved by his plea that he went to a charcoal burner and requested him to take bread and beer to the lad. In the meantime this new event caused a hue and cry at Altenburg. The burghers speedily followed the footprints of the robber and fortunately came upon the path which led directly to the charcoal burner. And there Cuntz von Kauffen was seized while handing the food to the youth; taken to the duke, and beheaded for his avaricious misdeed. Only a small part of Saxony proper is subject to the jurisdiction of the duke of Saxony; for in this province are many other princes, many imperial cities, and many bishops with their own estates. But Meissen and the greater part of Thüringia and many cities in Lausitz and Franconia are subject to this duke and prince. The right to vote as elector for a Roman emperor is vested in the dukes of Saxony through a small principality lying between Meissen and Silesia; and therein lies the capital city of Wittenberg or Weiszberg. At Goslar, in Saxony, silver mines were discovered by the emperor Otto I. Saxony also has many salt springs, from which pure salt is obtained. Near Lüneburg are mines rich and abundant in salt, from which many abbots and prelates secured a living; but those of Lüneburg obtained control over them by force.

DENMARK

To the north are three kingdoms that adjoin one another, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Denmark, a part of Germany, was at one time in the possession of the Saxons. Here originated the invasion of the barbarians, who were bent on overrunning Italy and destroying Rome. They were extirpated by Marius Arpimus.

SWEDEN

SWEDEN is surrounded by the sea on all sides and includes many islands, among which one called Scandania has been long remembered by the ancient historians. From this island a countless multitude of people at one time went forth, depressing all Europe with war. They fought against the Goths and Huns, besieged Pannonia, Moesia, Macedonia, and the entire region of Illyria, and devastated all Germany, Gaul and Italy. They finally settled down in Spain; and from hence was their origin.

NORWAY

NORWAY (which derived its name from north) extends northward into an unknown region, or as some conjecture, into the Frozen Sea. To the west and south is the German Sea, and to the east the English Sea. It is thought that those who took possession of the region and places in Saxony came from Norway. Before these times Valdemar (III) ruled in Sweden, while “the great Aquinus" reigned in Norway. Of the latter it is said that he was a devout person, and that he was honored by his subjects with remarkable affection and subservience. His wife Margrete was the daughter of Valdemar, and to her was born Olaf, who succeeded his father. But he did not live long, and he left the kingdom to his mother. When her father died, she also inherited his kingdom. But when "Aquinus" died in Sweden, "Albert the duke, of Naupolensis” received the crown at the behest of the people. He disdained the rule of his neighbor because the ruler was a woman, and undertook a war against Denmark and Norway. And Margrete mustered her forces and engaged Albert in a large field, fighting with the courage of a man. She defeated and captured Albert and deposed him from his throne. This illustrious woman, Margrete, reigned with honor for three years until her old age. Bowed down in years, and no longer able to govern alone, she chose Duke “Henry” of Pomerania, then fourteen years of age, as an adopted son and sovereign of the kingdom; and she espoused him to Philippa, daughter of the English king. When "Henry's" (Erik’s) wife died without issue,

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and he would not remarry, and he had now reigned 55 years, he was deposed in a general revolt, and Christopher, a duke of Bavaria, a son of his sister, was chosen in his stead. But during the ten years he reigned he allowed his uncle to rule in the island of Gotland. When Christopher died the crown of Denmark and Norway passed to Christigerus. The Swedes were not unanimous in the election of a king, some favoring Charles, a very chivalrous man, while others preferred his younger brother Canute. During the course of the election Charles sent a number of armed men to Stockholm, the royal seat; and they took the city. Then Canute and his followers attacked the castle, and a war arose between the two brothers. The result was in doubt for a long time, and many were slain on both sides. Finally it was proposed that the people, to the exclusion of the nobility, elect a king. Charles, being more acceptable to the people, was chosen, while Canute went into seclusion. Charles drove "Henry" (Erik) from the island which had been given him. But the misdeeds of Charles did not remain unavenged; for he was defeated in battle, driven from the kingdom, and lived in exile for a long time on a small island not far from the mouth of the Vistula.

BOHEMIA

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He who would learn something of the origin, character and location of Bohemia will find it in previous parts of this book at folios XXIV, CLXXVII, CLXXXIX, CCIII and CCLXXXIII.

FRIESLAND

FRIESLAND, situated on the sea, is bounded by Saxony on the east, Westphalia on the south, and Utrecht on the weSt. Some would have it that the inhabitants of Utrecht are Frisians, and among these I find Otto, bishop of the Church of Friesland, who, not without skill, wrote German history. Bishop Albert of Mainz, who erected the cloister at Fulda, and undertook to instruct the Frisians in the Christian faith, was slain by them and crowned with martyrdom. This is a liberty-loving people, skilled in arms, strong and erect in body, of a confident and fearless disposition, and pride themselves on their independence, although the duke of Burgundy calls himself a lord of this country. Nevertheless Friesland enjoys its own customs and usages, and will not submit to foreign domination. The Frisian does not hesitate to die for liberty. Knightly honors are not recognized by the people, and they will not tolerate a proud man who elevates himself above the reSt. They annually elect a council for the general welfare on terms of equality. They severely punish female wantonness. In order that the priests may not pollute the marriage-bed, they do not readily admit those who have no wives; for they believe it difficult for a man to restrain himself. Their entire wealth is in their cattle. The country is flat and maritime, and has extensive fields. Wood is scarce, and the people maintain their fires in clay vessels, using dried cow-dung for fuel. Cornelius Tacitus writes that in the time of the emperor Nero, two emissaries came to Rome from this country; and after they had entered the council chamber of Pompey, and there saw a number of foreigners sitting among the councillors, and were told that such honors were due to the representatives of people who excelled in Roman virtue and friendship, they came forward, and seating themselves among the Roman councillors, cried out that none excel the Germans in arms, fidelity and faith; for which reason Nero endowed them with a city.

HOLLAND

HOLLAND is a province of Germany. To the north it lies on the sea. In other places it is formed like an island, enclosed by the branches of the Rhine. It is a maritime country, rich in meadows, and watered by many lakes and rivers from the sea. Some say that the noble city of Utrecht is in Holland, which we do not consider incredible. The principality of the Church of Utrecht is subject to the emperor alone. Its jurisdiction covers a large area watered by numerous branches of the Rhine. To the east are the Frieslanders; to the south is Westphalis; to the west the duchy of Gelders, separated by the Rhine. Utrecht is a wealthy and well populated city, of German manners and speech. In case of necessity the bishop there can muster 40,000 armed men for war. The men and women are well built and are able to protect themselves against invasion from the enemy by their own strength and by inundation. Beer is the drink of the people, and the merchants bring wine there.

ZEELAND

The last people of German nationality are to the north and west. These are the Zeelanders, who live on an island opposite the mouth of the Rhine. Among them are the Middelburgers. The place is very well fortified, wealthy, and devoted to manufacturing and commerce. Therein lies a small but not ignoble. city called Brielle, surrounded by water, on which merchants do their shipping.

WESTPHALIA

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WESTPHALIA extends to the Rhine on the west, the river Weser on the east, Friesland and the district of Utrecht on the north, the Hessian mountains on the south, in which mountains the Amisia (Ems) has its source. This river flows by the noble cities of Paderborn and Munster, dividing the country through the middle. It then passes through Friesland and into the sea. The river Saale also drains Westphalia. Between that river and the Rhine, Drusus Germanicus secured a victory over the enemy. Charlemagne fought many wars with the Westphalians, defeating them in battle, and compelling them to give up idolatry and to accept the Christian faith. But as they often denied Christianity and ignored the obligations of their oaths, he appointed secret judges

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so that he might end their hostility through fear of punishment. To these judges he gave the power to promptly punish, without interference or favor, those who violated their oaths, or committed any other offense. And for this purpose he chose brave men, lovers of justice, who could not be suspected of persecuting the innocent. But when respectable and middle-class men were later found hanging on trees in the forests, great fears seized the Westphalians; and thereby they were kept in the faith. The practises and usages of this Westphalian tribunal, which is called secret, are known throughout Germany; wherefore lengthy description is here avoided.

HESSE

HESSE, a mountainous country, lies between Westphalia and Franconia. It extends from the Rhine on the north to Thüringia. The prince of these people, a landgrave, during our own time was called to rule the empire, but considering himself unequal to the task, preferred to usefully govern a small principality left him by his parents, than to fail in a greater undertaking. He said that he considered his lack of knowledge of the letters hindrance in the management of Christian affairs; yet he was an augmenter and protector of the law, which he caused to be interpreted to him according to his father’s tongue. Although matters were often heard before him, it has never been said of him that he pronounced an unjust judgment. This prince went to a cloister with the intention of reforming it. The cloister-people invited him to dine with them, and it has been suspected that by this means poison was administered to him and to the abbot who favored the reforms. They died soon thereafter.

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FRANCONIA

FRANCONIA borders on Swabia and Bavaria on the south; on the Rhine to the west; on Bohemia and Thuringia on the east; and on Thuringia and Hesse to the north. Inasmuch as the origin of Franconia and its ancient government, particularly of the cities of Nuremberg, Bamberg and Wurtzburg have already been set forth in this hook, together with illustrations and sketches of their form, and descriptions and references largely taken from Aeneas Silvius, it is not fitting that we should place a double burden on the reader; and we therefore refer him to the earlier descriptions of each city, under its proper head, and will say nothing further of Franconia, except (as Aeneas Silvius in the conclusion of his history of Franconia states) that in this country Margrave Frederick of Brandenburg was in favor with Emperor Sigismund and his friends. To him four sons were born, John, Frederick, Albert, and yet another Frederick, John, being the eldest, was entitled to the electorate; but his father preferred Frederick over him, regarding him as more fitted, and this not without reason; for Frederick was an augmenter of justice and righteousness and was renowned among the German princes for his wisdom. Albert from the days of his youth had been reared in knightly conduct, and was not only gifted in the art of war, but also in horsemanship and jousting. He achieved many valorous and mighty deeds, not to forget those gifts and graces which be possessed by nature.

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BAVARIA

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BAVARIA is an extensive territory, bordering on Franconia on the north and Swabia to the weSt. It is bounded by the Italian mountains to the south, and by Austria and Bohemia on the eaSt. The Danube flows very nearly through the middle of the country. Some have said that the river Iser, and others that the river Inn, separates Austria from Bavaria. The Lech separates Swabia from Bavaria. This region was at one time occupied by the Noricii; for the region to the north of the Danube, between Rogensburg and Nuremberg, was called Noricum. Historians differ as to the origin of the name Bavaria and of the Bavarian people. Although Strabo describes this region as a wilderness, and it may have been such in his time, it is now well built up and adorned with many wealthy, excellent and renowned cities; nor do we know of any in all Europe which excel them in appearance. In this country are five episcopal cities, and among these is Salzburg, which is an archbishopric. Before our time, in Bavaria, Ludwig der Höckerige (Hunchback) began an evil war against Louis, his father, an honorable and distinguished old man, once a governor in France, and besieged him in a secure castle; but through divine vengeance he was seized with a fever, and died before he had overcome his father.

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Thereafter he fell into the power of Duke Henry, and died soon thereafter; nor did Henry live long after that; for when he forbade his subjects to make a pilgrimage to Rome in order that his country might not be relieved of its money, he died in the same year. His duchy was inherited by the son he begot by the sister of King Albert,- a youth of magnanimous disposition, zealous for honor and renown, and a scorner of money. By public proclamation he drove all the Jews out of his realm. He espoused a wife from Saxony, the daughter of Emperor Frederick’s sister. He caused dissension and war in Germany.

RHINELAND

In the Rhineland (which flourished in our own time) constant dissension and discord prevailed between Dietrich, bishop of Mainz, and Louis, the palsgrave of the Rhine; and they often took to arms, the entire region thereabout being devastated by robbery and fire. The margraves of Baden and Brandenburg gave assistance to those of Mainz, while the bishop of Trier and several other cities aided the palsgrave. Now when Palsgrave Louis (who had espoused the widow of King Louis of Sicily) died, his brother, Duke Frederick, with the consent of the country and the nobles, assumed the regency for his minor son, styling himself an elector, and engaging to remain single, so that the rights of his ward might not be prejudiced. When thereunto requested, Pope Nicholas V confirmed the guardianship; but Emperor Frederick, though often solicited on high authority, remained opposed thereto. Duke Albert, brother of Emperor Frederick, with varying fortune, carried on a war with many cities in Swabia. In the margraviate of Baden, margrave Jacob, a prince among the Germans and highly renowned for justice and intelligence, realizing that for the satisfaction of his human happiness he lacked nothing but a knowledge of letters, held his sons to the study of literature; and after he had espoused one of his sons, named Charles, a man of extraordinary bravery, to Emperor Frederick’s sister, he died full of years, and not reluctantly.

THE TYROLESE

When the Tyrolese, who live in the valleys of the Inn and the Etsch, requested Emperor Frederick to restore to them Duke Sigismund, who was under his care and guardianship, and the emperor declined to do so, they took up arms and drove out the officials whom the emperor had appointed. Now when those of Trient, at the command of the bishop to whom they were subject, remained faithful and loyal to the emperor, the Tyrolese went to Trient, and with an army captured the city, and also forced the castle to capitulate. Thereafter they arrived at an understanding with the emperor and secured their lord with less good fortune than they had surmised.

SWITZERLAND

The Swiss, a liberty loving mountain people, with a large army, overran those of Zurich who had violated a treaty they had made with the Swiss; and they devastated their lands and fields. When those of Zurich chanced a battle with the Swiss, they were nearly all slain; and the Swiss raged against the vanquished with great cruelty, gathering up the bodies of the dead in the field, making tables and benches of them, opening their bodies, drinking their blood, and tearing their hearts out with their teeth.

ALSACE

Then Louis, the Dauphin of Vienne, in Alsace (the region which was erstwhile French, but now belongs to Germany, conducted a French expedition into the country of Basle, greatly frightening the people, their Swiss allies sent 4,000 able-bodied young fighting men to their assistance. When the Dauphin learned that these men were hastening to the city, he inter posed himself between the city and the Swiss, whose numbers increased to 30,000 men, prepared for battle. Both sides fought with great energy. Finally the Swiss, whether vanquished or victorious, rested from fatigue; but few of them fled, and the rest were slain. Seldom did a Swiss die unavenged; for most of the French, who had been slain, were found pierced through with Swiss lances, the. Swiss having charged into the very midst of the enemy spears to avenge themselves for wounds received.

SAVOY

Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, prospered his country and secured peace by force of arms. After reigning 40 years he left his duchy, forsaking worldly renown and honor, and went into the wilderness with six knights. Finally he was elevated to the papacy in the manner already set forth in this book. Very few people acknowledged him as a vicar of Christ, the exceptions being his own subjects, the Swiss, those of Basle, those of Strassburg, and the adherents of Duke Albert of Bavaria.

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SUPPLEMENTAL NOTE

Leneas Silvius Pius, in the beginning of his booklet, stated that he would bring European affairs into the light. But while he was concerning himself with the divisions of Upper and Lower Germany, he left the flowers of the nation by the wayside; for he wrote nothing of the Swabians, the most ancient people of Germany, whom Strabo, the historian, and Julius Caesar eulogized with wonderful praise in matters of war. Swabia is now well provided with many episcopal churches and has many excellent and highly celebrated cities. It is watered by many renowned rivers, is productive and rich in grain and wine, has very intelligent and well-informed people, as well as an able army. He has also foregone both banks of the Rhine, from its source down to Cologne, on both sides of which river may be seen a large number of great episcopal imperial and princely cities, located on fertile soil, rich in grain and fruits, particularly in wine. Practically all Germany and the northern regions idolize this Rhenish wine. Here also are the episcopal cities of Constance, Besle, Strassburg, Spires, Worms, Mainz, and Coblentz, all well fortified with defenses, battlements, moats and high bow-windows. And there live a happy friendly people, part of whom sustain themselves by cultivation of the fertile soil, and part by commerce. The nobility are devoted to the chase, most of them spending their lives in merriment and sensual pleasures. He also overlooked that part of Germany watered by the river called the Linth, which has its source in the Glarus mountains, flows into the Sea of Zurich, and runs through it. This region is defended by strong cities and castles, such as Berne, Lucerne, Zurich, and Solothurn, and by a very warlike people, called the Swiss Confederation, which is feared by all the principalities in the neighborhood, and in a short time marvelously extended its power. He has also foregone Flanders, Hennegau, as well as Brabant, a region illustrious for its wealth and merchandise; and therein lie Bruges, Ghent, Mechlin, and Antwerp. Although the region was considered to be part of Lower France, since the enlargement of the German Empire the people speak in the German tongue.

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FRANCE

In the kingdom of France (which in our time was freed from the English, pursuant to divine premonition, as is believed, by Joan of Lorraine, who in male attire, and as first of the foremost fought at the head of the French lancers), serious dissension and hostility arose between King Charles and his son, the Dauphin of Vienne, when Philip the duke of Burgundy, after his father’s violent death, turned from the English to the French. Charles the Angevin duke, uncle of the Dauphin, at this time had great power and influence with the king. However, John, the duke of Auvergne, chose not to submit to the power of Charles; nor did the Bourbon prince and his brother regard the Angevin rule without suspicion. Accordingly they advised the Dauphin to forsake his father; and by this means, through the king’s inclination to his son, they hoped to influence the king to discard Charles and to rule his kingdom with better counsel. Under this influence the Dauphin, ignoring his father, went over to the Nivernians. And when the king learned of this, he speedily collected an army and appeared before Alençon; and with a small force he captured many fortifications, and the duke surrendered. He then proceeded against his son; but since the Nivernian cities did not dare protect the Dauphin against the power of his father, they requested the Dauphin to leave. And so he went to Bourbonais, and ere long, by reason of the hostility of the Bourbon princes, he became reconciled to his father; which, however, did not work to the advantage of his brother; for in a short time he was captured and drowned. Ere long René, who was driven out of the kingdom of Sicily, espoused his daughter to King Henry of England. And to this the French king was not opposed, for through this marriage he secured for himself and his kingdom a long and wholesome postponement of the war with the English. And flow that these matters had been adjusted, and the king was now secure at home, and his kingdom free from the plunder and incendiarism of by which it had been distressed for a long time, he sent the Dauphin (as heretofore stated) with a great army against those of Switzerland and Basle, while he himself with the rest of the army proceeded into Lorraine, harassing Metz and Toul. When the inhabitants of Spinal surrendered, he took that city away from the bishopric of Metz. Thereafter when Francis of Aragon by stealth took the city of Tosorsi(?) which is situated in Normandy and belonged to a duke of Brittany, he was regarded as a violator of the peace by the mighty kings of France and England; and many embassies were sent back and forth in the matter. Flothetus was sent there by the king of France with a fair sized military force; and he caused several wagons loaded with hay, in which soldiers were concealed, to be driven upon the bridge of the castle and to halt there at the gate, while he with his concealed troops awaited the signal.

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And now the men tumbled out of the hay, slew the gatekeepers, and held possession until Flothetus quickly came up and took the bridge and the castle by force. When the king learned of this he sent many men over the same bridge into Normandy, while Francis, the duke of Brittany led an army from the other side. The duke of Somerset had received this province from the king of England, and when this duke learned that this attack and engagement were taking place, he asked Talbot, the general at Rouen, to stand by him, hoping by his advice and assistance to maintain the city, which appeared to be wavering. But his advice was in vain; for when those of Rouen learned that the king was approaching, they sent their emissaries to him agreeing to the entry of the king’s army into the city and to obey his commands. And so the city was given up to the king. But Talbot and the duke (of Somerset) and all their adherents fled into the castle. When the castle was about to be stormed, the duke of Somerset left his two step-sons in Talbot’s care and secretly fled to England. Thereafter the castle was surrendered, and Talbot and the duke’s step-sons were taken into custody by the king. But since Talbot had not acted with evil motives, as rumor would have it, but conducted open warfare, merely employing his physical strength and skill in the exercise of his best judgment, he was liberated, on condition, however, that henceforth he would not make war against the French. Some say that Talbot went to home in the Jubilee Year to seek absolution and release from his obligations; but to me this appears incredible. It is known, however, that when Talbot returned to England, and the king of France had reduced all Normandy and Bordeaux, Talbot was sent with a large army by the king of England to Vasconia, and that he recaptured Bordeaux and many other fortresses which had seceded from England. Some of these he took by force, others by capitulation. When the king of Prance heard of this, he hastily collected two armies. One of these, consisting of 15,000 men, he ordered directly to Bordeaux, and the other he commanded himself. And when the king came to a small castle seven miles from Bordeaux, he undertook to storm it. He also captured a tower between. Bordeaux and said castle, and this he manned with archers. When Talbot saw that he had two armies to contend with, he decided to first engage the army which he might defeat with the least effort. Accordingly he set out with his army and reached the tower by night, captured it, and slew all the archers, 500 in number. When he moved on in the morning and observed that the royal forces were preparing to retreat, he began to fear that his quarry might escape him; and he ordered the rest to bring up the rear, while he with a force of 500 arquebuses and 800 archers speeded ahead to engage the enemy. For a long time the enemy considered whether to retreat; but fearing to disgrace the king, they decided to abide the fortunes of a battle. They placed 300 arquebuses to intercept Talbot, and placed many other implements of war here and there to injure the enemy. Now when the English unconsciously rushed into the wagon-fort of the French, the weapons were discharged, and in the first attack about 300 Englishmen were slain. When this was reported to Talbot, he exhorted his son, who was with him, to leave and to save himself for a better opportunity; but his son said he would not flee from a battle in which his father was involved. And the father said, My dear son, because of my many renowned deeds, I cannot die without renown, nor flee without disgracing myself; but you, as a novice in knightly affairs, will not be dishonored by flight, nor will death make you renowned. But the son refused to leave his father, and was slain with him.

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ENGLAND

In ENGLAND, King Henry, a man addicted to retirement and idleness, ruled the kingdom on foreign advice rather than by the exercise of his own judgment. The duke of Suffolk was mighty and powerful with the king during this time, for he governed the common people as well as the nobility according to his own will. But when English influence in France declined, and French power became re-established, the duke of York, with no small number of men, as well as nobles, came to London with the intention of effecting a change in the king's council, and improving the status of the king and queen. But Suffolk did not tarry to await the consequences. He took to sea and fled from thence. But who can escape his fore-ordained death; for a number were ordered to hastily pursue him, and he was arrested and slain. The duke of Somerset who returned to England after the loss of Normandy was also mighty and powerful with the king; but he was imprisoned and many of the nobility were slain. A number of the clergy were not spared either, among them our friend Adam Molynes, secretary to the king, who was beheaded. Not long thereafter, when the duke of York returned home, the duke of Somerset, who had now been liberated with the consent of the king, began to govern the kingdom; this brought him to great grief, for he was slain by the duke of York.

SCOTLAND

Scotland is in the same island as England, and the last region to the north. It has small rivers and is separated from England by mountains. We were there during the winter, when the sun shone upon the earth for a little over three hours. At that time reigned James, a ponderous and obese man, who at one time was imprisoned in England, and was in custody for eleven years before he was liberated. He finally married, an English woman, then returned home and killed many by violence. At last he himself was slain by his household. We at one time heard of a tree in Scotland, that bore fruit shaped like ducks; and when it matured, a portion of the fruit fell into the water and a portion to the earth. That which fell to the ground rotted, while that which fell into the water became alive, and swam under the water, and then flew into the air. But when we eagerly inquired into the matter, learned that this tree was not in Scotland, but was found in the Olcades Islands. However, we did see this marvel in Scotland: The poor naked people, who begged alms of the churches, received white stones, for which they were very thankful; for these stones were of sulphurous or fatty substance, and they used them as wood, of which there was a great scarcity in Scotland.

IRELAND

At this time we should write something about Ireland, which is separated from England by a small sea, but not having found anything memorable during those times, we hasten on to Spain.

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SPAIN

SPAIN, an extensive country whose soil is comparable to the best, and which is mighty in arms, is in our own time divided among five kings. The first and greatest is called the King of Castile; the second, of Aragon; the third, of Portugal; the fourth, of Navarre; the fifth, of Granada. The last was established in Castile, the far reaching kingdom. These kings were of Gothic blood and never changed their lineage. Although Alvaro de Luna of Aragon, a man of noble ancestry, was born out of wedlock, Johanna at one time proclaimed him head over the consolidated kingdom, with the intention that he should be regarded as the embodiment of royal power. In ruling the kingdom he harassed with war John of Navarre and Henry, master of the knightly Order of Santiago. After he was deprived of his estates and driven from the court by the queen, he lived in retirement for some time. Ere long a feud arose between John of Navarre and Henry, in which many persons were slain on both sides. But Alvaro secured the victory, and in the course of the same battle Henry was wounded in the hand, and died a few days later. His authority and rule passed to Alvaro, and long thereafter he was called rather and constable of the kingdom. He finally succumbed to the envy of the mighty; for when he threw out of the window a noble, who at the king’s command brought him a message, he was soon arrested and beheaded in the market place. He was a man of wholesome spirit, renowned at home and in the field, and whose mind was constantly charged with great matters. Henceforth John ruled the kingdom himself for a number of years. After his death his son Henry received the kingdom. He was a youth of great courage, and upright. He left his former wife and took another, the sister of the queen of Portugal. He conducted an expedition into the kingdom of Granada, devastating and destroying large part of the enemy country. In the kingdom of Navarre the father took up arms against the son, and the son against the father; finally the son was driven from the kingdom, and he fled to his uncle Alphonso, the king of Aragon and Sicily. In A.D. 1491, the entire kingdom of Betice, now called Granada, was overrun and taken possession of by the Christians after the defeat of the heathen inhabitants, the imprisonment of their kings and the capture of the city of Granada.

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PORTUGAL

In Portugal is (Dom) Pedro, surnamed “the Speechless," (for so the sons of royal marriages are called before they begin to reign),- a prince of great renown, who traveled throughout Europe, giving proof of his moral training. After he had governed the kingdom as regent for some time with great credit, and had not in the least intentionally opposed (King) Alphonso, his nephew and son-in-law, he was finally shot to death in consequence of a growing hatred that culminated in a war. He had attained renown and credit as a man of great valor in fighting against the Turks under Emperor Sigismund. Thereafter Alphonso, a most gentle prince, magnanimous, and of extraordinary intelligence, quietly took over the kingdom. When his most beloved spouse died, no one could persuade him to take another, and he devoted himself to such matters as might bring him credit and bear fruit for Christianity. When his nobility and power were invoked, he took up the cross, and promised to conduct a crusade against the Turks. In the following year, (Prince) Henry (the Navigator of Portugal), realizing that his kingdom of Portugal covered but a small area, and being eager to enlarge the same, proceeded into the Spanish Sea with great daring; and by the counsel and wisdom of those possessing knowledge of land and sea, he discovered many and various islands, never inhabited by man. He sailed to one of these uninhabited islands. There he found a spring, fertile soil, and a forest, all well adapted to human habitation. He settled a number of people on this island. It yields so much sugar that all Europe can be supplied far beyond its needs. This island is called

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Madeira, and after it the sugar is named. He also discovered other habitable islands, and gave them the names St. George, Fayal, and Pico. One of these islands he settled with “German people” from Flanders. It yields grain. Therefore, in A.D. 1483, King John of Portugal a man of lofty mind, provided several galleons, and fitted them all with the necessaries of life. He despatched them on a voyage of discovery beyond the Pillars of Hercules, southward toward Ethiopia. Over those ships he appointed two patrons (captains), namely Jacobus Canus (Diego Cão), a Portuguese, and Martin Behaim, a German of Nuremberg, born there of good family, and highly informed as to the location of the land, and most patient of the sea, and who by experience and by navigation over a long period had acquired exceptional knowledge of the latitudes and longitudes of the WeSt. After completing the voyage they returned to Portugal in the sixteenth month; but they left behind many of their fellow-passengers, who died in con sequence of the excessive heat.

ITALY

The history of events in Italy under Emperor Frederick, of blessed and praiseworthy memory, and which occurred in the time of Aeneas Silvius, might have been incorporated here. However, the most distinguished and renowned places (with illustrations), and the most illustrious persons in Italy (with remarks upon their accomplishments and history, not only in the time of Aeneas Silvius, but theretofore and thereafter) have already been described in various parts of this book. The history of Italy in the time of Aeneas has been expanded by him to great lengths; and duplication as well as lengthy text would distress the reader; and as much writing upon the same subject and the use of the unusual words and numerous names occurring therein would displease and burden the German reader, and result in no benefit to him, therefore such a history of Italy is considered unnecessary, and in view of previous notations is regarded as superfluous and should be avoided. For the same reasons the translation of Aeneas Silvius’s Europe has not been made verbatim, but abridged.

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GERMANY

In this statement of the location and nature of Germany, or the German nation, we note the observation of Strabo, who said: The Germans, like the Gauls, are erect in body, and of a white or ruddy complexion, and resemble them in stature, bearing and manners. Therefore the Romans did not call them Germans without reason, for they wished to describe them as brothers of the Gauls. According to the Roman tongue, Germani means true or lawful brother. Germania, or the German nation, has been much neglected by the ancient historians, for at that time their interior and their homeland, and the approaches thereto were rendered in accessible by the rivers. Hemmed in by the forests and the sea, they remained fixed in their coarse pastoral manners, never making their abodes on the renowned and celebrated rivers. But after discarding idol worship, and adopting Christian ways, this German nation became more disciplined and prospered greatly. The country is very extensive. To the east lie Poland and Lower Hungary; to the south, the Algau, or the mountains; to the west, Gaul; and to the north, the German Sea. Germany has the most celebrated rivers of Europe, the Rhine, the Danube, the Elbe, and countless other memorable streams. The Rhine’s source is in the highest peak of seven mountains, and in this vicinity also arises the Rhone which waters the regions of Lyons and Narbonne. The Padus or Po waters Italy. The "Tranus," (Ticinus, now Tesino) enters the Po at Pavia (Ticinum). The Etsch (Athesis, now Adige) flows through the region of Trent and Verona, and finally into the Adriatic Sea. But the Rhine runs through the valleys and the adjacent mountains, and where it passes through the Churian country, it becomes navigable. Soon thereafter it forms two lakes, called the Bodensee (Lake of Constance) and the Zeller Sea (Untersee) with the city of Constance between them. From hence it meanders here and there, tearing at its banks, and hemmed in by many a sharp and sudden crag, it gives off a terrific roar, making caverns along its banks. It flows through Basle, tearing away the banks which resist it, and seeking new channels, to the great damage of those along its shores. It flows by Strassburg, Spires, Worms, Coblentz and Cologne, the noble cities of Germany. It receives into itself many navigable streams, such as the Main, Neckar, Limnat, Moselle and Maas, and then discharges itself into the German (North) Sea in many places, creating large islands. Some of these are inhabited by Frisians, some by Geldrians, and some by Hollanders. Secondly: There is the Danube, the most celebrated river of Europe which has its source in the "Arnobian" mountains, where the Black Forest begins, in a village called Donaueschingen. It slowly flows from west to east to Ulm, a two days’ journey; and there, reinforced by the Blau and the Iller, and other rivers, it becomes navigable, and with increased current flows from thence through many lands and along many cities. The Danube receives sixty streams, mostly navigable. Finally it flows into the Black Sea at six different places. Thirdly: The Elbe arises in the mountains which divides Silesia and Bohemia. With the Moldau, it flows into Bohemia, and hence through the Bohemian Forest; from there through Meissen, Magdeburg, and other cities of the Mark (Brandenburg) and Saxony, and finally into the German Sea at Hamburg. There are other renowned rivers, but for the sake of brevity I will not speak of those. Fourthly there is a forest called Hercynia (Silva), which at this time the inhabitants call the Schwarzwald (Black Forest), and which is the source of the Danube. According to Pomponius Mela this forest is 60 days’ journey in length, and it is better known and larger than any other foreSt. It has many branches, which the inhabitants and others have given various names. From its beginning to the Neckar it retains the name Schwarzwald; from the Neckar to the Main it is called Odonwald (Adenwald); and from the Main to the Lahn (Lonam), near Coblentz, it is called Westerwald. From hence it extends to the east, and divides Franconia from Hesse and Thuringia. Then it divides, and encircles Bohemia, and reaches forth into the mountains of Moravia, extending between Hungary on the right, and Poland on the left as far as the tribes of the Daci and the Getae, under various names. Germany is a very extensive region of Europe. Through contact and association with the Romans, and with the holy faith it was brought to gentleness and good manners. Germany is a noble country, and is watered by rivers. There we find great happiness and bliss, a temperate climate, fertile fields, wonderful mountains, dense forests, and all manner of grain in abundance. The hills bear grapes, and there is a sufficiency of rivers and springs which water the whole country. Trade and commerce prevail everywhere. Germany is kind to its visitors and generous to the needy. In ingenuity, customs, might and men it yields to no other nation, and is foremost in matters of war. It excels in wealth of metals, for all the Italian, French, Spanish and other nations secure their silver from German merchants. Without external help the German nation can raise sufficient men, foot or horse, to readily defend itself against other nations. Many other excellent things might be said concerning its Christian life, its laws, faith, and fidelity, but these I must forego for the sake of brevity.

MAP OF CENTRAL EUROPE
PLACE NAMES ON THE MAP OF EUROPE
Chronicle Form Modern Vernacular
Ader fl. Oder
Albania Albania
Albia fl. Elbe
Amasua fl. (Amisia or Amisius) Ems
Adranopolis Adrianople
Anglia England
Antorf Antwerp, Anvers
A qui sgranu (Aguisgranum) Aix-la-Chapelle
Argentina (Argentia, Argentoratum) Strasburg, Strasbourg
Athesis fl. Adige, Etsch
Augusta (Vindelicorum) Augsburg
Auinio Avignon
Austria Austria
Badua (Lat. Patavium; Ital. Padova) Padua
Bamberg (Bamberga), Bsbeuberg Bamberg
Basilea (Basel or Bale) Basis
Bassau (Patavia, Patulensis) Paeaau
Bavaria Bavaria
Belgrad Belgrade
Bern Berne
Bettau (Poetovio) Pettau
Boemia Bohemia
Bosenn Posen
Brabancia Brabant
Braunaohweick Braunschweig
Britanis Brittany
Burgundia Burgundy
Calls Calais
Cili Chili
Colonia (Agrippina) Cologne, Koln
Constancia (Constantia), Kostnitz Constance
Constantinopel Constantinople
Cracovia Cracow, Krakau, Krakow
Dacia Denmark
Dantzig Danzig
Danubia fl. (Danubius) Danube
Draua (Dravus, Dravis) Drave
Druencius fl. (Druentia) Durance
Eger Eger
Enos fl. (Aenus) Inn
Erabipulis (Herbipolis) Wurtzburg
Erfort (Erfordia) Erf
Femern Fehmarn
Finland Finland
Francia France
Franckfurt (Traiectum ad Moenum) Frankfurt am Main
Franconia Franconia
Frisia Friesland
Gelria (Guelders) Gelderland
Gent (Gebeneff, Geneue, Geneve) Geneva
Germania Magna (Deutschland) Germany
Gorlitz Gorlitz
Gotland Gottland
Grispalt Greifswald
Grunland Greenland
Hamburg (Hamborgensi) Hamburg
Heidelberg (Heidelberg, Heidelberga) Heidelberg
Holand Holland (Netherlands)
Ibernia (Ierne, Hibernia, Inernia) Ireland
Iler fl. Iller
Isara fl. Isar (in Bavaria)
Isara fl. Isere (in France)
Janua (Genua) Genoa
Judenburg Judenburg
Krembs Krems
Livonia (Livland) Livonia
Leiptzig (Lipczk, Lipsensi, Liptz) Leipzig
Lemberg Lemberg
Leodium (Leodicum, Luettich) Liege
Licue fl. Lech
Limag fl. Limmat
Lion (Lugdunum) Lyons
Littau Lithuania
Longobardia Lombardy
Lubick (Lubeca) Lubeck
Lucern Lucerne
Lundea (Londiniwn) London
Lusacia Lusatia
Lutzelburg (Lutzelburg) Luxembourg
Madeburg (Magdaburgum) Magdeburg
Marburg Marburg
Marchia (2) Marks or Marches (Border Neumark districts)
Marchia Nova
Mare Germanicum (Mare Suevicum; Codanus Sinus) Baltic Sea
Masa fluvius Meuse or Maas
Melbing Elbing
Mentz (Maguncia, Maguntia) Mainz
Menus fl. Main
Metz (Matte) Metz
Mitag (Mittag) South
Mitnacht (Mitternacht) North
Mixia
Momohen (Monaehum) Munich
Monetri (Monsterii) Munster
Moravia Moravia
Mosella Moselle
Mosovia Masovia
Mur fl. (Murus) Mur
Necarus fl. Neokar
Norling Nordlingen
Normanda Normandy
Norwegia Norway
Nova Civitas Neustadt
Novgradium Novgorod
Occident West
Oceanus Germanicus North Sea
Ofen Buda (pest)
Orient East
Orliens Orleans
Palatina Palatine
Paris (Parissii, Lutetia, Parisiorum) Paris
Patavia or Patuiensis
Picardi Passauor Bassau
Pleago Pleskau (Pskow)
Polonia Poland
Pomern Pomerania
Praga Prague, Praha
Presla (Bressla) Breslau
Provincia Masillia Marseilles
Prug (Brugis, Brugge) Brugea
Prussia Prussia
Ragus Ragusa
Ratispona (Ratlebonna, Regina) Regensburg, Ratiebon
Renus fl. Rhine
Rigs Rigs
Rodano (Rhodanus) Rhone
Rostock Roatook
Russia Russia
Sala fl. Salle
Salin Saline
Saltzburg Saizburg
Sana Stonne
San fl. (Savus) Save
Saxonia Saxony
Scania Scania (So. part of Swden)
Schonlandt Sebonen (Skane)
Scoots (Scotia) Scotland
Secana fl. (Sequana) Seine
Sibenburg Siebenburgen
Silandia Zealand, or Seelaxid
Siesta Silesia
Speier (Spirensis) Spires, Spire
Stetin Stettin
Steyer Styria
Sveitzer Switzerland
Sweden Sweden
Swevia or Svevia (Suabia) Swabia
Tartaris Tartary
Teyssa (Tisia or Tieza) Theise
Tibulla fl.; Scaldis Scheldt (?)
Tors Tours
Transilvania Transylvania
Trauectum (Trajeotum) Utrecht
Tresen Dresden
Trier (Augusta Treverorum) Treves
Triest Trieste
Turchia Turkey
Ulm (Ulma)
Ungaria Hungary
Uslant Iceland or Shetland (?)
Venecia (Venetia) Venice
Verona Verona
Vesontz (Vesontio) Besancon
Vesperin Voezprem, or Veazprim
Villach (Santiacum) Villach
Vincencia Vincenzia, Vicenza
Vistula fl. Vistula
Visurgus fl. Weser
Wallachia Wallachia
Wardem (Wardein Gross Wardein
Warse Warsaw
Westvalia Westphalia
Wienna (Vindobona) Vienna, Wien
Wildlappen (Wild) Lappa
Wurtzlant ?
Zeng (Senia) Zengg
Zurch Zurich
FINAL COLOPHON

HERE IS FINALLY CONCLUDED the Book of Chronicles and memorable histories, from the beginning of the world to our own time, collected in Latin with great industry and judgment by highly learned men, and by George Alt, erstwhile treasury scribe (Losungsschreiber) at Nuremberg, brought from the same Latin into this German, word for word, and occasionally (but not without reason) abridged and thereafter printed at Nuremberg by the honorable and respected Anthony Koberger, at the suggestion and according to the wishes of the wise and honorable Sebald Sohreyer and Sebastian Kamermaister, citizens there, and with the co-operation of Michael Wolgemuth and William Pleydenwurff, artists and fellow citizens there, who ably adorned the work with illustrations. Completed on the 23rd day of the month of December, after the birth of Christ our Saviour 1493 years.

OF THE REGION OF EUROPE CALLED SARMATIA OR POLAND.

Although the following description of Poland, and of the cities of Cracow, Lübeck, and Neiss, did not come to us until this book had been finished, we decided to include this material, as well as other memorable matters.

Of the Kingdom of Poland and Its Origin.

Inasmuch as mention will be made soon hereafter of Boleslaus, the third Sarmatian or Polish king, I will first treat briefly of the country of Sarmatia or Poland, and of the manner in which it attained the royal sceptre. Sarmatia is a large and extensive land, but is located in a wilderness and not built up. It has a severe climate. To the east are the Moscovites, and the River Tanais (Don) is to the south. Dacia and Hungary are on the west, and Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Germany, and the German Sea, called Mare Germanicum, are on the north. That portion alone, which bears the name of kingdom, is called Poland, and this is divided into two parts: that in which Cracow is situated, and which is called Little Poland; and that in which Posen is located, and which is called Great Poland. Until the time of Boleslaus I the rulers at Cracow were dukes. In the time of Otto I, Boleslaus was a highly renowned duke, not the one or whom we will speak in the life or St. Stanislaus; for he was a grandson, who was born of a monk, the son of this Boleslaus. This Boleslaus pursued the French king and the Germans with a victorious hand; but finally, at the request of Emperor Otto, he abandoned the war, and made a treaty with the Germans and the French. When Emperor Otto became aware of the great fame of this prince throughout Germany and Sarmatia, he proceeded to Sarmatia in order more clearly to observe his reign, power and might. The illustrious duke received him with high honors in the city of Posen; and for a distance of 3,000 paces, or more, from the city, he caused silken, woolen and costly raiment, embroidered in gold and silver, to be spread over the way of the emperor; and after the emperor had entered the city of Posen, it was regarded as fitting for every man to gather the se up and to carry them away. There he honored the emperor with magnificent and brilliant entertainments - racing, tournaments, sports, and other pastimes. Only golden dishes were used, and after each course the duke ordered these thrown into a bottomless spring and loSt. Now when the emperor observed the kindness, magnificence, and abundant riches of this highly renowned duke, he regarded him as worthy of a royal crown; and so he invested him with a royal sceptre and crown, and with the dignities appertaining to a royal throne. Not to appear ungrateful toward the emperor for these favors, this illustrious king presented to the emperor as a gift the arm of Bishop Adelbert, whom the Prussians had wickedly slain. After this kingdom had prospered until the year 1400 A.D., or shortly before, and the king of Poland died without issue, the duke who ruled over Lithuania and Russia was elected king; and although this same duke had previously worshipped idols, yet, when the royal sceptre was entrusted to him, he and all his subjects accepted the Christian faith; and the people of Lithuania and Russia joined the Polish kingdom, on certain conditions, in order that they might not be separated from the king. This most illustrious prince subjugated the Prussians in a severe and cruel war, and thus enlarged his dominion. Therein are located the renowned cities of Danzig and Thorn, as well as the noted castle of Marienburg, fortified with many and various buildings, towers and moats, preventing the enemy from gaining access thereto. The like of these have never been seen before. number of years ago this kingdom was of greater extent and power, but in consequence of persecutions on the part of the treacherous Tartars and Turks, the entire land of Poland suffered shame and decline. The region lying behind Russia, and called Padolia, was completely ravished by fire, and so devastated that it could not sustain those passing through it with the necessaries of life. Yet the soil is fertile; grass grows to the height of a man, and the region is so plentiful in bees and honey that the bees do not have sufficient places to which to carry the honey. They gather it under the trees and shrubs, and in the forests. Throughout Poland are great and noted woods, through which one may pass as far as Lithuania and Scythia. In the same forests much wild game abounds, and the northern part of the Polish Hercinian forest, among other game, has the roving Aurochs, which is antagonistic to man, but very good to eat. They have a broad forehead, and horns, and cannot be caught except by great effort and labor. This country because of the great cold, has no mines, except lead; but there is much salt, which is carried to far distant places, and from which the entire country receives much use and benefit. The king derives more revenue from this salt than from any other source. Below the surface of the earth great quantities of rock salt are mined, and in addition thereto much salt is derived from the water. This country is also very productive in fruits and in all things necessary to sustain human life. And now something is to be noted of the highly celebrated race of the most illustrious prince, Ladislaus, of whom we have already spoken. As some say, he had three wives, by whom he begot two sons. The elder was Ladislaus, the younger, Casimir. On the death of his father, Ladislaus secured the sovereignty; and he ruled over the kingdoms of Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland, and with a knightly hand performed celebrated deeds. He augmented his dominions and the Christian faith, depriving the Turkish sultan of much territory and proceeding with his army as far as Constantinople. He warred against the Turks; and they fought one another in gruesome battles; but the Hungarians fled, leaving the king with a small force of Poles in the midst of the great numbers of the enemy. But Casimir reigned as a duke over Lithuania and Russia, and after the death of his brother, the king, he was declared king of Sarmatia or Poland; and he espoused the daughter of the duke of Austria, who was a sister of king Ladislaus. By her he begot six sons and five daughters. The first was named Ladislaus. While still young he was elected king of Bohemia, and thereafter, upon the death of Matthias, the Hungarian king, he was also elected king of Hungary because of his wonderful magnanimity and good counsel. The second son, Casimir, named after his father, died of the plague. The third son, named John Albert, a future mirror of wonder for the entire world, performed many distinguished and noteworthy warlike deeds against the Turks and other peoples, and attained the royal sovereignty upon the death of his father. The fourth, Alexander, was accepted as duke by the Lithuanians in consideration of his courage and firmness. The fifth, Sigismund, followed in his father’s footsteps in virtue. The sixth, Frederick, the youngest, was first made bishop of Cracow, later archbishop of Gnesen, and in 1493 was made a cardinal by Pope Alexander. Of the five daughters one is married to Duke George of Bavaria; the second to Frederick, margrave of Brandenburg; the third to the duke of Pomerania; while the remaining two daughters, still unmarried, are staying with their mother.

Of Saint Stanislaus, Bishop of Cracow and Patron of Poland.

SAINT STANISLAUS, a man rich in estates of the Lord, patron and banner-bearer of all Poland, was born in A.D. 1008 in the district of Sezepanow, of noble and distinguished parents, who attended divine services in the church and offered up their prayers to God. When he reached the age of discretion he went to the University of Paris at the request of his father, devoting himself with great zeal to the study of the arts, and more particularly to the canon law,- not (as our young sons now do) to earn much money, great honor and high standing, but to give counsel to the poor as well as the rich, and to see that every man obtained justice. Thereafter he returned home and went to Cracow, where, because of his virtue and skill he was given a canonry in the cathedral. Upon the death of the bishop there he was appointed to the episcopal see through divine providence, and with great zeal he undertook to augment the Christian faith and divine service. Once upon a time he bought a village of a knight; but upon the latter’s death, a friend of the knight reclaimed the land from the bishop. Unable to prove his title for want of witnesses, this pious man fasted and prayed to God, trusting in the power and might of the most exalted Lord; and he went to the grove of the deceased knight, and removing from it the stone and sand, he appealed to God with his innermost devotion, and brought the deceased knight back to life. He took the knight before the tyrant Boleslaus, who was administering justice in the matter; and in the presence of his adversaries and Boleslaus’s lords of the manor, he proved by this same knight that he had bought the village of him. This Boleslaus lived in baseness, practicing all manner of tyranny and perfidy toward his people, and punishing the worthy and distinguished men and respectable citizens with severe tortures. But this Christian man, Stanislaus, no longer willing to endure these conditions, took heart, and fearlessly appeared before this tyrant, admonishing him to discontinue these practices. But his wickedness increased more and more, and the bishop excommunicated him. Thereupon the tyrant despatched his court servants with instructions to slay Stanislaus wherever they might find him. At this time St. Stanislaus was performing the office of the mass in the little church of St. Michael which had been erected in the city by Casimir. Now when the servants of King Boleslaus arrived, they made three attempts to enter the church, but were three times driven off by divine intervention; and so they fell back. When the news reached Boleslaus he hastened to the said church in great wrath; and there he slew Stanislaus while performing mass at the altar, The body was hacked to pieces by the servants of Boleslaus, and thrown to the birds outside the city. But through divine providence the eagles gathered up the remains, which were preserved with great care until they received burial with highest honors. Thereafter Stanislaus was enrolled in the number of the saints, and translated to the royal chapel in St. Wenceslaus's Church, where, in a golden sarcophagus, he appears in many miracles.

Of Cracow, the Royal City of Poland.

CRACOW, a renowned and illustrious city of Poland, situated on the Vistula, was built by Craco (Krak), the first Polish duke, and was named after him. In the beginning this city was surrounded by battlements, bow-windows, bulwarks, and high towers; later by a small dilapidated ancient wall, and finally by earth works and a moat. Some of these moats were filled with fishingwaters, and others given up to shrubbery. A river, the Rudis (Rudawa), flows about the entire city and drives mill-wheels. By means of canals and conduits it is carried to all parts of the city. This city has seven gates and many beautiful and spacious residences; also many large church edifices, the mostdistinguished being that of Our Lady, which has two high towers and is located in the heart of the city. The city also has many cloisters, inhabited by many churchmen and devout fathers. The House of the Trinity is occupied by the Dominicans, and in the same house the blessed Jacintus flourishes in many miracles, although not enrolled in the number of the saints. In his lifetime he resurrected three dead. There is also a church to the Order of St. Francis (but not yet reformed), and many other cloisters. Not far from the mouth of the Vistula is another church, to Anna, where the blessed Cantus, a distinguished doctor of the University of this city, appears in many miracles, although he also is not enrolled in the number of the saints. Near this holy edifice is the great and distinguished University, provided with many illustrious and learned men; and there the liberal arts, learning and wisdom, flourish. Those houses of God were built by the pious Wladislaus, the illustrious Polish king, on the occasion of his triumph in the cruel and serious battle against the Prussians, of which battle many excellent and noteworthy accounts down to our own time, are at hand in the royal palace. And thereof we will speak shortly; and he endowed them with many great privileges and gifts. Although our parents regarded the Polish people as coarse, uncouth, and inept, the inhabitants of this city do not live according to Polish customs; for here we find respectable, well-mannered burghers, noted for their virtue, intelligence, and hospitality, and who are kind, obliging and friendly toward all who come there. Their table mariners are more seemly than those of other Poles. Of all pleasing viands, the drink most common among them is water boiled with barley and hops. This drink is most satisfying and nourishing when not consumed beyond one’s normal requirements. Below the citadel of the city is a praiseworthy assembly of the school, in which instruction in the law is given. To the north of the city lies a little village, not surrounded by waIls, called Clepardium. It contains nothing of note except the holy see of St. Florian, the Christian knight, which the aforesaid pious Wladislaus established as a canonry, and endowed with other dignities and gifts, as well as the authority to teach the arts. It is surrounded by mountain peaks so high that one might believe they support the heavens. In the city, toward the east, is a great and mighty hill made up of sand and accumulated soil. It faces the snowy heights of the Carpathians on the opposite side. The Vistula flows by this hill. It has its origin in a small spring in the Carpathians. The river increases in volume as it proceeds into the distance, being so strengthened by the waters flowing into it from the Hungarian mountains, that it carries great masses of timber, wood and other material. Further on it is so enlarged by rivers and rains that it carries large heavily laden vessels along its course as far as the German Sea. There it loses its name, and its foaming waters flow into that sea at three different places. On the same hill is a large edifice built in honor of Wenceslaus, the duke of Bohemia; and therein are to be seen the tombs of a number of illustrious men, built at great cost in varying types of architecture, and constructed of marble and alabaster, ornamented with great magnificence. In the center of this edifice is an elegant sarcophogus, wherein rests St. Florian, the celebrated knight of ChriSt. On the same hill or mount are the two holy churches of St. Michael and St. George, and beyond these the handsome courts of the nobility and the houses of the priests who serve the churches day and night. Beyond these is a royal seat consisting of great and various buildings,- the capitol of the entire kingdom, where all the treasures of the realm are kept. There the authority of the princes is defined, and the royal crown is preserved with great care. Beyond the hill is the cloister of the Dominican Order of Observance and, not far therefrom, a convent. On the opposite side, near the bridge, is the renowned hospital of St. Hedwig. On the other side of the Vistula lies the city of Casimir, built by the king of that name, and about which the Vistula flows after dividing into two branches below the royal palace. In the same city is St. Catherine’s Church of the brothers of the Augustinian Order; also the Church of Corpus Christi, the houses of the Regulated Canons, and others. There are also other things of historical significance, attesting the deeds of the illustrious king; but it is impossible to speak of all these here.

LÜBECK, an illustrious and imperial city or Saxony, and very renowned throughout Germany, as well as beyond its borders, was originally built by Wickboldo Vitigio, the Saxon duke, in the region that the Wends, while still in the possession of a part of Saxony called Buku. It grew under the influence of the wrathful prince, Kyto, or Truto, in A.D. 1104. It is located in a beautiful spot between the duchies of Mecklenburg and Holstein, and is watered by the Wakenitz and the Trave. This same Kyto, a mighty and severe persecutor of the Christians, was of Marcomanian, or Martinopolitan ancestry, and slew the lords of Wageren, also called the lords of Stargard or Oldenburg, in battles at Ferner and Peldte; but one of them, Count Gottschalk's son Henry, escaped to Denmark. After some time he returned to his home, decapitated Kyto with an ax, and espoused his widow. In the time of emperor Henry IV all the churches and priests in this region were plundered and robbed, the churches laid in ruin, and the Christian faith suppressed. Lübeck was destroyed for a third time in a war of the princes, particularly in the war between Duke Henry the Lion and Count Adolph of Holstein, who, when the quarrel subsided, left the region in which the city now lies to Duke Henry. Before that time the city was located near Schwartau, and later near Horneberg, as master Helmuldus states. Thereafter this city grew wonderfully, being frequented by the merchants of upper and lower Germany, and those coming from Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Russia, Lithuania, Prussia, Poland, Pomerania, Mecklenberg, Denmark, England, Flanders, Scotland and France; and by land from Saxony, Westphalia and the Mark. Those versed in the operation and influence of the heavenly constellations, write that this city had its origin under the sign of the Scales, and was founded under the particular grace of God; for the inhabitants of this city, more than their neighbors, practice extraordinary devotion; and thus they found a sweet kernel in a bitter shell. Thereafter, in 1131, the lower Wendic lords destroyed the city of Lübeck; but Count Adolph rebuilt it and provided it with a castle, situated toward the north, where the brothers of the Dominican Order now live. In A.D. 1159, those of Lübeck, in order to avenge their losses, proceeded with military force to Rügen, where they inflicted serious damage upon the prince. In A.D. 1161, Geraldus, the 12th bishop of Oldenburg, or Stargard, with the help of Duke Henry the Lion at Wagern, was installed as the first bishop of Lübeck, 13 benefices were founded, and he was endowed therewith. And thus the city of Lübeck attained great power and riches, and Oldenburg declined. But when this city was afterwards besieged by Emperor Frederick I, those of Lübeck were finally reconciled to the emperor by their bishop, and with the consent of Duke Henry the Lion paid homage to the emperor. The same bishop consecrated the cathedral at Lübeck, and there built the cloister of St. John, formerly occupied by the Benedictines (who now reside at Cismer in Holstein by the sea), but now occupied by the nuns. At this time the city of Lübeck was exalted to the status of an imperial free city by Emperor Frederick, and endowed with privileges and exemptions, making it the foremost maritime city; which exemptions were also enjoyed in foreign lands - London, in England, Norway, Moscovy, Novgarod, Russia, and in many other places, such as Flanders, Denmark, and Sweden. And the emperor confirmed to the council the privileges it enjoyed under Duke Henry; and by golden bull he granted the right to have 24 magistrates in the council. These he ennobled so that they might wear gold according to knightly custom, but not golden spurs. This city is sanitary and cleanly, sloping from the heights into a valley so that water and impurities flow off freely. The streets and lanes are kept clean by frequent rains. The cathedral at the north end of the city is spacious and beautiful. There are also four parish churches, with seven tall gilded spires, beautiful towers, and roofs covered with copper and lead; also two cloisters of the Dominican and Franciscan Orders, as well as the Hospital of the Holy GhoSt. The city is protected and fortified by water, walls, towers, and moats. It has two long and broad streets, bordered by beautiful spacious houses built of brick. These houses observe a uniform position, so that one does not project beyond the other. The other streets of the city are at right angles to these two. Here also the river Wakenitz flows from north to south, then veering to the weSt. The Trave flows along the city in the opposite direction, south to north, and with a strong current hastens to the sea. At present the bishop's chair is occupied by the most worthy Dietrich, a native of Hamburg.

NEISSE, a renowned episcopal city, located on the Neisse, in Silesia, derived its name from the same river, and is built up with various structures. Although now a plain, Silesia was at one time wooded, having been part of the great Hercynian foreSt. In time villages and human habitations developed; and after the inhabitants accepted the Christian faith, castles and cities sprang up, and the people were influenced to a better and more godly course. The renowned river Odor flows through Silesia, and after being augmented by the Olsna, Neisse, Ohlau, Lissa, Bartsch, Bober, and other rivers, it flows through Mark Brandenburg into the German Sea at Stettin. Silesia is a three days’ journey in width and a nine days’ journey in length, extending from Hungary to Mark Brandenburg. The episcopal see of this country was not originally at Breslau; but when Casimir I, on failure of royal male issue in Poland, left the Cluniac monastery through arrangement with the pope (whom he promised that every person in the kingdom would send a penny to Rome,) and went to Poland, and was accepted as king, he changed the bishop’s seat to Breslau, which (as heretofore stated in the description of the city of Breslau) is now the principal city of Silesia. The episcopal chair is now occupied by Doctor John Rot von Wemding, of the bishopric of Eichstadt, erstwhile imperial protonotary; and being a distinguished man, through his intelligence and zeal he augmented the bishopric in a short time, rendering the episcopal household and court more productive, and improving it with buildings to an extent that had not occurred in the past 100 years. The land is productive in grain and fish and abounds in wild game and birds. In addition to Breslau there are other renowned cities in this country, namely Neisse, Great Glogau, Liegnitz, Oppeln, Schwednitz, Teschen, Oels, Frankenstein, Münsterberg, Sagan, and Brega; as well as many beautiful and well built cloisters and church edifices. It is subject to the king of Bohemia, who holds it as a fief of the Roman Empire. Many hereditary dukes and princes have overrun and devastated this country, disturbing its peace, so that through meagerness and lack of income and revenue it was unable to maintain a princely class; for which reason they resorted to robbery. But as the other houses died out, the land passed to a few lords who are possessed of no mean amount of riches and fortified cities. Divine service throughout Silesia is ample and great, and therefore the ecclesiastical houses are highly honored. There are a great number of spirituals of both sexes, who lead respectable and virtuous lives. The people are conversant and gracious, and are more devout than all the other inhabitants of Germany. There are also many nobles, zealous in arms and war. The female sex is handsome and cheerful, but virtuous. The peasant class, who speak Polish, devote themselves to work in the fields, and are given to drink; and in consequence they live in mean huts, while the improvements on their fields and farms are neglected. But the German farmers are more industrious and better housed. Living is less expensive than in the neighboring regions. But what will at some time bring irreparable injury and decline upon Silesia is this: that the money-lenders, according to the customs of the city and the condition of the owners, and with the consent of the authorities, collect a certain sum of money and also levy an annual interest charge; but after the owners have paid this interest for a number of years, they refuse to pay any longer; and so, from the nature or things, they are intimidated by spiritual ban, or their pledges are seized. To escape these hardships they leave home and field and flee elsewhere; and thus their manors, fields, grain, and plow-lands remain undeveloped and fallow, and deteriorate. On this account (where no care is taken), Silesia declines daily, although otherwise a praiseworthy land. The drink of the people is beer. Wine is imported from Moravia and Hungary, although some is produced in Silesia, near Crossen; however, the greater part of this is exported over the Oder to Prussia and elsewhere. Nothing else is exported from Silesia except inferior woolen cloth to Hungary, and fish to Moravia. Excessive use of gold and silver in the raiment of matrons and maidens is not unusual in this country.