More Than One Struggle Oral History Project Records, 1939-2004, bulk 1995-1996

Contents List

Container Title
Series: 1. Oral History Interviews, 1995-1996
Scope and Content Note: Series contains oral history interviews, consisting of audio cassettes and transcripts, conducted between 1995-1996 by Jack Dougherty. Interviewees provide insight into Milwaukee school reform activism through their discussions about Coalition of Parents for Quality Education, Committee of One Hundred, CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), Federation of Independent Community Schools, Freedom Schools, MUSIC (Milwaukee United School Integration), Milwaukee Urban League, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), North Division High School, Parents Action Committee for Education (PACE), Sherman Park Community Association, Triple O-Blacks For Two-Way Integration, Urban Day School, and Washington High School. Also included in this series are Dougherty's post-interview notes.
Adams, Juanita, and Arlene Johnson
Scope and Content Note: Juanita Adams and Arlene Johnson were two founders of the Congress of Racial Equality's (CORE) Milwaukee chapter. Topics include their choice to become involved with school integration, differences between CORE and Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC), personal experiences with racism including threats of violence, the school boycott of 1964, fellow members of CORE, and gender roles in CORE.
Box   7
Audio   1-2
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   1
Transcript, 1995
Alexander, Ray
Scope and Content Note: Ray Alexander was Executive Director of the Afro Urban Institute beginning in 1970. He also served as Community Relations Director for the North Town Development and Planning Council. His interview topics include fellow community activists of the late 1960's, the United Community Action Group, and inner city youth employment programming.
Box   7
Audio   3
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   2
Transcript, 1995
Banks, Phyllis, and Teresa Green
Scope and Content Note: Phyllis Banks began teaching at Riverside High School in 1962. Theresa Pauline Green, her sister, was a Professor at UC-Berkeley and became involved with Milwaukee from afar. They discuss the teaching of black history at Riverside High School, the school boycott of 1964, racism that Banks faced from Riverside High School's administration, the feeling of unity during the movement, and problems with initial school integration efforts.
Box   7
Audio   4
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   3
Transcript, 1995
Barbee, Lloyd
Scope and Content Note: Attorney Lloyd Barbee represented the 18th Assembly District (formerly the 6th District, Milwaukee) in the Wisconsin State Assembly and held numerous offices including in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and in the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC). His interview topics include Congress of Racial Equality, the Harold Story Committee in 1963, the NAACP, and his role in education reform in Milwaukee.
Box   7
Audio   5-6
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   4
Transcript, 1995
Beason, Jake
Scope and Content Note: Jake Beason, a retired high school teacher, taught at both North Division and Custer High Schools. His interview topics include the early efforts at teaching black history in Milwaukee, the 1967 textbook turn-in, previous unwillingness of Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) to hire black teachers and the groups which affected change in this area. He also discusses MPS' recruitment efforts at historically black southern colleges, the problems of teaching with inadequate textbooks, and success of black students in integrated schools.
Box   7
Audio   7
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   5
Transcript, 1995
Beckley, Maurice
Scope and Content Note: Maurice Beckley was managing editor of the Milwaukee Star newspaper and worked as an industrial engineer at Johnson Controls. In his interview Beckley critiques the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC). Beckley discusses in contrast the Alliance for Better Education and the importance of education in the advancement of African Americans during the 1960's.
Box   7
Audio   8
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   6
Transcript, 1995
Bell, Martha
Scope and Content Note: Martha Bell worked as a teacher's aide at Wells Junior High School. Her interview topics include her involvement with the Parents Action Committee for Education and the school boycotts of 1964 and 1965. She also discusses the MacDowell school construction protest, the disturbance at Wells over the need to hire black cooks, the Milwaukee Public School system's reluctance to hire teachers from black colleges, problems with busing, and the prevalence of women in the school integration movement.
Box   7
Audio   9
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   7
Transcript, 1995
Brown, Cecil, Jr., and Loretta Brown
Scope and Content Note: Cecil Brown Jr. founded Milwaukee's chapter of Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1963 and also served as chairman of the chapter. He also served as Vice-Chairman of Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC). Cecil and Loretta Brown discuss de facto segregation, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's local fight for the hiring of African American teachers in Milwaukee Public Schools, CORE, and the relationship between CORE and MUSIC.
Box   7
Audio   10-11
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   8
Transcript, 1995
Caesar, Elsie, M.
Scope and Content Note: Elsie Caesar was involved with the Coalition to Save North Division in 1979. She discusses the motivations of the group, other's perceptions that they were anti-integration, their eventual success, her politically active daughter, the belief of some that integration wasn't as important as having good teachers, and the busing of her grandchildren in 1979 and 1980.
Box   7
Audio   12
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   9
Transcript, 1995
Champion, Rev. Leo, Inonia, and Eugene
Scope and Content Note: Inonia and Rev. Leo Champion came to Milwaukee in 1959. Inonia was a teacher at the Jerusalem Freedom School, and they both were involved with Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and in the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC) campaign against intact busing. Their interview topics include the effects of intact busing on African American children, the organization and planning of the Milwaukee school boycotts, and the relationships between CORE, MUSIC, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Box   7
Audio   13-14
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   10
Transcript, 1995
Chancey, Felmers
Scope and Content Note: Felmers Chancey is a former Milwaukee Police officer who worked with Milwaukee Urban League and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Milwaukee. He reflects on being a policeman during the open housing marches and a member of the Central City Development Corporation during the North Division High School controversy. He also discusses his work on the Milwaukee Public Schools desegregation lawsuit settlement, and explains his opposition to many of the integration reformers of the 1960's.
Box   7
Audio   15
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   11
Transcript, 1996
Cheeks, Thomas M.
Scope and Content Note: Thomas M. Cheeks was assigned to teach at Lincoln High School in 1951, making him the first African American to teach secondary public school in Milwaukee. He transferred to school administration in 1964. His interview topics include We-Milwaukee, The Academy Report of 1967, busing of African American children, and The Committee of 34, an organization created in the 1960's to address conditions in Milwaukee.
Box   7
Audio   16
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   12
Transcript, 1995
Davis, Reginald
Scope and Content Note: Reginald Davis, a Milwaukee native, attended Riverside, Washington and West Division High Schools. He discusses starting the group BOY (Black Organized Youth) in 1967 as a result of dissatisfaction with the Milwaukee Public Schools, Cynthia Pitts and Lloyd Barbee as mentors of BOY, an incident of teacher brutality at Riverside in 1968, and "walkout" protests with which he was involved.
Box   7
Audio   17
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   13
Transcript, 1995
El-Amin, Saleem (formley Jeff Crawford), Mustafa, and Haneefah Hasan, and Muhammad Aleem
Scope and Content Note: Saleem El-Amin came to Milwaukee when he was 6 years old and attended North Division High School. He later became principle of Clara Muhammad School, an independent Muslim school founded in 1972. This is a group interview, but is mostly conducted with Saleem El-Amin. The interview topics include Clara Muhammad School as an alternative to Lloyd Barbee's call for integration, and the education reform movement as it applied to Milwaukee's African American Muslim community.
Box   7
Audio   18
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   14
Transcript, 1996
Finlayson, Edith
Scope and Content Note: Edith Finlayson is a Milwaukee nurse who became involved with the school issue reform because of her children. She discusses the founding of the EB Phillips Daycare Center, her relationship with Lloyd Barbee, her involvement in Milwaukee United School Integration Committee, her children's experience in school, problems finding housing near the better schools, and an incident of racism at University School.
Box   7
Audio   19-20
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   15
Transcript, 1995
Flowers, Allen
Scope and Content Note: Allen Flowers moved to Milwaukee to become part of the economic development movement and was director of the North Side Community Design Center. He argued for building North Division High School just west of its current site because the current site disrupted an area of high black home ownership. He also discusses the Northtown Development Committee, Milwaukee's political structure and its effect on the housing movement and urban development.
Box   7
Audio   21
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   16
Transcript, 1995
Fuller, Howard
Scope and Content Note: Howard Fuller, a native of Milwaukee, was one of the founding members of the Coalition to Save North Division. His topics include his experiences with school integration issues in Cleveland and being the first black student at Carroll College, the importance of integration for better education, the importance of coalitions for reaching the community, the founding of and opposition to the Coalition to Save North Division, and Lloyd Barbee.
Box   7
Audio   22-23
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   17
Transcript, 1995
Goens, Geraldine, and Jay Gilmer
Scope and Content Note: Geraldine Gilmer Goens, a teacher in the Milwaukee Public School system since 1951, comprises the bulk of this interview. Her interview topics include African American teachers having to teach far from their neighborhood schools, and classroom conditions for African American children and teachers. She also discusses teacher education for African Americans at Wisconsin State Teachers College and their policy of forcing African Americans to sign an agreement not to teach secondary school in Milwaukee Public Schools upon graduation.
Box   7
Audio   24
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   18
Transcript, 1996
Gordon, Grant, and Lucinda Gordon
Scope and Content Note: Grant Gordon became the first black principal in Milwaukee in 1960 at Garfield High School; Lucinda Gordon was active with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Milwaukee. They share their impressions of the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee's school boycotts in 1964 and 1965, the problems of busing in 1979 and 1980, the Project Rise program for academically struggling schools, and the Lady Pitts program for providing education for pregnant teens.
Box   7
Audio   25
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   19
Transcript, 1995
Gregg, Rev. B. S.
Scope and Content Note: Reverend B.S. Gregg was pastor of St. Matthew CME church for several years, and served as treasurer of Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC) in 1964. Interview topics include his relationship with Mayor Maier, the Freedom Schools and St. Matthew's role in the school boycott in 1964, and his work with Lloyd Barbee on education reform.
Box   7
Audio   26
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   1
Folder   20
Transcript, 1995
Hannah, F. Marvin
Scope and Content Note: F. Marvin Hannah came to Milwaukee in 1955 after leaving the Navy. He discusses his work to enter African American students into apprenticeship programs, the North Division Subsystem, sending his children to Harambee Community School, his time as president of the Milwaukee Alliance of Black School Educators, problems with the initial school desegregation plan for Milwaukee after the 1976 court ruling, and his feelings on magnet schools.
Box   7
Audio   27
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   1
Transcript, 1996
Harper, Rev. Fred
Scope and Content Note: Reverend Fred Harper was pastor during the 1960's at King Solomon Church. His interview topics include his experience as a parent transferring his daughter from a predominately black school to a predominately white school, the role of King Solomon Church in the Freedom Schools, the school desegregation lawsuit of 1965, and African American immersion schools as a response to the fight for school integration.
Box   7
Audio   28
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   2
Transcript, 1995
Harpole, Mildred
Scope and Content Note: Mildred Harpole worked as a Reading Specialist at Wells Junior High School and Lincoln High School. She discusses teaching at Freedom Schools during 1964 and 1965, problems with Milwaukee Public Schools' busing program, her experience growing up in segregated schools in Baltimore and Cleveland, and running for the Milwaukee School Board in 1971.
Box   7
Audio   29
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   3
Transcript, 1995
Harpole, Reuben, Jr.
Scope and Content Note: Reuben Harpole Jr, helped develop many Milwaukee institutions such as the Black Holocaust Museum, UWM's Center for Urban Community Development and the Harambee Community Development Corporation. His interview topics include a personal account of white flight in the Harambee neighborhood, boycotts of Boston Store and Gimbles, Milwaukee Star's role in disseminating information to the African American community, Concerned Citizens for Quality Education, and key community leaders in the fight for equality in education.
Box   7
Audio   30
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   4
Transcript, 1995
Harris, Robert
Scope and Content Note: Robert Harris is a Milwaukee native who began working for Milwaukee Public Schools in 1954. He discusses his time as a football coach at North Division High School starting in 1964, the inequities that existed between North Division and other high schools in the area, the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee in 1964 and 1965, and his views on what providing a quality education entails.
Box   7
Audio   31-32
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   5
Transcript, 1995
Harris, Vada
Scope and Content Note: Vada Harris discusses her activities as Secretary of Wisconsin's National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Youth Council and as a member of the Youth Council Commandos, teaching black history in the Freedom Schools, and marching for open housing. She also attended Riverside High School where she led a "textbook turn-in" in 1967 to protest the lack of black history curriculum and instruction.
Box   7
Audio   33
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   6
Transcript, 1995
Holt, Mikel
Scope and Content Note: Mikel Holt, a Milwaukee native, is associated with the Milwaukee Community Journal from 1967 to the present as a reporter, editor and associate publisher. Holt discusses the stance of the African American community in regards to school integration, the Community Journal's criticism of desegregation in 1976-1977, black politicians who were involved in the school movement, and school choice issues taking place in Milwaukee during the 1980's.
Box   7
Audio   34
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   7
Transcript, 1996
Hopkins, Fred
Scope and Content Note: Fred Hopkins was born and raised in Milwaukee and attended North Division High School and Clifford McKissick Community School. He was a member of North Division's School Community Site Committee and the first vice-president of Blac-A-Vention, a group of inner-city activists who lobbied for black representation on the Milwaukee Public School board. His interview topics include his experience of intact busing as a student, participating in a school boycott, attending Clifford McKissick Community School, and the state of the Milwaukee Public Schools in the 1960's and early 1970's.
Box   7
Audio   35
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   8
Transcript, 1996
Jackson, Carolyn
Scope and Content Note: Carolyn Jackson moved to the Sherman Park neighborhood of Milwaukee in 1975. In 1976 she joined the Sherman Park Community Association Education Committee. She discusses the education committee's focus, working with the Coalition for Peaceful Schools, the push for Metro Milwaukee desegregation in 1975, and being part of the Committee of 100 in 1978.
Box   7
Audio   36
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   9
Transcript, 1996
Jackson, Gwen
Scope and Content Note: Gwen Jackson, a community activist with a Milwaukee elementary school named in her honor, served in the 1960's as Chair of the Milwaukee Urban League Family Life Committee. Her interview topics include the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Milwaukee Urban League's role in Milwaukee education reform, a critique of Father Groppi's leadership of Milwaukee youth, and Lloyd Barbee's role as a lawyer in the struggle for equality in Milwaukee.
Box   7
Audio   37
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   10
Transcript, 1995
Jackson, Harold B., Jr.
Scope and Content Note: Harold B. Jackson Jr. was elected to the Milwaukee School Board in 1970 after serving as an Assistant District Attorney in Milwaukee. He discusses growing up under segregation in Washington D.C., the decision to end the intact busing program in Milwaukee, the decision to reinstate teacher Jake Beason in 1971, the desegregation lawsuit against the school board and the 1976 decision in that suit.
Box   7
Audio   38-39
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   11
Transcript, 1996
Jeter, Maxine
Scope and Content Note: Maxine Jeter, a member of Milwaukee United School Integration Committee in the 1960's, helped organize protests at St. Boniface Church. Her interview topics include Father Groppi at St. Boniface Church and in the local civil rights movement. She also discusses Lloyd Barbee's lawsuit against the Milwaukee School Board, the Catholic Family Movement at St. Boniface, and provides a detailed explanation of intact busing.
Box   7
Audio   40
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   12
Transcript, 1995
Johnson, Ronald
Scope and Content Note: Ronald Johnson, a Milwaukee native, graduated from Custer High School in 1969 and taught Black History at Harambee Community School beginning in 1971. He discusses his time as a member of the Milwaukee Black Panthers, teaching at Harambee, and his opinions on the pressure placed on Milwaukee Public Schools to teach black history.
Scope and Content Note:
Box   7
Audio   41
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   13
Transcript, 1995
Jones, Nellie
Scope and Content Note: Nellie Jones was secretary of Parents Action Committee for Education (PACE) and a member of the 20th Street School's Parent Teacher Association. Her interview topics include the creation and ending of PACE as well as Lloyd Barbee's assistance with it. She also discusses sending her children to Lancaster Elementary School while it was predominantly white as an alternative to intact busing.
Box   8
Audio   42
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   14
Transcript, 1995
Jones, Walter
Scope and Content Note: Walter Jones moved to Milwaukee in 1959 when he began working for the Milwaukee Star. In 1967 he began working for the Milwaukee Courier. He discusses why the Star got involved with education issues, his views on the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee boycotts of 1964 and 1965, the Black Power movement in Milwaukee starting in 1966 and 1967, and student involvement in the school movement.
Box   8
Audio   43-44
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   15
Transcript, 1995
Kenner, Peggy
Scope and Content Note: Peggy Kenner, former president of the Milwaukee Public School (MPS) Board and winner of the Wisconsin Women's Network Stateswomen of the Year, speaks to her work with the Peckham-Steuben Community Council to develop an integration plan, MPS' discriminatory transfer policy in the 1960's and early 1970's, the "Committee of 100", and her work with the MPS school board.
Box   8
Audio   45
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   16
Transcript, 1996
Lucas, Reaber
Scope and Content Note: Reaber Lucas moved to Milwaukee in 1965 from Mississippi when she started working with the Organizations of Organizations (Triple O). She discusses her work with Triple O including working on Title 1, organizing the teacher's aides, their involvement with the North Division and Rufus King clusters and the racial make-up of the organization. She also gives her opinion on the school desegregation lawsuit, and growing up in segregated schools.
Box   8
Audio   46
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   17
Transcript, 1996
McAlister, Mona
Scope and Content Note: Mona McAlister graduated from St. Benedict High School and sent her five children to St. Boniface School. She witnessed St. Boniface's transition from predominately white to predominately black. Her interview topics include St. Boniface's transition from a parochial school to a community school, the Federation of Independent Community Schools and the effect of white flight on the Milwaukee parochial schools.
Box   8
Audio   47
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   18
Transcript, 1995
McKay, Pauline
Scope and Content Note: Pauline McKay moved to Milwaukee in 1950 from Lexington, MS. She discusses her work with North Division High School groups, her involvement with the site planning committee for the new North Division building, the Chapter 220 program, problems with busing, the desegregation plan of 1976, and growing up in segregated schools.
Box   8
Audio   48
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   19
Transcript, 1996
McNeil, Rev. Joseph
Scope and Content Note: Reverend Joseph McNeil, a Milwaukee native, was active in education reform for African American children, and served as the chairman of the North Division Advisory Council in the 1970's. His interview topics include Title III and cluster schools, parent involvement with changes at North Division High School in the late 1960's early 1970's, Milwaukee's attempt to decentralize the school system, segregation at Tech High School, and dealing with Police Chief Harold Breier.
Box   8
Audio   49
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   20
Transcript, 1995
Murrell, Peter, Sr., and Eva Ruth
Scope and Content Note: Eva and Peter Murrell came to Milwaukee in the 1940's and became active in school issues through their children. They discuss We-Milwaukee, Eva's work with the Parent Teacher Association from 1962-1966, problems with the Milwaukee schools their children attended, busing, the desegregation decisions of 1976 and 1979, and African American immersion schools.
Box   8
Audio   50
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   21
Transcript, 1995
Nicholas, Clarence P.
Scope and Content Note: Clarence P. Nicholas came to Milwaukee in 1970 to teach in the Milwaukee Public School system where he taught for 36 years and was the spokesman for the Black Teacher's Caucus (BTC) in 1977. Interview topics include the activities and members of the BTC, friction between BTC and the Milwaukee Teachers' Education Association (MTEA), and BTC's interaction with key activists such as Lloyd Barbee.
Box   8
Audio   51
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   22
Transcript, 1996
Pitts, Cynthia Bryant
Scope and Content Note: Cynthia Pitts came to Milwaukee in 1965 and worked with the Inner City Development Project. She discusses growing up in segregated Baltimore, her role with the Inner City Development Project, school issues, student protests, and the goals of the United Community Action Committee.
Box   8
Audio   52
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   23
Transcript, 1995
Robertson, Helen
Scope and Content Note: Helen Robertson came to Milwaukee in 1970 to teach after attending UW-Madison. Her interview topics include the quality of education in Milwaukee's independent community school movement in the 1970's, Milwaukee magnet and Montessori schools, the Coalition to Save North Division High School and the Governor's Commission on Better Quality of Schools.
Box   8
Audio   53
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   24
Transcript, 1996
Robinson, Jeanetta
Scope and Content Note: Jeanetta Robinson came to Milwaukee in 1957 and participated in many civil rights groups in Milwaukee. She discusses her work with Congress of Racial Equality, the Freedom School boycott of 1964, the Poverty Advisory Council, organizing student walkouts, her children's school experience, the difference between integrated and quality education, and her work with the Triple O-sponsored Two-Way or No-Way busing protest of 1979-1980.
Box   8
Audio   54
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   25
Transcript, 1995
Rogers, Tazaleen, and Theodora Cecelia Rogers
Scope and Content Note: Tazzaleen Rogers, interviewed with her daughter Theodora Cecelia Rogers, discusses working with Milwaukee United School Integration Committee and the Coalition to Save North Division High School. She was also president of 12th Street School PTA. Her interview topics include her children's experience as the first group of African Americans to attend Shorewood and South Division High Schools and her involvement, in general, with the Milwaukee civil rights movement.
Box   8
Audio   55
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   26
Transcript, 1995
Saunders, Lawrence, and Kathleen Saunders
Scope and Content Note: Larry Saunders came to Milwaukee to attend Marquette University where he met Kathleen. They discuss working for the Milwaukee Globe and the Milwaukee Star, the hatred in Milwaukee for African Americans, and the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom which Larry participated in.
Box   8
Audio   56
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   27
Transcript, 1995
Savage, Rochelle, and Roosevelt Savage
Scope and Content Note: Rochelle Savage and her husband, Roosevelt, were involved with Milwaukee United School Integration Committee in 1965. Their interview topics include intact busing at Garden Homes School, communicating and information in the education reform movement, Father Groppi and the Commandos, and Lloyd Barbee and the school desegregation lawsuit. They also discuss the concept of improving neighborhood schools instead of integration, and the removal of strong African American teachers from the inner-city schools.
Box   8
Audio   57
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   28
Transcript, 1995
Scott, Wesley L.
Scope and Content Note: Wesley L. Scott was the CEO of the Milwaukee Urban League and an active member of We-Milwaukee. He discusses Milwaukee civil rights in the 1950's, his activities with the Urban League, criticism of newspaper coverage of the school movement, the goals of We-Milwaukee, efforts to support black history, and the role of civil rights groups in the 1970's desegregation fight.
Box   8
Audio   58
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   29
Transcript, 1995
Seefeldt, Flora B.
Scope and Content Note: Flora Seefeldt came to Milwaukee in 1958 and was appointed by President Johnson to serve as a member of the educational board for Counselor Finch, then United States Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. Her interview topics include the United Community Action Group, her children's experience with intact busing from McKinley School to Garden Homes School, and the poor quality of Milwaukee schools in the black community including lack of books and supplies.
Box   8
Audio   59-60
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   30
Transcript, 1995
Smith, Michael C.
Scope and Content Note: Michael Smith came to Milwaukee in 1972 to teach at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He discusses his involvement with Organization of Organizations (Triple O) in 1974-1975, his children's school experience in 1976, problems with the Milwaukee Public School System's Chapter 220 program, goals of the Concerned Citizens for Quality Education, his work with the Governor's Commission on Quality Education, and the fight over the North Division District in the early 1990's.
Box   8
Audio   61
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   1
Transcript, 1996
Spencer, Anita K.
Scope and Content Note: Anita Spencer, a Milwaukee native, attended Ninth Street School, McKinley Elementary, West Division and Lincoln High Schools. Her interview topics include her membership with local organizations such as the United Black Community Council, Project Respect and Two-Way or No-Way. Spencer also talks about overcrowding in Auer Elementary school and how intact busing affected her family.
Box   8
Audio   62
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   2
Transcript, 1996
Swan, Monroe
Scope and Content Note: Monroe Swan came to Milwaukee in 1955 and was elected state senator in 1972. He discusses his involvement with Organization of Organizations (Triple O), which he joined in 1967, his integration stance as senator, his role in Blac-A-Vention, a 1974 meeting of inner-city activists, problems with the Chapter 220 program, the 1976 desegregation decision, goals of the Two-Way or No-Way busing protest, and the reform movements of 1989.
Box   8
Audio   63-64
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   3
Transcript, 1996
Todd, Leon
Scope and Content Note: Leon Todd was elected to the Milwaukee Public School (MPS) Board in 1975. His interview topics include his strategy for becoming one of the first blacks elected to the MPS Board and his alliance with the German-American societies in Milwaukee which resulted in the development of Milwaukee's integrated language immersion schools. He also talks about the Chapter 220 voluntary integration program, magnet schools, and the Coalition to Save North Division High School.
Box   8
Audio   65
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   4
Transcript, 1996
Verdin, Brian
Scope and Content Note: Brian Verdin is a Milwaukee native and graduate of North Division High School. He discusses his run for the school board in 1972, his activities with Organization of Organizations (Triple O) which he joined in 1975, the goals of Blacks for Two-Way Integration, problems with Superintendant McMurrin's desegregation plan, and the activities of the Coalitions for Peaceful Schools and to Save North Division.
Box   8
Audio   76
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   13
Transcript, 1995
Waiss, Beatrice J.
Scope and Content Note: Beatrice Weiss came to Milwaukee in 1967 and was a co-founder of the McKissick Community School. Her interview topics include the creation of the McKissick Community School, her children's experiences in Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS), and a comparison of MPS and Milwaukee Choice Schools. Waiss also gives an analysis of the rise and decline of Milwaukee's education reform movement.
Scope and Content Note:
Box   8
Audio   66-67
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   5
Transcript, 1995
Walker, Rev. Lucius
Scope and Content Note: Reverend Lucius Walker came to Milwaukee in the late 1950's. He was the first youth director for the Milwaukee Christian Center on Milwaukee's south side and was the founding director of Northcott Neighborhood House. His interview topics include the use of integration as a means for African Americans to access Milwaukee's educational resources. He also talks about Northcott Neighborhood House and the role it played in community development, including its role in the Organization of Organizations (Triple O).
Box   8
Audio   68
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   6
Transcript, 1996
Ward, Adolphus
Scope and Content Note: Adolphus Ward is former faculty member in the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee's Theatre Department. Ward organized a parent conference in 1970 with the North Division Cluster to increase African American parent involvement in local schools. His interview topics include racial changes in the neighborhood of Center and 22nd streets, the difference in curriculum in predominately African American schools in 1960's, and his decision to send his children to Freedom Schools in 1964. He also talks about Organization of Organizations (Triple O) and its influence on community organization in Milwaukee in the 1960's.
Box   8
Audio   69
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   7
Transcript, 1995
Watkins, Ivory, and Linda Watkins Jefferson
Scope and Content Note: Linda (Watkins) Jefferson was the original plaintiff in the Barbee School desegregation case. Ivory Watkins is her mother. Linda is the major interviewee and discusses how she became involved in the legal case, the 1964 school boycott, testifying in court, civil rights activities while at Rufus King High School, her children's school experience, and Ivory's civil rights activities.
Box   8
Audio   70
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   8
Transcript, 1996
Williams, Evelyn Lockhart, and Ralph Williams Jr.
Scope and Content Note: Evelyn and Ralph Williams, both Milwaukee natives, discuss the 1964 Freedom School boycott, the Coalition to Save North Division, Howard Fuller, problems with the school board during the 1970's, the relationship between the Milwaukee Urban League and the Coalition, and involvement with the New North Division District in 1988.
Scope and Content Note:
Box   8
Audio   71
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   9
Transcript, 1995
Williams, Annette Polly
Scope and Content Note: Annette Polly Williams graduated from North Division High School and attended both Milwaukee Area Technical College and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She was elected to the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1981 and served until 2011. Her interview topics include her participation as a parent on the board of the Urban Day School which offered Montessori education to African American children, racism her children experienced as students at Riverside High School, her work with the coalition to Save North Division High School, and the political climate in Milwaukee's African American community in the early 1970's.
Box   8
Audio   77
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   2
Folder   51
Transcript, 1996
Wray, Jessie E.
Scope and Content Note: Jessie Wray served as treasurer for Organization of Organizations (Triple O). Triple O used non-violent protest to promote social change in the late 1960's. Wray's interview topics include The Federation of Independent Schools, Parents for Educational Progress, marching with Dick Gregory, and working with Milwaukee United School Integration Committee in the mid-1960's.
Box   8
Audio   72
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   10
Transcript, 1995
Wynn, Lauri
Scope and Content Note: Lauri Wynn was a teacher in the Milwaukee Public School district starting in the 1960's. She discussed her work with the Board of Governmental Operations, the planning and implementation of the Interrelated Language Skills Center, her work with the United Community Action Group, and her children's experience in schools during the 1960's and 1970's.
Box   8
Audio   73-74
Interview, 1995
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   11
Transcript, 1995
Young, Ruby
Scope and Content Note: Ruby Young discusses substitute teaching in the Milwaukee Public School (MPS) system in the 1940's and 1950's, her journey in MPS to becoming a full time teacher as a married woman, and being an MPS elementary school teacher during the 1960's.
Box   8
Audio   75
Interview, 1996
Physical Description: Audio cassette 
Box   3
Folder   12
Transcript, 1996
Series: 2. Research Files, 1939-2004
Scope and Content Note: Series contains commission reports and transcripts on school desegregation and government housing; correspondence; leaflets and pamphlets produced by Committee of One Hundred, People United for Integration, and Triple O-Blacks For Two-Way Integration; and newspaper clippings.

The collection case file includes electronic copies of project background files and transcripts; it is available for research use on request.
Box   4
Folder   1
Administrative Change in Milwaukee Municipal Government, Thesis, 1969
Box   4
Folder   2
Barbee, Lloyd, 1978
Box   4
Folder   3
Beckley, Griselda, 1974
Box   4
Folder   4
Black Catholic, St. Benedict Parish, 1946, 1967, 1969
Box   4
Folder   5
Black Catholic, St. Elizabeth Parish, 1977, undated
Box   4
Folder   6
Coggs, Marcia, and Isaac, 1973, 1978-1980
Box   4
Folder   7
Committee of One Hundred, 1976, undated
Box   4
Folder   8
Farrell, Walter, 1980
Box   4
Folder   9
Givens, John, 1971, 1973
Box   4
Folder   10
Golightly, Cornelius, 1956, 1963, 1973
Box   4
Folder   11
Halyard, Ardie, 1965
Box   4
Folder   12
Holt, Cornelius, 1968
Box   4
Folder   13
Kelley, William, 1939, 1960
Box   4
Folder   14
Learning from the Past-Lessons for the Future, Conference Report, undated
Box   4
Folder   15
Lindsay, Bernice, 1969, 1973
Box   4
Folder   16
Malone, Carole, 1976, 1978
Box   4
Folder   17
Metro Integration Research Center, 1976, 1980-1984
Box   6
Folder   1
The Milwaukee Community Journal, 1978-1979
Box   4
Folder   18
Morheuser, Marilyn, 1966, 1995
Box   4
Folder   19
New North Division District, 1985-1987
Box   4
Folder   20
Parrish, Clarence, 1962, 1967-1968, 1980
Box   4
Folder   21
Perlaus, E'Allyne, 1965, 1968
Box   4
Folder   22
Pitts, Terrance, and Orville, 1968, 1972, 1977-1980
Box   5
Folder   1
People United For Integration, 1976-1980
Box   5
Folder   2
Project Background, 2004
Box   5
Folder   3
Relationship Between School Desegregation and Government Housing Program Report, undated
Box   5
Folder   4
Scott, Sarah, 1972, 1979
Box   5
Folder   5
Smyth, Edward, 1966, 1973
Box   5
Folder   6
Starms, Frances and Robert, 1973, 1986
Box   5
Folder   7
Triple O-Blacks for Two-Way Integration, 1976, undated
Box   5
Folder   8
Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, 1990
Box   5
Folder   9-10
Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Transcripts, May 22, 1990
Box   5
Folder   11
Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Transcripts, May 23, 1990