Aldo Leopold papers

Container Title
Series: 9/25/10-5: Research Areas and Projects
Scope and Content Note

Most of the areas and projects in this series represent ongoing research efforts instituted by Mr. Leopold, usually in cooperation with others, and carried on under his supervision by a succession of graduate students. Mr. Leopold's primary emphasis with his students was on field work and the capacity to carry a research project through to publication, even at the masters level. His main focus during the 1930s was on applied ecology, the development of actual techniques and practices of game management, and demonstration on the land -- hence these research areas, on which he delegated actual land management responsibilities to his more advanced students. The Riley and Faville Grove areas served, in addition, as demonstration areas in farm game management organization.

The bulk of the material pertains to research accomplished before World War II forced curtailment. Included are AL's personal files of correspondence and records on the various areas and projects; area atlases containing reports, data, correspondence, and other records of historical value; such actual student research notes, manuscripts, and correspondence as were retained in Mr. Leopold's files; and banding records coordinated through the chair and later the department.

Major categories include the University of Wisconsin Arboretum (001), Faville Grove (002-004), Prairie du Sac (005), Riley (006), Prairie Chicken Investigations (007-009), and general banding (010). See also files for Delta (9/25/10-2, Box 003) and working papers for AL's own research manuscripts (9/25/10-6, Boxes 007-008, 012-013). Other related materials may be found scattered throughout the species and subject files, the Wisconsin county files, and in a few organization folders, such as Pelee Island and US Soil Erosion Service -- Coon Valley.

box 001
Research Areas and Projects: University of Wisconsin Arboretum
Note: AL's appointment to the chair of game management created by WARF in 1933 provided for part of his time to be spent as director of animal research on the newly established University of Wisconsin Arboretum, a position he apparently retained until his death. In addition to the Arboretum papers from AL's own files in this box, see the extensive files of the Arboretum itself (Record Group 38, UW-Madison Archives.)
box 001
folder 001
Arboretum, Administration and Personnel
Note

Documents are concerned with administrative and personnel matters. Included are minutes of Arboretum Committee meetings, correspondence with members of the committee and others concerning general Arboretum matters, and personnel correspondence, especially regarding students of AL who worked on the area. AL must have had a similar file for the period 1933-1938, but it was not among his materials as accessioned.

125 items, 1938-1948

box 001
folder 002
University Arboretum Wild Life Management Plan
Note

Included is the University Arboretum Wild Life Management Plan, a 15-page mimeo document with added maps, inventory lists, and appendices, prepared by AL as Research Director.

25 October 1933

box 001
folder 003a
Arboretum, Research and Technical, 1933-1939
Note

Box 001, Folders 003 through 005 contain correspondence, memos, project proposals, data, and reports concerning ecology, habitat management, and wildlife research supervised by AL. Included are materials on food patch experiments, 1934-1936, 1939; plantings on prairie, marsh, etc.; soil survey and ecology (S. A. Wilde); game census reports; pheasant mobility and survival studies; birds of the Arboretum, 1934-1941 (Anderson, Feeney, Sperry, Catenhausen); raptor observations, 1937-1938 (Feeney); shore-bird census, June 1939 (Winkler, Meyer, Glassberg); miscellaneous bird projects on robin, blackbird, wren, mallard, wood duck, etc.; spring mammal trapping study; plant succession, 1942; conversion of worn-out woodlots to red cedar, 1942; oak reproduction, 1943-1944; forestry research, 1945; flora of Ho-ne-um [sic] Pond, 1943 (Breitenbach); propagation of prairie flora (McCabe); browse data from the McCabe four oak plots, May 1944 (Schenck); cottontail projects, 1945 (Hale); United States Biological Survey plans, 1935; AL draft for proposed leaflet, 1941; research plan for land animals, 1948 (AL and Emlen); wildlife bibliography; and other miscellaneous materials.

In June 2007 this folder was divided for better preservation of physical contents.

1933-1936

box 001
folder 003b
Arboretum, Research and Technical, 1933-1939
Note: 1937-1939
box 001
folder 004a
Arboretum, Research and Technical, 1940-1942
Note

In June 2007 folder 004 was divided for better preservation of physical contents.

1942

box 001
folder 004b
Arboretum, Research and Technical, 1940-1942
Note: 1940-1941
box 001
folder 005a
Arboretum, Research and Technical, 1943-1948
Note

In June 2007 folder 005 was divided for better preservation of the physical contents.

1946-1948

box 001
folder 005b
Arboretum, Research and Technical, 1943-1948
Note: 1943-1945
box 001
folder 006
Rock Island Project
Note

Includes a letter and a report by AL concerning the possible acquisition of Rock Island as an Arboretum substation.

2 items, 1937

box 002
Research Areas & Projects: Faville Grove, General
Note: Contains materials related to the Faville Grove Wildlife Area. In 1934 AL was instrumental in establishing this wildlife area, comprised of a group of cooperating farms in Waterloo Township (Jefferson County). It was named in honor of Stoughton W. Faville (1852-1951), a pioneer farmer and naturalist who encouraged and aided University of Wisconsin research efforts on the area. Among students who worked on the area were Judson Kempton, Ralph Conway, Arthur Hawkins, Hilbert Siegler, I. O. Buss, Lyle Sowls, C. T. Black, and R. A. McCabe. Student materials (Boxes 003-004) bulk largest for the years 1936-1938, when Arthur Hawkins was area manager. Contents and labels of folders are as found.
box 002
folder 001
Faville Grove Atlas
Note

This binder contains clippings, notes, reports, and publications, with sections as follows: general area business, hunting regulations adopted by members, pheasant kill records, annual pheasant drives, census material, Faville Grove mast ice study, ice breakup in Rock Lake, area projects, and Faville Grove reprints.

1933-1942f

box 002
folder 002
Material from Old Faville Grove Atlas
Note

Included are large scrapbook pages with clippings, photographs and other historical records, as well as some 1936 area survey maps.

16 pp, 1934-1937

box 002
folder 003
Faville Grove Area, to July 1940
Note

Included are AL's correspondence with cooperators and students at Faville Grove, the Conservation Department, and others; minutes of annual meetings and other documents; and research notes, data, and manuscripts.

1935-1940

box 002
folder 004
Faville Grove Area, July 1940-
Note

Letters largely concern the Faville Prairie Preserve, deeded to University of Wisconsin by Mr. and Mrs. Philip Miles in 1945.

1940-1947f

box 002
folder 005
Faville Grove Prairie Preserve
Note

Materials relate to administration of the preserve: letters to E.B. Fred, Otto Lange, and [William] Gallistel, along with drafts of administrative plans and a copy of Norman Fassett's "Nature Areas for Research Reserves," donated by Emily Earley in 1985.

7 letters, misc., 1946-1948

box 002
folder 006
Faville Grove Plans and Records
Note

Includes correspondence of AL and student Hawkins with various cooperators in the Faville Grove work, and a few miscellaneous items.

50 letters, misc., 1935-1938

box 002
folder 007
Faville Grove Technical
Note

Includes items from 1940-42, when R.A. McCabe was the student in charge.

1936-1946

box 002
folder 008
Faville Grove -- Mrs. Blaine
Note

Correspondence, principally with Robert Ferry and P.E. McNall, concerns an unsuccessful attempt to get a donor to fund a purchase, lease, and 5-year management program in the Faville Grove area. Also included are air photos, several drawings, and drafts of a proposal, possibly prepared by AL.

50 letters, misc., 1938-1940

box 003
Faville Grove, Pheasant & Hun[garian Partridge] Studies
Note: Contents include student field notebooks and other data in folders, the titles of which adequately indicate their contents.
box 003
folder 001
Nest Maps, 1935-1937
Note: Folder
box 003
folder 002
Nest Data, 1936?
Note: Folder
box 003
folder 003
Hungarian Partridge Study, June-July 1936
Note: Folder; daily field notes (Siegler)
box 003
folder 004
FG Data (Hun survey?)
Note: Folder (Hawkins), July-August1936
box 003
folder 005
Hun (and quail?) Nesting Records, 1937
Note: Folder
box 003
folder 006
Hun, Farm Nesting sheets, 1938
Note: Folder
box 003
folder 007
Hun Nests, 1938
Note: Folder
box 003
folder 008
1938 -- Hun Study
Note: Folder; Hawkins material
box 003
folder 009
Hun Partridge Nesting Records, 1938
Note: Notebook (Hawkins)
box 003
folder 010
Nesting Data (Huns), 1936
Note: Notebook
box 003
folder 011
Hun Nesting, 1937
Note: Notebook
box 003
folder 012
Pheasant Survival, 1938-1939
Note: Folder (correspondence and records)
box 003
folder 013
Specimen Records, 1936-1938
Note: Folder (pheasant, rabbit, et al.)
box 003
folder 014
Specimen Records -- pheasants shot, Fall 1938
Note: Folder (Sowls)
box 003
folder 015
Faville Pheasant banding, 1938; Acknowledgment of Returns, 1938-1939
box 003
folder 016
Pheasant banding, 1937-1938
Note: Notebook
box 003
folder 017
Hungarian Partridge Correspondence
Note: Folder; 20 letters, 1938-1940 (AL, Hawkins, Sowls, et al.)
box 004
Research Areas & Projects: Faville Grove, Miscellaneous Records
Note: Contents include mostly student field notebooks and other data in folders, the titles of which adequately indicate their contents.
box 004
folder 001
Reports, 1936-1937
Note: Folder (Hawkins)
box 004
folder 002
WPA, 1935-1937
Note: Folder; 20 letters and forms
box 004
folder 003
Early Natural History of FG [Faville Grove] Area
Note: Notebook (Hawkins)
box 004
folder 004
Historical and Miscellaneous Game Management Notes
Note: Notebook (Hawkins?)
box 004
folder 005
Natural History, Southeastern Wisconsin
Note: Notebook (Hawkins?)
box 004
folder 006
Wildlife History of Faville Grove
Note: Folder; manuscripts (Hawkins)
box 004
folder 007
FG [Faville Grove] Land Utilization Data, 1935-1937
Note: Folder
box 004
folder 008
Crop Phenology, 1936-1937
Note: Folder
box 004
folder 009
Planting Plans & Projects, 1935-1937
Note: Folder
box 004
folder 010
Planting, 1937
Note: Folder; maps and data
box 004
folder 011
Planting, 1938
Note: Folder
box 004
folder 012
Cover Planting Records
Note: Folder; Inventory, 1940
box 004
folder 013
FG [Faville Grove] Mast Study, 1941
Note: Folder
box 004
folder 014
FG [Faville Grove] Bird Migration
Note: Folder; Census, misc., 1936
box 004
folder 015
Winter Feeding, 1936-1937
Note: Folder
box 004
folder 016
Crop Maps, 1937-1939
Note: Folder
box 004
folder 017
Feeding Data, 1936
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 018
Nesting Off-Area, 1936
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 019
Game Birds, Winter 1936-1937
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 020
Brood Data, 1936
Note: Two notebooks are included. One bears the initials H. R. S. [Hilbert Siegler?]
box 004
folder 021
General Data, FG [Faville Grove], 1935-1936
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 022
WPA Nesting Survey Field Notes, 1937
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 023
Field Notes, 1937-1938
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 024
Daily Field Notes, 1937
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 025
Census Data, 1936-1937
Note: Notebook; Seasonal chronology and migration records
box 004
folder 026
Miscellaneous Notes, 1936
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 027
Plant List, 1936
Note: Notebook
box 004
folder 028
Willow Plantings
Note: 1937
box 005
Research Areas & Projects: Prairie du Sac
Note: Paul L. Errington began research at Prairie du Sac, including an annual wildlife census and studies of the northern bobwhite quail, in 1929 as a SAAMI fellow at the University of Wisconsin (under AL's general supervision, but for a Ph.D. in 1932 under Professor George Wagner). See the "Bobwhite" folder (9/25/10-4 002 004) for a few letters and items pertaining to Errington's early studies. The wildlife censuses were continued after 1932 by a local woodsman, Albert Gastrow, under the joint supervision of AL and Errington; several graduate students also worked on the area at times. See also materials relating to a proposed joint manuscript by AL and Errington analyzing the results of the censuses (9/25/10-6, Box 013).
box 005
folder 001
Prairie du Sac Correspondence and Notes
Note

Includes correspondence, principally with Paul Errington, concerning data and research manuscripts; Albert Gastrow's logs of field observations, typed from his notebooks (the notebooks themselves have not been found); field data, charts, graphs, and reports by AL, Errington, and various other researchers in the area; and a few manuscript drafts. These materials, bound after AL's death, cover the same years as items in Folder 002 below, but may originally have been included in an atlas.

Bound volume, 1936-1948

box 005
folder 002
Prairie du Sac Area
Note

AL's project file contains administrative correspondence, financial requests, research reports, and census data. Correspondence with Errington, Gastrow, various Wisconsin Conservation Department men, Russell Turk, and students Cyril Kabat and Donald Thompson are also included.

165 items, 1937-1948

box 005
folder 003
Prairie du Sac, Animal Pyramid Project (Harold Hanson), 1940-1943
Note: Contains material about the Animal Pyramid Project: research requests and reports, charts, graphs, and supporting data compiled by AL, 1927-1942; and a few of Harold Hanson's notes.
box 005
folder 004
Prairie du Sac, Winter Bird Census (Harold Hansen)
Note: The year of the Winter Bird Census data (Harold Hansen again) is not certain, but was probably 1941-1942.
box 006
Research Areas & Projects: Riley
Note

The Riley Game Cooperative was established in 1931, largely through the efforts of AL and R. J. Paulson, a farmer near Riley in western Dane County, and was licensed as a shooting preserve. The group consisted of about 11 farm members who furnished land and grain and 5 town members (of whom AL was "spokesman") who furnished operating funds. Graduate students assigned to the area, 1936-1939, were Ellwood Moore, H. Albert Hochbaum, Lyle Sowls, and Bruce Stollberg.

Some of the items in this box, including the Atlas, were on loan to the Department of Wildlife Ecology as of July 2007. These items were made available for digitization but have yet to be reaccessioned in the UW-Madison Archives.

box 006
folder 001
Riley Game Cooperative (Atlas)
Note

Included are memos to members, reports, proposed and final rules, chronologies of management activities, financial statements, pheasant release records, kill records, planting and winter feeding records, observations and notes, and newsletters 1939-48.

Binder, 125 items, 1931-1948

box 006
folder 002
Riley Area, to July 1938
Note: 130 items, 1931-1938
box 006
folder 003
Riley Area, July 1938 to June 1940
Note: The original, printed finding aid did not list a folder 003. During the reorganization of the papers for the digitization project in 2007-08 a new folder 003 was created.
box 006
folder 004
Riley Area, July 1940-
Note

These are AL's files of correspondence and records concerning the status of Riley under Wisconsin's shooting preserve law, raising and releasing of pheasants, food and cover plantings, finances, meetings and reports to members, banding, and student research.

150 items, 1940-1948

box 006
folder 005
Newsletters to Members of the Riley Game Cooperative
Note: 6 newsletters, 1941-1946
box 006
folder 006
Riley Game Cooperative (Roark?)
Note

This may have been R.J. Roark's file, consisting of correspondence, memos, and newsletters. Roark was apparently "spokesman" for town members in Fall 1935 while AL was in Germany and from 1950-53, after AL's death.

The Roark folder is missing as of 2007.

box 007
Research Areas and Projects: Prairie Chicken Investigations, 1930-1935
Note

Materials relate to prairie chickens in Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Investigations were begun by Dr. A.O. Gross for the Wisconsin Conservation Department in 1928. In 1930, F.J.W. Schmidt acted as Dr. Gross's assistant, then took charge and was carried by WCD until May 1933, when he was appointed to a research assistantship supported by the chair of game management at the University of Wisconsin. On 8 Aug. 1935 Schmidt, one of AL's first Ph.D. candidates and an ecologist of outstanding promise, was killed in a fire which also destroyed his notes, photographs, and manuscripts, about 8 of which he was readying for publication.

Box 007 contains what remains of Schmidt's work, consisting mostly of early reports and notes, and early versions of some of the papers, as well as a few manuscripts on miscellaneous topics not directly related to the prairie chicken investigations.

Folders 005 through 011 hold Schmidt's drafts, notes, and correspondence on a variety of topics. Folders 012 through 019 hold Schmidt's correspondence and notes covering selected subjects related to game birds, but no manuscripts.

box 007
folder 001
Franklin Schmidt Grouse Investigation
Note: AL's file about Schmidt's grouse investigations.
box 007
folder 002
Schmidt, Miscellaneous
Note: Correspondence and a few notes.
box 007
folder 003
Winter Food Manuscript
Note: Schmidt's Winter Food manuscript had been ready for publication prior to his death and was published in 1936. Also included is an obituary of Schmidt by AL, notes, early drafts of the manuscript, and correspondence pertaining both to Schmidt and to AL.
box 007
folder 004
Unpublished Manuscripts
Note

1931-1935

Most of these manuscripts by Schmidt had been in the WCD files and are extra copies of some of the manuscripts in the folders that follow.

box 007
folder 005
Bogs, Swamps and Marshes
Note: Drafts for Botany seminar, March 1935
box 007
folder 006
Reptiles and Amphibians
Note: Draft, notes, correspondence, March 1935
box 007
folder 007
Artificial Propagation of Prairie Chickens
Note: Draft, 1932?
box 007
folder 008
Feeding Stations
Note: Drafts, notes, correspondence, 1930-1932
box 007
folder 009
Prairie Chicken Courtship
Note: 1 letter; 2 maps; Radio talk, 18 January 1932
box 007
folder 010
Prairie Chicken Cycle
Note: Drafts, 1931?, 1933; notes, correspondence, 1929-1935
box 007
folder 011
Area Grouse Investigations
Note: Reports, notes
box 007
folder 012
Parasites and Disease in Game Birds
Note

Correspondence, 1921-1935 (no mss.)

Folders 12-19 contain Schmidt's correspondence and notes, but no manuscripts.

box 007
folder 013
Banding, Game Birds
Note: Correspondence, 1931-1935
box 007
folder 014
Crop Records
Note: Stomach analysis data and correspondence, 1930-1935
box 007
folder 015
Grouse Nests
Note: Correspondence and notes, 1921-1934
box 007
folder 016
Seasonal Shifts of Grouse
Note: Notes, maps, correspondence, 1929-1934
box 007
folder 017
Sharptail Range
Note: Correspondence, 1929, 1935
box 007
folder 018
Iowa Game Birds
Note: Notes and correspondence, 1934
box 007
folder 019
Small Mammals and Hawks
Note: 1 letter, 2 maps, misc.
box 008
Research Areas & Projects: Prairie Chicken Investigations, misc., 1936-1938
box 008
folder 001
Prairie Chicken Distribution Questionnaires
Note: Folders 001 and 002 contain questionnaires and related correspondence, 1929, apparently sent by W.B. Grange, WCD Superintendent of Game, but included with the Schmidt papers.
box 008
folder 002
Game Questionnaires
Note: Mimeo blanks, 1929, 1934
box 008
folder 003
Topographic Maps
Note: Mostly Wisconsin (Schmidt's file)
box 008
folder 004
County and Town Outline Maps (Wisconsin)
Note: These maps, filled out by Schmidt, show grouse distribution.
box 008
folder 005
Prairie Chicken Banding, 1936-1937
Note

For approximately one year after Schmidt's death, AL coordinated the prairie chicken investigations (at first called the Lake States Banding Cooperative and later renamed the Prairie Grouse Cooperative). AL's student F.N. Hamerstrom, Jr., eventually took over the prairie chicken work. (More of Fred and Frances Hamerstrom's materials can be found in Box 009.)

During this time period much Wisconsin game bird banding was done through the Central Wisconsin Game Project (Resettlement Administration).

box 008
folder 006a
Prairie Chicken Banding, 1937-1938
Note

Contains banding reports, tables, summaries, maps, and the Sharptailed Grouse Report.

In July 2007 folder 006 was divided for the better preservation of physical contents; banding data is found in 006a and correspondence in 006b.

box 008
folder 006b
Prairie Chicken Banding, 1937-1938
Note: Contains correspondence.
box 009
Research Areas & Projects: Prairie Chicken Investigations, 1938-1942
box 009
folder 001
Prairie Chicken Banding, 1938-1939
Note: Folders 001 and 002 contain correspondence and data of the Lake States Banding Cooperative.
box 009
folder 002
Prairie Chicken Banding, 1939-1940
box 009
folder 003
Banding Co-op Progress Reports, 1938-1942
Note: Miscellaneous materials are included. Fred Hamerstrom is the likely author of the Lake States Banding Co-op progress reports found here. Also included are Hamerstrom's correspondence, 1941-43, and a typed manuscript entitled "Progress Report of the Prairie Grouse Co-op," dated 28 Dec. 1942, with a 46-page appendix on traps (updating the 1937 manual).
box 009
folder 004
Prairie Chicken Study -- General
Note: This is AL's file of correspondence, reports, and requests for funds in regard to the Prairie Chicken Study. Fred and Frances Hamerstrom were Leopold's students until 1940 (Fred, Ph.D.; Frances, M.S.), when they moved to the George Reserve in Michigan. They returned to Wisconsin for a few months each spring to continue the prairie chicken investigations, and came back full-time after the war.
box 010
Research Areas & Projects: General Banding
Note: Included here are AL's own files of data and correspondence on banding done by students and cooperators.
box 010
folder 001
Banding Returns, 1937-1940
Note: Contents include returns, miscellaneous notes, and correspondence.
box 010
folder 002
Banding & Migration, 1941-1948
box 010
folder 003
Material Removed from Banding Book, 1947
Note

These are AL's files of data and correspondence on banding done by students and cooperators on species other than prairie chicken. Pheasant records bulk large.

1937-1946

box 010
folder 004
Autopsy Records from Banding Book, 1936-1946
Note: Autopsy records filled out by AL and various students.
box 010
folder 005
Quail Banding Data, 1937-1942
box 010
folder 006
Pheasant Movements, 1935-1937
Note: This may have been Arthur Hawkins' file; it contains correspondence and notes for a study covering several game areas.
box 010
folder 007
Bird Banding Records, 1936-1941
Note

Includes records of the daily trapping of pheasants in the University of Wisconsin Arboretum.

Also included is a notebook, "Pheasant Trapping Nevin Fish Hatcher 1944-45," by Maurice J. Babb.

1936-1941, 1944-1945

box 010
folder 008
University Bay Pheasant Records (Greeley, Kabat, Thompson), 1946-1948
box 010
folder 009