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Anderson, A. C. (Alfred Conrad), 1887-, et al. / Soil survey of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin

Soils,   pp. 8-28 PDF (7.7 MB)

Page 11

Along many lower slopes there is an accumulation of soil washed
from higher up the slope.
  Kewaunee silty clay loam is one of the important soils in the
county. It occurs in association with other soils of this series in
the towns of Maplegrove, Rockland, Eaton, Cato, Liberty, Meeme,
Manitowoc Rapids, and parts of several other towns. The land
surface on which this soil occurs ranges from undulating to gently
rolling, and in only a very few places could the relief be classed
as hilly. There is no sharp line between the undulating Kewaunee
and the level Superior soils. Natural drainage is for the most part
good, but on the more nearly level areas it is only fair, partly be-
cause of the heaviness of the subsoil. In some included draws and
depressed areas, tile drains could be used to advantage.
  Probably more than 90 per cent of the soil is cleared and improved
farm land. This is one of the most productive soils in the county,
but because of its heavy texture it is hard to work. It is well suited
to general farming and dairying. and these are the types of agri-
culture most highly developed on it. The chief crops are hay, small
grain, corn, and alfalfa, and some peas and root crops are grown as
special crops. Yields are above the average for the county but the
range is great, owing to variations in methods of farming and
  Kewaunee silty clay loam, level phase.-The level phase of Kewau-
nee silty clay loam includes areas having an average slope of less
than 1'. The soil is the same as typical Kewaunee silty clay loam.
It closely resembles Superior clay loam, differing from that soil in
that the subsoil contains angular gravel and is derived from glacial
till, whereas typical Superior clay loam is derived from water-laid
  Only a few small scattered areas of this soil were mapped. Nat-
ural drainage is apt to be somewhat deficient, but that has largely
been overcome by putting in tile on the lowest part of the areas.
The crops grown, yields, and value of the land are about the same as
on Kewaunee silty clay loam.
  Kewaunee silty clay loam, rolling phase.-The rolling phase of
Kewaunee silty clay loam was separated from the typical soil on the
basis of surface relief. It includes areas with slopes of 70 or more,
or a slope sufficiently steep to cause destructive erosion or to interfere
with the use of ordinary farm machinery. This soil is the same as
typical Kewaunee silty clay loam, except that the surface soil is
thinner in cultivated areas. Clay spots where all the surface soil has
been washed away. are more numerous.
  This soil occurs in only a few small areas scattered over the typical
soil. Probably 60 per cent of it is in wood lots and permanent
pastures and about 40 per cent in cultivation. Practically the same
crops are grown as on Kewaunee silty clay loam, except that a large
acreage is devoted to clover, timothy, and alfalfa for hay and tame
  Kewaunee silty clay loam, shallow phase.-The shallow phase of
Kewaunee silty clay loam is distinguished by the presence of bedrock
at a depth of 2 or 3 feet. The bedrock is dolomitic limestone, and
in places a thin layer of clay residual from the limestone occurs
between the glacial drift mantle and the rock. This phase of soil

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