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Powers, D. J.; Hoyt, J. W.; Sampson Hoyt, E. O. (ed.) / The Wisconsin farmer, and north-western cultivator: devoted to agriculture, horticulture, the mechanic arts, and rural economy
Volume XI (1859)

Wisconsin farmer, and north-western cultivator. Vol. XI, no. 1,   pp. [1]-36 PDF (13.4 MB)


Page 2


2                        WISCONSIN FARMER.
acre, per annum, for the remaining 18 yeas.
   The first of the above estimates maybe
much too low and the second " munh too high
for application to any specific case, but the
true principle of calculation is thereby illus-
trated; and we have no heuitation in saying
that no farmer whose land is rich and too wet
for early cultivation, and so near to a market
for its producip as tojiutit phoou&  oultivi'
tion, and whose pesudiiqd    ma     wout
allow of his advancing the requisite means,
would do wisely in neglecting to drain. Thme
average cost of thorough drainage according
to the moat approved ydsika may Je alteiat
$25 per acre-though the work may often be
accomplished with an actual oxpeu~diture of
a Imost no money at all, the dtcfhing being
  one when other work is not pressing, and the
  ducts or con duits for the vter beig madv of
  atone gathered up from the fiel  But morq of
  the cost in connectiop wit} the d    zcrst kind,
  of drains. Of th6 prosts, such Daralleos *o-
  counts re given by the mat relielge xe- who
  have experimented, that i were flly to doubt
its large advantage to almost any so  pwt
chiefly sand to the depth of severs feet. In
England, where the benefits have been move
thoroughly tested, th drainagee is peared,
by renters of land at their ow seat, when the
lease holds for a number of (say 10.0) years.
Mnn gives an account of one tent who had
beoomse so well convinced of te prts .f
draining, that on the renewal of his. seasdo
nineteen-years lease of 900eie be ommtn&-
ad the work of thorough draige, and atu-
ally laid 300 miles, in length, of tilesI In this
country, however, where it is the prevailing
notion that the soil is perfect in all its eondi-
tions and absolutely inethaustible, draining is
practiced by only a verylfw-whom therefore,
the mas  of farmers distrust as men  ama-
teurs, whose example it in not safe to folow.
The results of experiments, are, neverthsless,
gradually making coaverta, and the best prac-
tical agriculturits and gardeners ae begin-
ning to regard it with favor.
   Let us suppose, then, that the proprietor of
 certain lands is satisfied, as to the general bea-
 efit, and wishes to make. special trial on his
 own farm. How should he proceedI and
 what i the natral ceder of the steps tobe
 taken
              TRZ LAYIng OUt
 is the first work and involve, a consideration
 of the surface of the land, and of the probable
amount of water to be removed-in other
words of the direction and number of the
drains. And although it is not a work that
involves very considerable scientific knowledge
and skill, yet it does require a good judgment
and often a knowledge of the use of the levd
-_n instrument for determining the grade of
asent and descent of uneven lands. Where
4   Me AWe *           *b  lpes, the eye
p411 of 0oprde, det     Iethqirection the
drain should take, but In case of very level
Ad, the water level illustrated below, will
often coneet an error of the eye. It is cheap-
ly ejiat        (ind Y14jnO P       . p i4'he,
although, we believe Mr. J. J. Thomas, the
land"cape Gardener, first introduced this mod-
eL 4ih aeieaden tube three feet lang, rend
W
. I- .
up tbe ends  - ia or two as ae  at A.  d
.3, (Fig. &4)  d fasktt it tb strip of wood
of equal henth. sad ; "; whole by anjlae
joint t  tripod, or thrembged suppprt like
tht in the cut  Into the ends of the tube set
ana ese by sefling-wax a bottomle"s phial;
fill the tube with  ers slred *ith BmI
wood, oelkineal, or sbme atbor dye-af, and
the instrument is reedy for use. When the
liquid stands at an equl hight above the
straight wooden strip, i ,both  id, the tube
must be horisontal, and you. have simply to
look a}ross the s-rfacee of the liquid in the
two phia to obtain n aeuuras level.
      THIS DIZaCSIzo  O  A DRAIIIN,
foruneven lands, has been discussed with much
warmth in England, some Maintaining that
they should deseend a slope obfliquely, others
direcfly. The weight of argument, however,
is most decidedly on the side of direct drain-
age, which we, therefore, recommend. As a
general rle, it is safe, In laying out, to folow
the direction of the natural flow on the sr-
face, during * heavy fall of rain-tho mller
drains bea8ag the same relation o diection
to the larger ones, ea the tributariee beor to
the greater reams into which they Rlow.


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