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Wisconsin farmer and northwestern cultivator
Vol. 4 (1852)

Wisconsin and Iowa farmer, and northwestern cultivator. Vol. IV, no. 7,   pp. [145]-168 PDF (9.3 MB)


Page 147


1852. ~ ~ ~ ~ F NOTWETR  CUTVTO.
comes unable to return, and slides down the
mucus membrane. Then, (say two or three
hours after using the honey) give the sheep a
little snuff or cayenne, and the effort of sneez-
ing, will place the worm beyond the chance
of doing harm. Some of our best farmers
have tried this remedy long enough to estab-
lish its merit
  To prevent this evil, some farmers, in the
month of July or August, bore holes in their
salt troughs, with a two inch auger, and fill
them with salt. And around the top of the
holes, apply tar, frequently, so that when the
sheep eats salt, a morsel of tar clings to the
nose, which prevents the insect from deposit-
ing its eggs in that region.
       [Cor. of the New England Farmer.
  Bristol, Jan. 12, 1852.
  A firkin should be made of wood that will
not impart its taste to the butter, such as
Rock Maple, Canada Spruce, Fir, Ash, &,c.-
The staves should be i of an inch thick after
being finished, and made tight without being
Nflagged," as the Coopers say. Be sure and
not use firkins that have the sap on any of the
staves, as they will mould, notwithstanding
all your care. Neither should you use tubs
with bass-wood covers.  They should be
soaked faithfully with salt and water, and
thoroughly dried before being used. The
pickle used can be put into another tub and
kept till wanted, with a little salt added -
thereby saving pickle, and soaking the next
tub for use. As to size, that will depend on
the number of cows; but one that will hold
fifty pounds is large enough for any dairy, as
they sell better than larger tubs.
                   [Con. Northern Farmer.
          Xotiou of Sap in Trees.
   What a curious hallucination is that which
supposes the sap of trees to fall or settle in
the winter into the roots ! One would have
thought that the notorious difficulty of cram-
ming a quart of water into a pint measure
might have suggested the improbability of
such a phenomenon. For it certainly does
require a very large amount of credulity to
believe that the fluids of the trunk and head
of a tree, can, by any natural force of com-
pression, be compelled to enter so narrow a
lodging at the root.
   We shall assume the word sap to signify
the fluids, of whatever nature, which are con-
tained in the interior of a tree. In the spring
the sap runs out of the trunk when it is
wounded ; in the summer, autumn and win-
ter, it does not, unless exceptionally, make its
appearance. But in truth the Sap is always
in motion at all seasons and under all circum-
stances, except in the presence of intense cold.
The difference is that there is a great deal of
it in the spring and much less at other sea-
sols.
  When a tree falls to rest at the approach
of winter, its leaves have carried so much
more fluid than the roots have been able to
supply, that the whole of the interior is in a
state of comparative dryness, and a large por-
tion of that sap which once was fluid, has
become solid in consequence of the various
chemical changes it has undergone. Between
simple evaporation on the one hand, and chem-
ical solidification on the other, the sap is in
the autumn, so much diminished in quantity
as to be no longer discoverable by mere in-
cisions. The power that a plant may possess
of resisting cold, is in proportion to the com-
pleteness of this drying process.
  When the leaves have fallen off, the tree is
no longer subject to much loss of fluid by
perspiration, nor to extensive changes by as-
sinilation. But the absorbing power of the
roots is not arrested ; they, on the contrary,
go on sucking fluid from the soil, and driving
it upward through the system. The effect of
this is, that after some nionths of such an ac-
tion, that loss of fluid which the tree has sus-
tained in autumn by its leaves is made good,-
and the whole plant is distended with watery
particles. This is a most wise provision, in
order to insure abundance of sap for the new
born leaves and branches, when spring and!
sunshine stimulate them into growth.
  During all the winter period the sap seemi
to be at rest, for the re-filling process is
gradual one. But M. Biot many years a;
proved by an ingenious apparatus, that I
rate of motion of the sap, may be measu
at all seasons, and he ascertained it to be in
state of inactivity in mid-winter. Amo
other things he found that frost had consid
able influence upon the direction in which
sap moves. In mild weather the sap was c
stantly rising, but when frost was experien
the sap flowed back again-a plhenome
which he referred to the contracting power
cold on the vessel of the trunk and branch
the effect of which was to force the sap do
wards into the roots, Iving in a warmer
dium; then, again, when the frost
the roots themselves and began acting on th
the sap was forced back into the trunk
as soon as the thaw came and the ground
covered its heat, the roots out of which a
of the sap had been forced upwards, w
again filled by the fluids above hem, and
sap was forced to falL  A  largepoplar
the latter state. having been cut end at
1852.
NORTHWESTERN CULTIVATOR.
147
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