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The Wisconsin lumberman, devoted to the lumbering interests of the northwest
Volume III. Number 6 (March, 1875)

Our forests,   pp. 500-501 PDF (765.9 KB)

Bearings,   pp. 501-502 PDF (780.1 KB)

Page 501

Mhe Rucoui" L"Iainan.
'pineries exhausted, the Big Woods pretty
wreB thinned out~, the Missisaippi drying
up, St Paul and Minneapolis 3bO or 400
hundred miles above steamboat navigation,
mercury 40 degrees below zero, and the
wind blowing a hurricane. The remedy
tor the growing evil is tree planting.
Somethine has been done in this direc-
tion. The congressional acts of 1873 and
1874, which allows a man who plants and
tends a certain number of trees to enter
land free, have stimulated individual ac-
tion. Altogether, nearly 20,000,000 trees
have been set out in Minnesota. Of these,
4,000,000 have been planted by the St.
Paul and Pacifie road, which has found the
business a profitable one. Mr. Hodges in-
deed claims that it is more profitable than
prain growing, although it yields smalIim-
mediate returns. He declares that *'the
net profits on a quarter- section of prairie,
properly prepared, planted, and cultivated
with forest trees, will, within ten yrears,
exceed ten quarter-sections of wheat, ' and
that "tlhe genuine white willow, properly
handled will increase faster than money at
intere3t at 4 per cent. per month." While
these statements may be, and probably
are, somewhat exaggerated, they have a
solid basis of truth. There can be no
doubt that the destruction of forest, in the
northwest is working a vast injury to the
country. The winters are already grow-
ing colder, so that we may, ere long, be
forced, like New England farmers, to aban-
don the cultivation of the more delicate
nortiern fruits. The drought which makes
the great interior basin worth less is creep-
ingeastward. We need forests to break
the violence of freezing gales, to preserve
the moisture of the ground, and to serve as
the raw material for buildings, fences, fuel,
railroad-ties, etc., in the future. The
west is begining to appreciate this fact.
Congressional action has been wisely taken.
Nebraska has established a legal holiday,
called, we believe, "Tree-Planting Day."
There is a state superintendent of arbori-
culture, andprizes are given to the men
w ho plant the most trees during the year.
The plan is said to work weD. It should
be tried elsewhere. The northwest, in
cutting down its forests at the present rate
and making no provisions to replace them,
is living on its capital, as Virginia plant-
ersdid when they ruined the soil of the
Old Dominion by growing successive crops
of tobacco. The man who makes two trees
grow where oge grew before is a public
benefactor.- Chicago Tribune.
(From the Metal World.]
M. C. Runzel has tabulated the results
of experiments made on the effect, of fric-
tion between various substances. ,The
heat produced, other conditions being equal
is in proportion to the hardness of the sub-
stances; and, on the other hand, the grea-
ter the difference in the hardness of two
substances rubbing against each other, the
less the heat produced by the friction, and
the harder of the two heats more than the
other. If friction take place between glass
and cork the amount of heat received by
the two respectively is as seven to one,
and between bronze and cork, four to one.
For durability alone, of course, bearings
should be of metal as hard as that of the
arbors which they support, but consider-
ing the wear of the latter the former should
be as soft as possible. In practice, hew-
ever, certain precautions are to be observed;
the bearing must no teut the arbor, and it
must wear as little is possible; it should
not get hot even when lubrication fails,
and, lastly, it should possess resistance
enough to bear sPl the shocks that fall pon
it without being deformed or braken. The
aloys of copper and tin generally in use
are rarely homogeneous, with the exception
of that which contains eighty-two to eighty-
three parts of copper to seventeen or eigh-
teen of tin. W~hen there is less tin in the
composition granulation takes place dur-
ing cooling, which alters the homogeneous-
ness of the alloy, and causes the cutting
both of bearing and arbor. When an alloy
of copper and tin sets slowly the first part
consolidated i a very soft alloy not con-
taining more than 7 to 10 per cent. of tin;
this forms, as it were, the shell of the
bearing, while the hard alloys containing
seventeen to eighteen parts of tin, set
afterwards and fills up the shell. When a
bearing thus formed is in work the soft
alloy soon gives way, and the hard grains
within attack the arbor and are often torn
out and carried away when grease fails.
A good bearing should be the very
opposite of the above: its shell should be
very hard and durable, and the interior
filled up with a softer composition. This
result is attempted to be obtained by
fusing together several alloys of different
compositions and degrees of fusibility, so
as to produce by two given alloys, but the
operation is delicate and the result uncer-
tain. Phosphorus bronze succeeds best in
this way; the shell is then almost entirely
formed of very hard broze, and the interior
of a soft alloy of ocpper and tin. The

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