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Land economic inventory of the state of Wisconsin
([1934/])

Land economic inventory of the state of Wisconsin, Juneau County,   pp. [unnumbered]-51 PDF (14.0 MB)


Page 12


12   STATE OF WISCONSIN, EXECUTIVE COUNCIL
The general surface was more or less billowy with dunes of all
sizes, and these were smoothed over by the lake. The second effect
was the deposition of fine rock flour and clay material contributed
by melt waters flowing into the lake from the ice fields. These ice
fields had traversed the eastern counties that contain limestone of
which they had accumulated considerable loads. Since the ice front
lay some distance away, only the finer materials were carried into
Juneau county. The only trace of these is found along the Lemon-
weir and Yellow rivers. Reference has been made to the probable
presence of deeper valleys along the pre-glacial courses of these
streams. The clays have not been found anywhere outside these
valleys. The probability is that had they been temporarily de-
posited in shallows, they would have been shifted into the deeper
water. The clays are of variable thickness indicating either deposi-
tion upon an irregular floor, or subsequent erosion. At Necedah
they are 70 feet thick, according to the record of a drilled well.
At Shennington, in Monroe county, in the Lemonweir Valley, two
wells are reported to have passed through 28 feet. An exploration
in them to locate a deposit for use in surfacing State Highway
No. 21, showed 13 feet, while others a mile or two west showed only
six feet with sand below.
  In the later stages of glacial history, while the ice dam was dis-
sipating and ultimately when the Wisconsin River had cut its new
channel through the Dells, the lake waters gradually receded. The
relatively higher ground to the north was first exposed. Its sands
were probably to some extent moved gradually southward, and ulti-
mately exposed to wind action. Any fine silt within reach of the
winds was blown away. The clays are now found under several feet
of sand, and this cover is perhaps accounted for by the shifting
action of these receding waters. The Wisconsin River evidently con-
tinued to carry heavy loads of sand as indicated in the belt of
Plainfield sand of glacial origin which forms a relatively higher de-
posit correlating with periods of flood. Subsequently, the river has
cut its channel through these deposits.
  In still later time, the Lemonweir and to some extent the Yellow,
have removed the sand cover and cut channels into the laminated
clays. There are various mixtures of fine sand, silt, and clay. Com-
bined, they represent the Superior soils of the soils map.
  In the sand plain, although there is little traffic to be served, the
town roads, and State Highway No. 21, which runs straight west
through Necedah, have required some kind of binding material to
hold the loose sands. The only two local materials are the clays
and deposits of bog iron ore. The clays are confined to the southern
belt and bog ores have been used to some extent in the north and
along part of Highway No. 21. The bog ores are not very satis-
factory, particularly in dry weather, for they produce a very dis-
agreeable dust. They are essentially cementations of iron oxide in
the loose sand. There are all gradations between mere coatings on
the sand grains and hard, thoroughly cemented rock-like masses
comparable to the sandstones of the higher areas.


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