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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
(1880)

History of Columbia County: Chapter I,   pp. [309]-[325] ff. PDF (9.3 MB)


Page 310


10 [STORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY.
                     GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS OF THE SEVERAL TOWNS.
     Randolph (Township 13 north, Range 12 east).--.The Potsdam  sandstone
comes to the
surface along the bottom of a deep ravine in the southeast corner of this
town.  Through this
ravine, the bottom of which has an altitude above Lake Michigan of only 240
feet, flow the
headwaters of Duck Creek. On its walls, the Mendota and Madison beds are
seen in several
quarries. The Lower Magnesian limestone underlies the western and northern
parts of the
town, and comes to the surface, also, in the low area along the east line
in Sections 13, 24, 25
and 36. The principal exposure noticed is at P. Schleissmann's quarry, on
the west line of the
southwest quarter of Section 6. Here a ten-foot quarry-face shows below,
in thin and very
regular layers, a close-textured, buff-colored, nearly pure dolomite, which
weathers with a
smooth, yellowish surface, is marked finely with dendritic manganese oxide,
and is coated, in
places, with white stalactitic lime carbonate; and at the top, a heavy layer
of concretionary,
dark-colored dolomite. On the hill above, are exposures of the ordinary rough-textured
Lower
Magnesian, near the base of which formation the quarry layers appear to lie.
The Lower
Magnesian is to be seen, also, near the middle of the South line of Section
6 ; on a small open-
ing on B. Evans' land, southeast quarter of Section 17 ; on the hill above
the Madison and
Mendota quarry, in Section 31; on T. Sanderson's land, near the east line
of Section 32 ; at
the head of Duck Creek, near the center of Section 28 ; on A. Wolsleyel's
land, southeast
quarter of Section 9; on the east side of the marsh, southeast quarter of
Section 1; in the
road on south side of Section 138; at the creek-crossing, on the south line
of Section 24, and at
the grist-mill, in the southeast quarter of Section 36.
     The Trenton limestone, with the underlying St. Peters sandstone, covers
most of the mid-
dle and western sections of the town, in one continuous area, and occurs,
also, in small, isolated
areas in Sections 15, 11, 2 and 1. Eight feet of the lower layers of the
Trenton are exposed
in a small quarry at the top of the hill on the north side of the marsh in
Section 2; the lower
layers thick and regular, the upper ones shaly.   Two feet Welow the base
of the quarry is the
junction with the St. Peters, seventy-five feet above the marsh, beneath
which the Lower Mag-
nesian lies, at shallow depths. Another quarry in the lower layers of the
Trenton, on
the south side of the same marsh, northeast quarter of Section 11, shows
ten feet of thin
and regularly bedded buff limestone, underlaid by ferruginous sand, the junction
sharply defined.
Other exposures of Trenton were noticed at several points on the road running
north through
Section 12, at D. R. Jones' quarry, in the northeast quarter of Section 13,
where the junc-
tion with the St. Peters is again seen; on the northwest quarter of Section
25,in a quarry
on H. Hutchinson's land, northeast quarter of the southeast, quarter of Section
26, where
Ă½the junction of the blue and buff beds is seen; and in a quarry on
R. Arms' land, near
the center of Section 15. At the latter place, the St. Peters and Lower Magnesian
are also
exposed, the former nearly loose sand, and having a thickness of not over
fifteen feet. The
same small thickness was observed again on -Sections 36 and 25, where the
Lower Magnesian at
the grist-mill is only twenty feet below the Trenton, one-half mile south.
      I Courtland (Township 12, Range 12 east).-The Potsdam sandstone is
at the surface only
 along the bottom of the ravines on Sections 5 and 6. It is seen in small
exposures below the
 mill-dam at Cambria. The Mendota and Madison beds constitute the tongue
of high land lying
 between the branches of Duck Creek, and on which the village of Cambria
is built, and are the
 surface formations over a considerable area in the northern parts of Sections
4 and 5. Reddish
 shaly Mendota is exposed in a railway cutting on the northwest quarter of
Section 5. The
 Lower Magnesian is the surface rock over the larger part of the town, though,
for the most part,
 covered by drift. It may be seen at the head of the ravine on the southeast
quarter of Section
 5, on the roadside on the northeast quarter of Section 34, and on a high
point on the prairie in
 the northwest quarterĂ½ of Section 20. The Trenton and St. Peters
occupy an area in the north-,
 eastern sections continuous with that of middle and eastern Randolph. The
Trenton is quar-
 ried on R. Davies' land, in the southeastt quarter of Section 12. At Randolph,
on Section 1, the
310


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