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Anderson, A. C. (Alfred Conrad), 1887-, et al. / Soil survey of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin

Soils,   pp. 8-28 PDF (7.7 MB)

Page 12

is not quite so desirable for agriculture as the typical soil, especially
where the rock lies within 2 feet or so of the surface. The areas of
this soil are small and are associated with typical Kewaunee silty
clay loam.
                        KEWAUNEE SMT LOAM
  The surface soil of Kewaunee silt loam is grayish-brown or dark
grayish-brown friable heavy silt loam about 3 inches thick in the
virgin state. Between depths of 3 and 12 inches there is a brownish-
yellow heavy silt loam layer which in places may contain a few
gravel. Between depths of 12 and 28 inches the material is dull-red
heavy sticky plastic clay, commonly containing some gravel, which
breaks up into rectangular granules about one-fourth inch in diam-
eter. Below a depth of 28 inches and extending down many feet
the material is dull-red or brownish-red clay loam not quite so
heavy as the layer above. This layer, which is the parent material,
contains considerable limestone gravel.
  In cultivated fields the color of the soil is grayish brown and the
first two layers are mixed by plowing so the organic matter present
is mixed with the lower soil material. The total amount of organic
matter is moderate or low.
  In places, especially on knolls, the silt loam surface soil has been
washed off and the red clay is exposed. This gives the soil a spotted
appearance quite characteristic of this soil.
  The topsoil layers are very slightly acid or neutral, the subsoil
is nearly neutral or slightly alkaline, especially in the lower part, and
the substratum or parent material contains a large amount of lime.
  Although Kewaunee silt loam is an important soil, it is not nearly
so extensive as the silty clay loam of the series. It occurs in irregu-
lar areas from a few acres to several square miles in extent, widely
distributed over the county in more than two-thirds of the towns.
The largest areas are in Cato and Kossuth Towns. This soil is closely
associated with the silty clay loam of the series, and the line between
the two soils is not everywhere distinct.
  Tracts of Kewaunee silt loam are undulating or gently rolling,
and a few areas are rolling. Natural surface drainage is for the
most part good. On some of the more nearly level areas drainage
is slightly deficient, owing partly to the heavy texture of the subsoil,
and in some included depressions and draws tilt drains would be
  More than 90 per cent of the Kewaunee silt loam is cleared and in
cultivated crops. It is an excellent soil, somewhat more desirable
than Kewaunee silty clay loam because it is somewhat easier to
cultivate. Fall plowing is the common practice, as this makes for
the best tilth. The soil is devoted to general farming and dairying,
together with the growing of some special crops such as peas and
sugar beets. Crop yields are about equal to those on Kewaunee
silty clay loam but may average slightly higher. This is a good
alfalfa soil, and the acreage of this crop is gradually increasing.
  Kewaunee silt loam, 8hallow pk~se.-The areas indicated on the
soil map as the shallow phase of Kewaunee silt loam are marked by
the presence of bedrock at a depth ranging from a few inches to
3 feet. The bedrock is dolomitic limestone, and the lower soil

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