Geo. A. Ogle and Co. / Standard atlas of Shawano County, Wisconsin including a plat book of the villages, cities and townships of the county. Map of the state, United States and world. Patrons directory, reference business directory and departments devoted to general information. Analysis of the system of U. S. land surveys, digest of the system of civil goverment, etc. etc.
Digest of the system of civil government, pp. III-VI
SUPPLEMENtpgir DIGEST OF THE )SYST EM OF I CIVIL GOVERNMEN-T DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM CIVIL GOVERNMENT WITH A REVIEW 0F THE Duties and Powers of the Principal Officials Connected with the Various Branches of National, State, County and Township Government. NATIONAL GOVERNMENT T HE GOVERNMENT of the United States is one of limited and specific powers, strictly outlined and defined by a written constitution. The constitution was adopted in 1787, and, with the amendments that have since been made, it forms the basis of the entire fabric of government under which we live. The constitution created three distinct branches of government, each of which is entirely separate and distinct from the others. They are the executive, legislative and judicial departments. The constitution spe- cifically vests the executive power in the President, but all members of the cabinet are usually classed with the executive department; the legislative power is held by Congress, and the judicial authority is vested in the Supreme Court and various other courts which Congress has provided for in pursuance of the provisions of the constitution. It has been the aim of these pages to explain each of these different branches of government, and to briefly review the duties and powers of the principal officials connected with each department. The President and Vice-President are elected by popular vote, but the vote of each State is separate, so that a candidate may have a large majority of the aggregate popular vote of the country and yet fail to be elected. The Presidential election is held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, when Presidential electors are chosen in and for the. various States, each State having as many electors as it has rep- resentatives in both branches of Congress. The electors are chosen by the ballots of the people of their States, and all the electors of a State constitute an electoral college. The electors meet in each State at the capital on the first Wednesday in December following a National elec- tion ard vote for President and Vice-President, certificates of which are forwarded to the President of the Senate, at Washington, who, on the second Wednesday in February opens the certificates and counts the votes in the presence of both Houses of Congress and declares the result; and the final step is the inauguration, which takes place on the 4th of March. The law provides that if neither of the candidates have a majority then the House of Representatives shall elect a President from the three candidates receiving the highest electoral vote. In elections of this kind each State is entitled to only one vote, and two- thirds of the States form a quorum. PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. The President is the highest executive officer of the United States. He is elected for the term of four years, and receives a salary of $75,000 per annum. He must be thirty-five years old or more, and a native- born citizen of the United States. The President is charged with a gen- eral supervision over the faithful execution of laws passed by Congress, and has supervision over all executive departments of the government. He appoints a Cabinet of nine officials who become the heads of the various departments, and these departments are intended to be managed and conducted as the President directs. The President is Commander- in-Chief of the Army and Navy. He has power to grant pardons and reprieves for all offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment; has power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties. He nominates, and with the advise and consent of the Senate, appoints Ambassadors and other public Ministers and Consuls, all Judges of the United States courts, and all other executive officers of the United States, except in such cases where the appointments may be vested in the various "departments." When the Senate is not in session he can appoint, subject to its action when it reassembles. He has power, in certain extraordinary occasions, to call together both Houses of Congress, or either of them, in extra session; and is re- quired front time to time to communicate with Congress, as to the state of the Union, and offer such suggestions or recommendations as he may deem proper. He is empowered to approve or veto all measures adopt- ed by Congress, but it is provided that any measure may be passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of Congress. ), The President consults frequently with his Cabinet, and nearly all important official matters are discussed by that body. In case the office of President becomes vacant through the death, removal or resignation of the incumbent, the lawv provides that the office shall in turn be filled by the Vice-President, Secretary of State, and other Cabinet Ministers in regular order d # VICE PRESIDENT. The Vice-President of the United States is elected for the term of four years, and receives a salary of $12,000. In case of the death, removal or resignation of the President, the Vice-President succeeds him. The chief duty of the Vice-President is to act as the presiding officer of the Senate. He has no vote in the Senate, except in case of a tie, or an equal division of the members of that body. The Vice- President administers the oath of office to the Senators. STATE DEPARTMENT. The head of this department is the Secretary of State, who is appointed by the President as a member of the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $8,000 per year. The law provides that in case the office of President becomes vacant, through the death, removal or resignation of both the President and Vice-President, the Secretary of State assumes the duties of the Presidency. The Secretary of State may be said to be the official Secretary of the President, and countersigns all commissions issued by the President. # J The Secretary of State is the head of the Department of State and is the chief diplomatic officer of the United States. In his department and under his supervision is conducted the public business relating to foreign affairs; to correspondence, commissions or instructions to or with public Ministers from the United States; or to negotiations with Ministers from foreign States; or to memorials or other applications from foreigners, or foreign public Ministers, or citizens of this country in foreign lands, or complications arising therefrom. The Secretary of State also has charge of all other business connected with foreign affairs, extradition matters and diplomatic officers; furnishing passports to vessels going to foreign countries, etc., and has charge of the Great Seal of the United States. Connected with the Department of State and forming a part of it in the great work of performing and caring for the duties outlined are the following bureaus: The Diplomatic Bureau, which looks after the affairs pertaining to foreign governments. The Consular Bureau, correspondence with consulates. The Bureau of Indexes and Archives, the dluties of which are to open the official mails, prepare an abstract of the daily correspondence and an index of it, and superintend miscellaneous work of department. The Bureau of Accounts, in which all of the finances of the de- partment are looked after, such as the custody and- disbursement of appropriations; also indemnity funds and bondsi also care of the building and property of the department, etc. 1V The Bureau of Roll and Library, which is charged With the custody of treaties, rolls, public documents, etc.; has care of revolution- President, and receives a salary of $12,0 partment attends to the execution of a Army, and carries out and performs sui for by law or directed by the .Presidei military commissions and the warlike sto former years this department also had military affairs, but this has been trans the Interior. The War Department is duties, to maintain the signal service am logical observations at various points on graphic notice of the approach of storms Civil Engineering Department, through t such improvements in rivers and harbors gress. The Secretary of War also has sui Military Academy. The private clerk for the head of $2,"0 per year; assistant secretary, $5,( most of the subordinates and assistants ii those mentioned, are officers of the Reg aries and perquisites. ary archives, of international commissions, superintendence of library, etc. The Bureau of Statistics, for the preparation of reports on com- mercial relations. The chiefs of these bureaus receive from $2,100 per year to $2,300 per year. In addition to these there are connected with the State Department the offices of translator, at $2,100 per year; assistant sec- retary, $5,000; second assistant secretary, $4,500; third assistant secre- tary, $4,500; solicitor, $4,500; chief clerk, $3,000; clerk to Secretary of State, $2,500; passport clerk, $1,400. Besides these are the various comptrollers, auditors, clerks and assistants, which number well up into the thousands. TREASURY DEPARTMENT. This department was organized in 1789. The head of this depart- ment, known as the Secretary of the Treasury, is appointed by the Pres- ident, is a member of the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The Treasury Department is one of the most important branches of the national government, as it has charge of the financial affairs of the government, custody of public funds, collection of revenue and maintenance of public credit. Among the many important duties devolving upon this department are the following: It attends to the collection of all internal revenues and duties on imports, and the pre- vention of frauds in these departments. All claims and demands, either by the United States or against them, and all the accounts in which the United States are interested, either as debtors or creditors, must be settled and adjusted in the Treasury Department. This de- partment also includes the Bureau of the Mint, in which the govern- ment coin and moneys are manufactfired. The Treasury Department authorizes the organization of national banks and has supervision over them; has charge of the coast surveys, the lighthouses, marine hos- pitals, etc. It has charge of all moneys belonging to the United States; designates depositories of public moneys, keeps a complete and accurate system of accounting, showing the receipts and disbursements of the Treasury, and makes reports at stated intervals showing the condition of public finances, public expenditures and the public debt. There are a great many important officials connected with the Treasury Department, chief among which are the following, viz.: Private secretary of the head department, it $2,500 per year; three assistant secretaries, at $5,000 each; chief clerk, $3,000; chief of ap- pointment division, $3,000; chief of warrants division, $3,500; chief of public moneys division, $3,000; chief of customs division, $3,000; acting chief of revenue marine division, $2,500; chief of stationery division, $2,500; chief of loans and currency division, $3,000; chief of miscella- neous division, $2,500; supervising special agent, $8 per day; govern- ment actuary, $1,800; supervising architect, $4,500; steamboat inspector, $3,500; chief Bureau of Statistics, $3,000; life saving service superin- tendent, $4,500; assistant, $2,500; commissioner Bureaus of Navigation, $3,600; superintendent United States coast and geodetic survey, $6,000; supervising surgeon-general marine hospital service, $4,000; Bureau of Engraving and Printing, director, $5,000; assistant director, $3,500; superintendent engraving division, $4,500. The foregoing will serve to show many of the lines of work at- tended to in the Treasury Department, as the names of these offices explain the branch of work they are charged with attending to. There are a number of other important offices in the department that should be mentioned, among them being the following: The Solicitor of the Treasury, or chief attorney, who receives $4,500 per year for attending to the legal matters connected with the department. The Commissioner of Customs, who receives $4,000 per year and his deputy $2,250, has charge of all accounts of the revenue from customs and disbursements, and for the building and repairing of custom houses. The Treasurer of the United States receives $6,000 per year, assistant treasurer $3,600, and superintendent of national banks (Red. Div.) $3,500. The Treasurer receives and keeps the government funds, either at headquarters or in the Sub-Treasuries or government depos- itories, paying it out upon warrants drawn in accordance with the law, and pays all interest on the national debt. The Register of the Treasury is paid a salary of $4,000 per year and his assistant $2,500. The Register keeps the accounts of public expenditures and receipts; receives the returns and makes out the official statements of United States commerce and navigation; receives from first comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts and vouchers acted on by them and files the same. The Comptroller of the Currency receives $5,000 per year and his deputy $3,000. This bureau is charged with a general supervision of the national banks and matters connected with the issuing of paper money. The Director of the Mint receives $4,500 per annum, and is charged with a general supervision over all the coinage of the govern- ment. The Comptroller of the Treasury receives $5,500 per year and his assistant $4,500. This bureau has charge of the auditing system of the Treasury. With the exception of the postal revenue accounts, the comptroller prescribes the forms of keeping and rendering all public accounts. Auditors. There are six auditors connected with the Treasury Department, each of whom receives a salary of $4,000 per year, and is allowed a deputy at a salary of $2,500 per annum. No one auditor takes rank over another. The first auditor receives and adjusts the accounts of the revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expen- ditures on account of the civil list and under special acts of Congress, reporting the balances to the commissioners of the customs and first comptroller respectively for their decision. The second auditor devotes most of his attention to army affairs; looks after all the accounts re- lating to the pay, clothing and recruiting of the army; the arsenals, armories and ordnance; all accounts relating to the Indian Department; reporting to the second comptroller. The third auditor has all accounts for sustenance of the army, military academy, military roads, fortifica- tions, quartermaster's department, certain pensions, claims arising for military service previous to 1817; for all property lost in the military service; he reports also to the second comptroller. The fourth auditor also reports to the second comptroller, and attends to all accounts of the service connected with the navy. The fifth auditor reports to the first comptroller, and adjusts all accounts connected with the diplo- matic service of the Department of State. The sixth auditor adjusts all accounts growing from the service of the Post Office Department. WAR DEPARTMENT. The War Department was organized in August, 1789. The head of this department is known as the Secretary of War; is apovinted by the Gopydght~ 5910, I~' O~, The Commanding General, next to the Secretary, looks after the arrangement of military forces, superintends the recruiting service and discipline of the army, orders courts-martial, and in a general sense is charged with seeing to the enforcement of the laws and regulations of the army. The Adjutant-General keeps the rolls and the orders issued. The Quartermaster-General has charge of the barracks and the sup- plies, etc., that may be required for the army. The Comssary- General is the head of the Subsistence Department, and has supervision over the purchasing and issuing army rations. The Judge Advocate General is the head of the department of military justice. The Sur- geon General, as the name implies, looks after the affairs of the army relating to sick, wounded, hospital, etc. The Paymaster-General is the disbursing officer for the money required by the department. There is also the Ordnance office, controlling ordnance store, arsenals, armories, the manufacture of arms, etc. The Topographical office has charge of all plats and drawings of all surveys made for military purposes. Besides these there are the Inspector-General's Department and depart- ments devoted to war records, publications, etc. In this connection it may be of interest to the general reader to refer briefly to a few facts concerning the Regular Army. The United States is divided for this purpose into a number of military districts. The head of each department receives his generail instructions and orders from headquarters. The term of service in the Regular Army is three years. The pay of private soldiers at the start is $15 per month and rations, and this is increased according to time of service. The pay of the officers is proportioned to their rank. The pay of officers in active service was fixed by an act of Congress May 11, 1908, as follows: lieutenant-general $11,000 per year; major-general $8,000; brigadier-general $6,000; colonels from $4,000 to $5,000; lieutenant- colonels from $3,500 to $4,500; majors from $3,000 to $4,000; captains from $2,400 to $3,360; first-lieutenants from $2,000 to $2,800; second- lieutenants from $1,700 Iv $2,380. In case any officer below the grade of major required to be mounted, provides himself with suitable mounts at his own expense, he receives an addition to his pay of $150 per annum if he provides one mount; and $200 per annum if he provides two mounts. The pay of retired officers was fixed as follows by the act of May 11, 1908: lieutenant-generals $8,250 per annum; major generals $6,000; brigadier-generals $4,500; colonels from $3,0W to $3,750; lieutenant-colonels from $2,625 to $3,375; majors from $2,250 to $3,000; captains from $1,800 to $2,520; first lieutenants from $1,500 to $2,100, and second-lieutenants $1.275 to $1,785. NAVY DEPARTMENT. The head of this department is the Secretary of the Navy, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. This department is charged with the duty of attending to the construc- tion, armament, equipment and employment of vessels of war, as well as all other matters connected with naval affairs, and appropriations made therefor by Congress. The Secretary of the Navy has direct control of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland; issues orders to the commanders of the various squadrons; has general authority over the Marine Corps; and has control of all the several bureaus of the Navy Department. There are a number of bureaus organized in the Navy Department for the purpose of more thoroughly handling the work, among the most important of which may be mentioned the following: Bureau of Steam Engineering; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; Bureau of Nav- igation; Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Yards and Docks; Bureau of Ordnance; Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting; Bureau of Construction and Repair. Attached to this department are also officials or bureaus to attend to the following matters: Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C.; Museum of Hygiene; Naval Dispensary; Board of Inspection and Survey; Navy Supplies and Accounts; Naval Observatory; Hydrographic Office; Library and War Records; Naval Intelligence; Nautical Almanac, etc. The admiral of the navy (line) is paid $13,500 per year; the first nine rear-admirals each receive $8,000 per year and the second nine $0,000; chiefs of bureaus are paid $6,000 per year; captains $4,000; commanders $3,500; lieutenant-commanders $3,000; lieutenants $2,400; junior grade lieutenants $2,000; ensigns $1,700; chief-boatswains, gun- ners, carpenters, sail makers, $1,700; midshipmen at sea $1,400; mid- shipmen at academy $600. In the Marine Corps the major general receives $8,000 per year; colonels $4,000; lieutenant-colonels $3,500; majors, $3,000; captains (line) $2,400; captains (staff) $2,600; first lieutenants $2,000; second-lieutenants $1,700. An increase of ten per cent is allowed them when on sea duty, or on "shore duty beyond the sea." Chaplains of the rank of lieutenant-commander or higher rank receive the pay and allowance of a lieutenant-commander; these ap- pointed prior to July 1, 1906, who have the rank of lieutenant receive $2,800; and others are paid according to their rank in the foregoing list. Naval constructors receive from $3,200 to $4,200 per year; assis- tant naval constructors $2,000 or the pay of rank according to the fore- going table; warrant officers $1,125 to $2,250. Petty officers and chief petty officers receive salary ranging from $33 to $77 per month, First class seamen receive $26 per month; seamen-gunners $28 per month; firemen, first-class, $38; ordinary seamen $21; firemen, second-class, $33; shipwrights $27; apprentice seamen $18; coal passers $24. The term of enlistment in the United States Navy is four years. POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT. This is one of the most important branches of the National Gov- ernment. Its head is the Postmaster-General, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The Post Office Department has supervision over the execution of all laws passed by Congress affecting the postal service, and has general supervision over everything relating to the gathering, carrying and distribution of United States mails; superintends the distribution and disposal of all moneys belonging to, or appropriated for, the department; and the instruction of and supervision over all persons in the postal service, with reference to their duties. In providing for handling the general work of the Post Office Department it has Leen found necessary to create four bureaus, or offices, as they are termed, each of which is presided over by an assis- tant postmaster-general, who each receive $5,000 per annum; are all subject to the direction and supervision of the head of the department. A review of these various bureaus and their principal officials, with the name of the office, will show very clearly the work handled by each. The first assistant postmaster-general is allowed a chief-clerk at $2,500 per year; superintendent of salaries and allowances $4,000; superintendent of division appointments $3,000; superintendent of city free-delivery service $3,000.
Based on date of publication, this material is presumed to be in the public domain.| Original material owned by Farnsworth Public Library.| For information on re-use see: http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Copyright