Geo. A. Ogle and Co. / Standard atlas of Shawano County, Wisconsin including a plat book of the villages, cities and townships of the county. Map of the state, United States and world. Patrons directory, reference business directory and departments devoted to general information. Analysis of the system of U. S. land surveys, digest of the system of civil goverment, etc. etc.
Analysis of the system of United States land surveys, pp. I-II
UNITED STATES LAND SURVEYS £IIPPLEMf 14W' II. Thesellnes ae termed "fange Lines." They divide the land into strips or divisions six miles wide, extending North and South, parallel with the Meridian. Each division is called a . auges are numbered from one upward, commt cing at the Meridian; and their numbers are indicated by Roman charars. For instance, the first division (or first six milese west of the Meridian iho Range L West; the next is Range IL West; then comes Range III., IV., V., VL, VII., and soon, until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian is reached. In thesam manner the Ranges East of the eridian are numbered, the words East or West being always used to indicate the direction from the Principal Meridian. See Diagram 3. 'Commencing at the Base Line, at intervals of six miles, lines are run East and West parallel with the Base i-ne. These are deignated as Township Lines. They divide the land into strips or diviasings six miles wide, extending East and West, parallel with the Base Line. This plan is followed both North and South of the Bas Line until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian and Base Line is reached. These divisions or Townships are numbered from one upward, both North South ofthe Base Line, and their numbers are indicated by figures. For instance: The first six mile division i-orth of the Base Line is Township 1 North; the next is Township 2 North; then comes Township 3, 4, 5, and 6, North, and so on. The same plan is followed South of the Base NLe; fte Townships being designated as Township 1 South, Township 2 South, and so on. The "North" or "" South" (the initials N. or S. being generally used) indicat the direction from the Base Line. See Diagram 3. These Township and Ronge Liecosnecohr ahwi igaafr squares, which are called "Townships" or "1Government Townships," which are six miles square, or as nearly that as it is possible to make them. These Townships are a very important feature in locating or describing a piece of land. The location of a Govrnment Township, however, is very readily found when the number of the Township and Range is given, by erely counting the number indicated from the Base Line and Principal Meridian. As an example of this, Township 8 North, Range 4, West of the .Vth Pincipal Meridian, is at once located on the square marked * on Diagram 3, by counting eight tiers north of the Base Line and 4 tiers west of the Meridian. TOWNSHIPS OF LAND. p OWNSHIPS are the largest sub- divisions of land run out by the United States Surveyors. In the Governmental Surveys Township Lines are the first to be run, and a Township Corner is established every six miles and marked. This is called "Tow8hipping." After the Township Corners have been care- fullylocated,the Section and Quarter Section Corners are established. Each Township is six miles square and contains 23,040 acres, or 36 square miles, as near as it is possible to make them. This, however, is fre- quentl, made impossible by. (1st) the pres- lakes andlarge Atreams; f2nd) by State boundaries not falling exactly on Township Lines; (3rd) by the convergence of Meridians or curvature of the earth's surface; and (4th) by inaccurate surveys. Each Township, unless it is one of the exceptional cases referred to, is divided into 36 squares, which are called Sections. These Sections are intended to be one mile, or 320 rods, square and contain 640 acres of land. Sectionr are numbered consecutively from 1 to 36, as shown on Dal 4. Beginning with Section 1 in the Northeast Corner, they run West to 6, then East to 12, then West to 18, and so on, back and forth, until they end with Section 36 in the Southeast Corner. Diagram 4 shows a plat of a Township as it is divided andplatt by the govern- ment surveyors. TI Townships are called Government Townships or Congre sional Townships, to distinguish them Oivil Townships or organized Townships, as frequently the lines of organized Town. ships do not conform to the Government Township lns SECTIONS OF LAND. TAGRAM 5 illustrates how a section may be subdivided, although the Diagram only gives a few of the many subdivisions into which a DIBGRAM section may be aivided. An Sections (except fractional Sections) are supposed to be 320 rods, or one mile, square and therefore contain 640acres--a number easily divisible. Sections are subdivided into fractional parts to suit the convenience of the owners of the land. A half.section contains 320 acres; a quarter-section contains 160 acres; half of a quarter contains 80 acres, and quarter of a quarter contains 40 acres, and so on. Each1iece of land is described according to the portion of the section which it embraces-as the ortheast quarter of Section 10 ; or the Southeastqua=rter of the Southeast quarter of Section 10. Diagram 5 shows how many of these subdivisions are platted, and also ,owe the plan of desigating and describing them m ~by initial letters as each parcel of land on the Diagrm is marked wih its cescition. .As has already been stated, aSections (except Fractional Sections which are explained else- ~~~itkshave been madeinsreng whe) e supposed to contain 640 acres, and even though hein surveying, asia freuentlv the case, making sections larger or smaller than 640 acres, the Government recog- section as containing 640 acres "more or less." to subdivide sections by running lines within Section Lines on each side of a section at the After establishing Township corners, Section Lines are the next to be run, and section cor- ners are established. When these are carefully located the Quarter Posts are located at points as nearly equidistant between Section Cornersas possible. These corners when established by government Surveyors cannot be changed, even though it is conclusively shown that mistakes havebeen made which cause some sections or quarter sections to be either larger or smaller than others. The laws, however, of all the States provide certain rules for local surveyors to follow in dividin Sections into smaller r of land than h been outlined in the vaeruental sureys. For instance, in divid- ing a quarter section into two parocls, the dil- ance between the Government Corpnrs Is care- ly m ured and the new post is located at a point eq stant between them. This plan is o in runni out "eighties," "forti," "6twenties" etc. Un this way, fi the Govern- ment divisim overruons or falls short, each portion gan rlssispoportion. Thus is not the case, however, with Fractional Sections along the North or West sides of a Township, or *ajoii- a lake or large stream. i-- 4. I I DuAst"M U I. I. a 0, ft I I S S 'I I. I1. -w v A V= - - - aa.I h SeW PS.. - - - w w I W.. . - 1 a I a - B Al - - - -! _ -m - a. -v ft -g a. -5 '-5 54Mm Ain PS. II FRACTIONAL PIECES OF LAND. ONGRESSIONAL Townships vary considerably as to size and boundaries. 1 Mistakes made in surveying and the fact that Meridians converge as they run North cause every Township to vary more or less from the 23,040 acres which a ferfect Township would contain. See Dagram 4. In arranging a Township into Sections all the surplus or deficiency of land is given to, or taken from, the North and West tiers of Sections. In other words, all Sections in the Township are made full- 640 acres-except those on the North and West, which are given all the land that is left after forming the other 25 Sections. Diagram 4 illustrates how the surplus or defiojency is distributed and the Sections it P.2ecta. It will be seen that Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31, are the "Fractional Sections," or the Sections which are affected if the Township overruns or falls short. Inside of these Fractional Sections, all of the surplus or deficiency of land (over or under 640 acres) is carried to the "1forties" or "eighties" that touch the Township Line. These pieces of land are called "Fractional Forties" or "Fractional Eighties," as the case may be. Diagrams 4 and 6 show the manner of marking the acreage and outlining the boundaries of these I" Fractions." Diagram 6 illustrates how the surplus or deficiency of land inside of these Sections is distributed and which "forties"or "eighties" ~it affects." From this arrangement it-will be seen that in any Section that touches the North or West Township Lines, the Southeast Quarter may be full-160 acres-while another quarter of the same Section may be much larger or smallar. Freuently these fractional "forties" or "eighties" are lotted as shown in Diagram 6. They are always described as fractional tracts of land, as the "" fractional S.W. of Section 6,"etc. Of course those portions of these Sections which are not affected by these variations are described in the usual manner--as Southeast of Section 6. As a rule Townships are narrower at the North than at the South side. The Meridians of Longtude (which run North and outh) converge as they run North and South from the Equator. They begin at the Equator with a definite width between them and gradually converge until they all meet at the poles. Now, as the Range lines are run North and South, it will at once be seen that the convergence of Meridians will caEnu every Congressional Township (North of the Equator) to be narrower at its North than at its South side, as stated. Sm Diagram 4. In addition to this fact, mistakes of measurement are constantly and almost unavoidably made in running both Townshipand Range lines, and if no new starting points were established the lines would DIAGRAX 6. become confused and unreliable, and 3. the size and shape of Townships LoT S. Lox ,. LOT s. LoT 1. materially affected by the time the A surveys had extended even a hundred a as 0 83 0 6o.5 milesfrom the Base Line and Princi- 62 AC. gACRES. ACRES. ACRES. pal Meridian. In order to correct the surveys and variations caused 53 . _ by the difference of latitude and LoT 5. straighten the lines, "Correction ines" (or Guide Meridians and 2AC. 480 ACRES. 0 Standard Parallels) are established at ACRES. 2 frequent intervals, usually as follows: North of the Base Line a Correction eO at o 1. Line is run East and West parallel with the Base Line, usually every twenty-four miles. South of the Base Line a Correction Line is usually established every thirty miles. Both e160 ACRES. East and West of the Principal Z e Meridian "Correction Lines" are 0 usually established every 48 miles. t 87 AC. All Correction Lines are loated by careful measurement, and the suc- " Roos seeding surveys are based upon PLAT OF A FRACTIONAL B3C1IONX them. SCa tm, lte~ esm, by G;; AA.Oe & C., In Cth offc d the a au c Ccagre at Vuahiatba, D. C. I J. 0 I- ...... .. .. .. _ - - 7 -£ -lI. F- - I5 = SV a a I. o I Ii I, I. aJ | i mum m m U RL 1 0 I -
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