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The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources; an extensive and minute sketch of its cities, towns and villages--their improvements, industries, manufactories, churches, schools and societies; its war record, biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; the whole preceded by a history of Wisconsin, statistics of the state, and an abstract of its laws and constitution and of the constitution of the United States
(1880)

Butterfield, C. W.
II.--The indian tribes of Wisconsin,   pp. 21-29 PDF (4.5 MB)


Page 27


THE INDIAN TRIBES OF WISCONSIN.
changed their place of abode. Their number, all told, is less than twenty-five
hundred.
     When the territory, now constituting the northern portion of Wisconsin,
became very
generally known to the civilized inhabitants of the eastern part of the United
States, it was
found to be occupied by Indians called the CHIPPEWAS. Their hunting-grounds
extended south
from Lake Superior to the heads of the Menomonee, the Wisconsin and Chippewa
rivers; also
farther eastward and westward. At an early day they were engaged in a war
with the Sioux-
a war indeed, which was long continued. The Chippewas, however, persistently
maintained
their 'position - still occupying the same region when the General Government
extended its
jurisdiction over the whole country south of the Great Lakes and west to
the Mississippi.
     By treaties with the Chippewas at different periods, down to the year
1827, the General Gov-
ernment had recognized them as the owners of about one quarter of which is
now the entire
State. The same policy was pursued toward this tribe as with neighboring
ones, in the purchase
of their lands by the United States. Gradually they parted with their extensive
possessions, until,
in 1842, the last acre within what is now Wisconsin was disposed of. It was
the intention of the
General Government to remove the several bands of the Chippewas who had thus
ceded their
lands to a tract reserved for them beyond the Mississippi; but this determination
was afterward
changed so as to allow them to remain upon certain reservations within the
limits of their old-
time hunting grounds. These reservations they continue to occupy. They are
located in Bay-
field, Ashland, Chippewa and Lincoln counties. The clans are known, respectively,
as the Red
Cliff band, the Bad River band, the Lac Courte Oreille band, and the Lac
de Flambeau band.,
     Of all the tribes inhabiting what is now Wisconsin when its territory
was first visited by
white men, the SACS (Sauks or Saukies) and FOXES (Outagamies) are, in history,
the most noted.
They are of the Algonquin family, and are first mentioned in 1665, by Father
Allouez, but as
,separate tribes. Afterward, however, because of the identity of their language,
and their asso-
Iciations, they were and still are considered as one nation. In December,
1669, Allouez found
upon the shores of Green bay a village of Sacs, occupied also by members
of other tribes; and
early in 167o he visited a village of the same Indians located upon the Fox
river of Green bay,
at a distance of four leagues from its mouth. ' Here a device of these Indians
for catching fish
arrested the attention of the missionary. "From one side of the river
to the other," he writes,
"they made a barricade, planting great stakes, two fathoms from the,
water, in such a manner
that there is, as it were, a bridge above for the fishes, who by the aid
of a little bow-net, easily
take sturgeons and all other kinds of fish which this pier stops, although
the water does not
1cease to flow between the stakes." When the Jesuit father first obtained,
five years previous, a
knowledge of this tribe, they were represented as savage above all others,
great in numbers, and
without any permanent dwelling place. The Foxes were of two stocks: one calling
themselves
Outagamies or Foxes, whence our English name; the other, Musquakink, or men
of red clay,
the name now used by the tribe. They lived in early times with their kindred
the Sacs east of
Detroit, and as some say near the St. Lawrence. They were driven west, and
settled at Saginaw,
a name derived from the Sacs. Thence they were forced by the Iroquois to
Green bay; but
were compelled to leave that place and settle on Fox river.
     Allouez, on the twenty-fourth of April, 167o, arrived at a village of
the Foxes, situated on
 Wolf river, a northern tributary of the Fox. "The nation," he
declares, "is renowned for
 being numerous; they have more than four hundred men bearing arms; the number
of women
 and children is greater, on account of polygamy which exists among them-each
man having
 commonly four wives, some of them six, and others as high as ten."
The missionary found that
 the Foxes had retreated to those parts to escape the persecutions of the
Iroquois. Allouez
 established among these Indians his mission of St. Mark, rejoicing in the
fact that in less than
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