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Powers, D. J.; Hoyt, J. W.; Sampson Hoyt, E. O. (ed.) / The Wisconsin farmer, and north-western cultivator: devoted to agriculture, horticulture, the mechanic arts, and rural economy
Volume XI (1859)

Wisconsin farmer, and north-western cultivator. Vol. XI, no. 2,   pp. [37]-[74] PDF (14.3 MB)

Page [37]

Vol XI.                 XIDON, JMUARY, 159.                          Ne.
         D. J. POWERS AND PROF. J. W. HOYT, Edtor,.
            NlyNBZR IT.
   DrainaeBert Method f doing the Work
   After properly laying oud, the drains may
be marked by either the plow, the spade, or
the sod-cutber, according to the nature of the
surface and cbaracter of the soil.
  TAh work of ditchuig should commence with
the large or main drain and at its lower ex-
tremity, so that when the branches are finish-
ed the whole work will be complete, drainin
the field or farm " a eountry is drained by a
river and its tribut ries
  Thc place of iAc outlet, then, is W first
thing to determine) the main point being to be
certain that it is safficientl; low to ensure the
requisite fall, which should never be lem than
three feet to the mile. Aecordingly if it be
found on examination by the level that the lo-
cation of the outlet fiet intended will not ad-
mit of the necessary fiD, it must be changed
to some point lever down th ditch or stream
into which the water in to tlow. And herein
lies an important advantage in the closed as
compared with the epen drain; for the former
may be carried into the promises of a neigh-
boring landholder without detrimet
  The wid of the drain i th. Up ad, bot-
tomn will of course depend upon te amount of
water to be removed; bat it may be laid down
as a rule that the out should be neither broad-
or nor deeper than is requisite to the easy lay-
: _               1o^aw altl h d4Leh 4.. A5.............  -
perform the work within a much narrower
compass than may be supposed. To sate it
in figures it may be safe to say, that, for a drain
five feet deep, the width need not be more than
twenty-six inches at the top and twelve at the
bottom-that is for tie; of ourse, if the
drain is to be made of stone or other coarse
material the width at the-botiom.vary to
euit the aea
  It the surface be covered with tu:4 * p]pv
with a sharp coulter will greatly houie the
operation, since a good yorkman eanby this
means, acompliah as much t      *rfinge a haf-
dosen men with their spades. After being
tuned over, the turf should beent intolngths
convenient for handling and laid up in tier on
e side of the ditch, ready for after use.-
Next the mould or surhoe soil may beh losen-
ad up by- the plow and removed by large,
.rond-face  "a-shoyel*9," or it m   be th
loopened and thrown out with sped, tGo
women fig ec       otbs   woraking back-
wards end piling t0  e  on the u    oppo-
-site th tf,  Ad thinu opration may be re-
atd,the workmen Benmig       thie saue
poit, epa ed apin,'unotl s mo  iawea4id
so denptaaditqagh " to reqae p1*, *h,
etA. *t impemant,00irte4At ig. L ly
bh usd,;te dige workin& *omo eae qtor
wi* baete bc, or wat is o kmqur 1s bo
trawp pk, which consist of a bar e   ius
ath *   ,ho*1the lowr end s    d
forard, ,ist a prqectsi   o    4   g
which to tramp, and a strong eroeplpt
the tOnn  If the 1thw be =0 & h  e
jug U1 run prukocK - -P - - -

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