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The Wisconsin lumberman, devoted to the lumbering interests of the northwest
Volume III. Number 6 (March, 1875)

Domestic influence of modern discoveries. Soothing effect of the knife and fork, the hackney coach and a sewerage system upon life and manners,   p. 500 PDF (366.2 KB)

Page 500

5I0e Wisconsan Lund'.ma'
pressing which the members could instant-
yv print in colors "aye" or "no" on a list
sheeet at the speakers's desk. It was a
simpler plan than that of Jsquin.
Soothing efeet of the Knife and Fork,
the Hackney Coach and a Sewerage
System Upon Life and Manners.
In the twelfth century it was found
necessary to pave the streets of Paris, the
stench in them was so dreadful. At once
dysenteries and spotted fever diminished;
a sanitary condition approaching that of
the Moorish cities of Spain which had
been pafed for centuries, was attained.
In that now beautiful metropolis it was
forbidden to keep swine, an ordinance
resented by the monks of the abbey of St.
Anthony, who demanded that the pigs of
that saint should go where they chose;
the government was obliged to compromise
the matter by requiring that bells should
be fastened to the animals' necks. King
Phillip, the son of Louis the Fat, had
been killed by his horse stumbling over a
sow. Prohibitions were published against
throwing slops out of the window
Until the beginning of the seventeenth
century, the streets of Berlin were never
swept. There was a law that every coun-
tryman, who came to market with a cart,
should carry back a load of dirtl
was followed by attempts, often of an im-
perfect kind, at the construction of drains
and sewers. It had become obvious to all
reflecting men that these were necessary
to the preservation of health, not only in
towns, but in isolated houses. Then fol-
lowed the lighting of the public thorough-
fares. At first houses facing the streets
were compelled to have candles or lamps
in their windows; then the system that
had been followed with so much advantage
in Corodva and Granada-of having pub-
li lamps-was tried, but this was not
brought to perfection until the present cen-
tury, when lighting by gas was invented.
Contemporaneously with public lamps
wevere improved organizations for night-
wratchmen and police.
By the sixteenth century, mechanical
inventions and manufacturing improve-
ment were exercising a conspi~uous in-
f1nence on domestic and social life. There
were looking-lasses and clocks on the
walls, mantels over the fireplaces. Though
% in many districts the kitzhen-fire was 8tall
supplied with turf, the use of coal began
to prevail. The table in the dining-room
offered new delicacies; commerce was
bringing to it foreign products; the coarse
drinks of the North were supplanted by
the    delicate   wines     of    the
South.    Ice-houses    were     con-
structed The   bolting of flour, intro-
duced at the wind-mills, had given whiter
and fine bread. By degrees things that
had been rarities became common-In-
dian-corn, the potato, the turkey, and,
conspicuous in the long list, tobacco.
Forks, an Italian invention, displaced the
filthy use of the fingers. It may be said
that the diet of civilized men now under-
went a radical change. Tea came from
China, coffee from Arabia, the use of
sugar from Spain, and these to no insigni-
ficant degree supplanted fermented liquors.
Carpets replaced on the floors the layer of
straw. In the chambers there appeared
better beds, in the wardrobes cleaner and
more frequently-changed clothing. In many
towns the aqueduct w as substituted for the
public fountain and the street-pump. Ceil-
ings which in the old days would have
been dingy with soot and dirt, were now
decorated with ornamental frescoes. Baths
were more commonly resorte4; to there
v8 less need to use perfumery for the con-
cealment of personal odors. An increasing
taste for the innocent pleasures of horticul-
ture was manifested, by the introduction of
many forei7n flowers in the gardens-the
tuberose, the auricula, the crown imperial,
the Persian lily, the ranunculus, and A fri-
can marigolds. In the streets there ap-
feared sedans, then close calriages, and at
length hatckney-coaches.-Draper'8 His-
tory of the Conflict between Religion and
Our Forests.
The essay on tree planting read by
Mr. Leonard G. IIodges before the Minne-
sota Agricultural Society, and published
in The Tribune of Saturday, contained a
striking sketch of the pressing need of for-
est-culture. Although it referred only to.
Minnesota, it implies throughout the west-
The annual consumption of wood in that
state is estimated at 1,710,000 cords..
As much more is shipped outside the
state. Thus, 150,000 acres of wood-land
are stripped hare every year. The result
of this, by 1900, is summed up by Mr.
Hodges in this cheerful picture:. "Our-

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