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Oral History with Stade, Mabel (1976)

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Tape 1, side 1

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0:03 Introduction

Introduction

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0:08 Her birth and family...

Her birth and family background (The Gregor family of Lincoln was Bohemian).

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1:10 Her mother was Alice...

Her mother was Alice Deprez of Dyckesville - a Belgian.

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1:41 Mabel's father was...

Mabel's father was born in Bohemia and came to this country at 6 months of age. The Gregor family were squatters in Manitowoc when they first came. Later they bought land in Lincoln Township.

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2:23 Mabel's reaction to...

Mabel's reaction to being of mixed ethnic heritage.

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2:38 Lincoln was a community...

Lincoln was a community of mixed ethnic groups. Since both of her parents spoke English, Mabel was not bilingual. However, when they visited her Belgian or Bohemian relatives, she felt left out since they all spoke Walloon or Bohemian.

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4:51 Religion - differences...

Religion - differences between Bohemian and Belgian. Religion in her family (there was some skepticism toward religion in general).

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5:44 Protestants in the...

Protestants in the community - most of the Germans were Lutheran.

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6:09 Belgian religious...

Belgian religious schisms - especially the Spiritualists. (Her mother told of episodes of "possession.")

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7:17 Vilatte schism...

Vilatte schism - churches at Duvall and Gardner.

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9:21 Ethnic composition...

Ethnic composition of the churches - totally Belgians at Dyckesville, Rosiere, and Lincoln.

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9:51 Lincoln area was all...

Lincoln area was all Bohemian (with a little German) in the early days - the Belgians have moved in more recently.

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10:27 Comments on the "Holy...

Comments on the "Holy Jumpers" at Lincoln - many Catholics joined this group.

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11:12 Description of her...

Description of her religious upbringing.

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11:27 Language of the...

Language of the churches - Latin or English in the Lincoln church, although the Bohemian and German churches did have some services in their own languages.

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12:14 Attitudes toward...

Attitudes toward family planning and divorce. "Grass widow" was a term used to describe divorced women.

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17:22 Education - she taught...

Education - she taught for 6 years (at Highview, Duvall Graded, Gregor, and U.S. Grant in Luxemburg, from 1927-1935 intermittenly) and was a librarian after that.

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19:01 Language problems...

Language problems for the Belgians - reading and spelling were harder for the children when Walloon was spoken at home. "Belgian" was spoken at the dances especially.

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20:38 The Belgians were a...

The Belgians were a more "clannish" community.

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20:56 The Belgian children...

The Belgian children always could speak a few words of English. Often the children would visit school with an older brother or sister the year before they actually started school themselves.

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21:50 What happened after...

What happened after 8th grade - most went on to high school in Dyckesville or Algoma.

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22:25 Depression it went...

Depression it went down to $65 per month.

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23:27 Her educational...

Her educational training. Door-Kewaunee Teachers College. She was the only one in her class to go on to college. She boarded in Algoma for one year, then commuted with neighbor boys (she paid them $1.25 per week).

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26:46 Changes in the rural...

Changes in the rural schools that led to consolidation. Teachers in the one-room schools were willing to do maintenance (build fires, etc.) and put in long hours. In recent years it became more difficult to hire teachers for the county schools.

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28:22 Therefore, consolidation...

Therefore, consolidation took place about 1956.

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28:44 Each school had its...

Each school had its own school board (before consolidation) and she and Hugh served on the Gregor School Board.

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29:13 Elections and financing...

Elections and financing of rural schools (based on a property tax levy).

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30:16 Controversy surrounding...

Controversy surrounding consolidation (fear of higher taxes, etc.), especially the boundaries were disputed. Lincoln township was divided among three school districts (Algoma, Kewaunee, and Luxemburg).

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31:48 Belgian attitudes...

Belgian attitudes toward higher eductation.

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32:38 Gregor School District...

Gregor School District Records - what happened to them.

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33:53 Algoma library - hear...

Algoma library - hear also side 2.

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